• Wind Cave National Park - Two Worlds

    Wind Cave

    National Park South Dakota

Wind Cave Trip Reports - 1991

January/February 1991

On December 31, 1990, Wind Cave had a surveyed length of 55.4 miles. By February 28, 1991, the surveyed length has increased to 57.0 miles. During this time, additional 5525 feet of inventory of the "old cave" was accomplished, in addition to the 1.6 miles inventoried during the above survey work.

01/01/1991
Stan Allison, Bob Kobza and Jim Nepstad
Stan Allison, Bob Kobza and Jim Nepstad led a reconnaissance trip to the northwestern part of the cave. The plan was to head to KY205 and push leads on the way out. The first lead checked kept the crew busy for the remainder of the day. A number of nice rooms, some with tree roots up to 2 feet long descending from the ceiling, were discovered. Survey data, along with data concerning the maximum root depth of Ponderosa Pine, indicate a depth of less than 20 feet in this area.

01/05/1991

Dave Springhetti, Rick Bogue, Jim Wilson, Reed Wilson, John Scheltens, Jan Harms and Janine Fitzner
Smembers of the Paha Sapa Grotto, including Dave Springhetti, Rick Bogue, Jim Wilson, Reed Wilson, John Scheltens, Jan Harms and Janine Fitzner, headed to the PC survey area off the Coke Room route. PC1-15 was inventoried and an additional 272 feet of passage was added to the PC survey. Limited travel to the PC survey area was recommended due to fragile floors.

Steve Baldwin, Devin Hachmeister and Sarge Preston
Steve Baldwin, Devin Hachmeister and Sarge Preston surveyed the area that Rachel Cox was found in during her (and our) ordeal in the cave in October 1989. The exact route Rachel used to enter this area eludes us to this day. But it seems she must have traveled through some phenomenally tight crawls. The room she was eventually found in was named "Duncan", in honor of a psychic who called during the rescue operation to report that Rachel would be found in a room called "Duncan". A prophesy fulfilled! 224 feet of cave was surveyed.

Wind Cave Weekend 01/12-13/1991

Bob Stucklen, Sandy Kraemer and Margo Butner
Bob Stucklen, Sandy Kraemer and Margo Butner inventoried the Overland Trail area from UI1-39.

Kevin Reynolds, Carl Pagano and Dan Hanley
Kevin Reynolds, Carl Pagano and Dan Hanley went to the Blue Bayou Avenue area to investigate earlier reports of breezes in the area, but found nothing promising.

Ed LaRock, Mike Behn, Ted Lappin, Ned Messler and Barry Berry
Ed LaRock, Mike Behn, Ted Lappin, Ned Messler and Barry Berry took part in a through trip from the Snake Pit Entrance to the elevator via the Coke Room. Along the way, they flagged a path through Santa's Frosted Forest, surveyed 106 feet near Bush Gardens, and flagged a temporary (possibly permanent) route from the Coke Room to Archimedes' Pool. It was also determined that a 42 inch chest would fit in the Snake Pit.

Kevin and Steve Smith, Bill Hawn, Vern Carlson and Jerry Hassemer
Kevin and Steve Smith, Bill Hawn, Vern Carlson and Jerry Hassemer led a trip to the John Wayne Room. A total of 33 stations were inventoried, and 235 feet of passage surveyed, including a shortcut from the Coke Room route to the John Wayne area.

Jim Clark, Veronica Stahl, Kirk Haley and Bill Yett
Jim Clark, Veronica Stahl, Kirk Haley and Bill Yett heading to the Egg Hatchery area and surveyed about 120 feet of additional passage.

Pat Jablonsky, Greg Glasner and Clarence Williams
Pat Jablonsky, Greg Glasner and Clarence Williams returned to the E and D survey areas of the northeastern part of the cave. A connection between the two surveys was found.

