• Wind Cave National Park - Two Worlds

    Wind Cave

    National Park South Dakota

Pronghorn Antelope

Pronghorn Antelope - Antilocpra americana
Pronghorn Antelope - Antilocapra americana
Click picture for more information
NPS Photo by Tom Bean
 

Class

Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla (even-toed hoofed mammals)
Family Antilocapridae (only one species in this family, it is indigenous only to North America).
Genus Antilocapra
Species americana
Name/
History
Often called antelope, but not related to African antelope. Pre-Columbian population 30-40 million, but by 1920 was an endangered species with the total population of only 13,000.
Size
Weight (lbs)

Male
75-135

Female
80-90

Fawn/Kid
5-7

Height (ft)

3

3

1.5-2
Tail (in) 3-4
Rut Late summer (August-October) males establish harems.
Gestation 8 months
Birth May-June at 5 days fawns are usually able to out run a person.
# young 1 fawn/kid for the first birth, then twins.
Age 7-10 years
Habitat/
Range

Great Plains states. Early 1800s pronghorn were found in the Great Basin, southwest Canada, west to California, east to Minnesota, and south to central Mexico.

Food Weeds, grasses, sagebrush
Predators Coyotes, bobcats, human.
Disease Keratitis (pinkeye), actinomycosis (lumpy jaw)
Communication

Grunt, bark, cough

Behavior/
Characteristics

Both sexes have permanent horns with sheath. Male horn usually longer than ears, females are shorter. Both lose outer sheath. Females have no black patch on cheek. Pronghorn are gregarious and can run 60 mph, making it the fastest land animal in North America. They have keen vision, good sense of smell, and excellent hearing. They sometimes display a three step warning by first pawing the ground, then urinating in that spot, and finally defecating in that spot.



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