Jim Wilson, Bethany Jablonsky, Skip Withrow, Dough Kent and Greg Glasner
Jim Wilson, Bethany Jablonsky, Skip Withrow, Dough Kent and Greg Glasner surveyed 342 feet of new cave in the Chimera Room area. A nice flowstone area was discovered, along with what appears to be the first rabbit skeleton found in Wind Cave.

Jim Clark, Veronica Stahl, Jerry Hassemer and Dan Hanley
On January 13, Jim Clark, Veronica Stahl, Jerry Hassemer and Dan Hanley went to Shelob's Lair and inventoried the last 15 stations in the area. No good leads were found.

John Scheltens, Marc Lamphere, Dave Springhetti and Lon Sharp
Also on January 13, John Scheltens, Marc Lamphere, Dave Springhetti and Lon Sharp returned to a lead off the Coke Room route they had noted on January 5. A new upper level area was discovered and 1187 feet of cave was surveyed, with more remaining.

01/19/1991
Stan Allison, Bob Kobza and Jim Nepstad
Stan Allison, Bob Kobza and Jim Nepstad returned to the northwestern part of the cave to continue working on the area discovered January 1. After tying in to a number of known points in the cave, a new survey was begun of KY137. A recent stream channel, along with stream sediments and cobbles, was discovered below this area. This passage eventually led to a major new helictite bush area now known as "Bushed". Bushes up to 3.5 feet tall, some coated with dogtooth spar crystal, were found. 792 feet of passage was surveyed.

01/20/1991
John Scheltens, Marc Lamphere, Lon Sharp and Ben Sharp
John Scheltens, Marc Lamphere, Lon Sharp and Ben Sharp returned to the area they discovered the week before. An additional 737 feet of passage was surveyed, including a beautiful new flowstone area. Another shortcut between the Coke Room route and the John Wayne area was discovered.

01/22/1991
Stan Allison, Steve Baldwin and Kevin Hachmeister
Stan Allison, Steve Baldwin and Kevin Hachmeister took part in an after work trip this evening. 591 feet of passage, including some nice flowstone, was surveyed between the Loose Screw Room and the Club Room route. More leads remain in the area.

Wind Cave Weekend 02/08-09/1991

Bill Hawn, Bob Phillips, Steve Smith and Vern Carlson
Bill Hawn, Bob Phillips, Steve Smith and Vern Carlson showed up a day early to do some inventory in the Black Beauty area near the Lakes. On the way out, they flagged some of the calcite ice floored passages off the main route to avoid future accidents.

Bill Hawn, Bob Phillips, Steve Smith and Vern Carlson
On February 9, the same group went to the PR survey area in the historic part of the cave and surveyed 312 feet.

Jim Wilson, Skip Withrow, Doug Kent and Mike Frazier
Jim Wilson, Skip Withrow, Doug Kent and Mike Frazier inventoried the KX survey to the Chimera Room and surveyed 413 feet of passage southeast of KY30. The survey ended in a nice gypsum flower area.

Pat Jablonsky, Clarence Williams, Christ Bustos, John Peters-Campbell and Margo Butner
Pat Jablonsky, Clarence Williams, Christ Bustos, John Peters-Campbell and Margo Butner returned to the northeastern part of the cave.

Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Tim Moreland
Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Tim Moreland surveyed 597 feet of passage in the KY survey area west of Disappointment Chamber. No connection yet.

Mike Behn, Ed LaRock and Barry Berg
Mike Behn, Ed LaRock and Barry Berg were also in the KY survey area, and surveyed 364 feet of cave south of KY227. Ed reports the presence of granite boulders in a room at the end of their survey.

June Golaz, Sandy Kraemer, Bill Yett, Jason Miller and Carl Pagano
June Golaz, Sandy Kraemer, Bill Yett, Jason Miller and Carl Pagano surveyed 374 feet of passage north and east of the Pearly Gates in the historic part of the cave. The end of their survey plots out in a blank spot on the map.

Jim Clark, Dan Hanley, Pat Seiser, Bob Stuckland and Veronica Stahl
Jim Clark, Dan Hanley, Pat Seiser, Bob Stuckland and Veronica Stahl started a survey just past the Roadblock and wound up in the Loose Screw Room after 345 feet of survey. Lots of flowstone was found along the way.

Bob Kobza, Mike Paulick, Louise Hose and Jim Nepstad
Bob Kobza, Mike Paulick, Louise Hose and Jim Nepstad went back to the northwest corner of the cave and surveyed 849 feet of passage, most of it west of KY165. Many more leads remain in this part of the cave.

Despite all of this activity, the cave came up about 75 feet short of 57 miles.

02/23/1991
Bob Kobza, Mike Paulick, Warren Netherton and Jim Nepstad
Bob Kobza, Mike Paulick, Warren Netherton and Jim Nepstad surveyed 201 feet of cave on top of the Suburbia area, including a large room named "57 Mile Hall".

March/April 1991

During March and April 1991, a total of 1.2 miles of passage was surveyed at Wind Cave. This increased the length of the known cave from 57.0 miles to 58.2 miles. Roughly 2600 feet of previously surveyed passage was inventoried, in addition to the 1.2 miles inventoried as a part of the survey process.

Wind Cave Weekend 03/09-10/1991

Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Pat Seiser
On March 9, Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Pat Seiser headed back to the northwestern part of the cave near Disappointment Chamber. A total of 734 feet was surveyed, including a connection with the Ghost Rider's Gulch area.

Tim Moreland, Vi Allured and Mike Smith
Tim Moreland, Vi Allured and Mike Smith began the inventory of the Silent Expressway travel corridor. The area between Half Mile Hall and the BPH survey was completed.

Bill Yett, Lonny Haynes, Kevin Reynolds and Sandy Kraemer
Bill Yett, Lonny Haynes, Kevin Reynolds and Sandy Kraemer returned to the CM survey, north of the Pearly Gates, and surveyed an additional 90 feet of passage.

Kirk Haley, Jim Clark and Veronica Stahl
Kirk Haley, Jim Clark and Veronica Stahl surveyed 192 feet of passage south of Rainbow Falls, including a beautiful, flowstone filled dome.

Larry Coats, Dayna Gessler, Jim Erickson and Nizam Zawahir
Larry Coats, Dayna Gessler, Jim Erickson and Nizam Zawahir led a trip to the Chimera Room area and surveyed 235 feet of cave, some of it with nice aragonite.

Margo Butner and Katy Petty
Margo Butner and Katy Petty began the inventory of the route to the Artifact Room in the historic part of the cave.

Jim Wilson, Clarence Williams, Eric Dutton, Norm Thompson, Carl Pagano, Pet Jablonsky and Brian Small
Jim Wilson, Clarence Williams, Eric Dutton, Norm Thompson, Carl Pagano, Pet Jablonsky and Brian Small headed to the Lakes area. The RD survey, which leads to Rebel River, was inventoried and photographed. A visit to Rebel River, the first known since it initial discover in 1970, confirmed the presence of running water in Wind Cave! This "river" is about 3 inches wide and flows at a rate of roughly 1 gallon per minute. Wetsuits are not required.

Kevin and Steve Smith, Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn, Vern Carlson and Judy Carlson
Kevin and Steve Smith, Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn, Vern Carlson and Judy Carlson lead an inventory trip to the JW survey area, finishing the route from the Coke Room to the John Wayne Room.

Louise Hose, Donald Davis, Dave Lester, Todd Warren and John Peters-Campbell
Louise Hose, Donald Davis, Dave Lester, Todd Warren and John Peters-Campbell went to the northwestern part of the cave for survey and helictite bush observation. A total of 376 feet of survey was accomplished and the northern extent of the cave was extended by about 75 feet. In addition, a bone cave (possibly from a bird), and evidence of flowing water was found.

03/16/1991

John Scheltens, Greg Hanson and Jason Moran
John Scheltens, Greg Hanson and Jason Moran surveyed 378 feet of cave near the Multi-Purpose Room.

Dave Springhetti, Sarge Preston and Jan Harms
Dave Springhetti, Sarge Preston and Jan Harms led a trip to the Omnibus Hall area, surveying 202 feet.

Rick Bogue and Marc Lamphere
On the same day, Rick Bogue and Marc Lamphere led some Job Corps kids around the Club Room Loop.

03/22/1991

Tim Moreland, Dan Hanley and Wieslaw Klis
Tim Moreland and Wieslaw Klis, who had been performing volunteer work for the park that week, and Dan Hanley, led an inventory trip to the Land of 10,000 Lakes area. A total of 21 stations were inventoried. A significant observation: due to the recent decline in lake levels, the Land of 10,000 Lakes now has only one lake!

Ted Lappin and Vi Allured
Ted Lappin and Vi Allured, also volunteering for a weekend, led a trip to the Disappointment Chamber area on March 31. This area, where the eastern and western parts of the cave overlap in places, has eluded connection for more than a decade. Keeping with tradition, no connection was found, but 128 feet of cave was surveyed.

04/05/1991
Krishnan Kutty, Doug Pflugh, Tim Sulser, Mariana Kubicek and Tom Shields
Krishnan Kutty, Doug Pflugh, Tim Sulser, Mariana Kubicek and Tom Shields surveyed a connection between the Artifact Room and Bishop Fowler's Loop, for a total of 185 feet. Upon emerging from the cave, they were immediately thrown into a mass evacuation from the visitor center area as a massive wildfire bore down on the park. It had seemed so peaceful in the cave...

04/12/1991
Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza, Martha Jakobek, Steve Smith and Rick Dressler
Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza, Martha Jakobek, Steve Smith and Rick Dressler started "mopping up" leads off the main tour routes. Only the Garden of Eden Loop and Assembly Room areas were checked (about 10% of the tour routes) this day, but 1002 feet of passage was surveyed. Interesting finds included a passage just 50 feet from the Assembly Room which apparently floods to the ceiling!

Wind Cave Weekend 04/20/1991

Due to a major snowstorm, the Colorado Grotto visit to Wind Cave was delayed until April 20.

Stan Allison, Paul Burger and Stu Marlatt
Stan Allison, Paul Burger and Stu Marlatt led an exploration trip to the Silent Expressway. 823 feet of passage was surveyed, mostly in the Rocky Road area.

Doug Kent, Garry Petrie, Skip Withrow and Carl Pagano
Doug Kent, Garry Petrie, Skip Withrow and Carl Pagano headed to an area between the Chimera Room and Key Room, surveying 460 feet.

Mike Behn, Ed LaRock, Barry Berg and Ken Wright
Mike Behn, Ed LaRock, Barry Berg and Ken Wright headed back to the KYL survey area to continue exploration. An area with bad air (with a "petroliferous smell" according to the survey notes) was discovered just a few hundred feet southeast of Bush Gardens. The nearest fuel tanks up-dip are more than a mile and a half away-on private land. That, combined with the isolated nature of this bad air, lends us to speculate that it may somehow be a natural part of the cave. Additional work is needed in this area. 327 feet were surveyed.

Verne Carlson, Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips and Steve Smith
Verne Carlson, Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips and Steve Smith surveyed 584 feet of passage off the JJ survey just past the Frostline.

Tim Moreland, Bill Yett and Nizam Zawahir
Tim Moreland, Bill Yett and Nizam Zawahir headed to the PR survey in the historic part of the cave and surveyed 284 feet of passage, some with good airflow.

May/June 1991

For the duration of May and June, a total of 1.4 miles of cave was surveyed in Wind Cave. This increased the length form 58.2 miles to 59.6 miles. In addition, approximately 3550 feet of previously surveyed passage was inventoried, along with the 1.4 miles inventoried during the survey process.

05/04/1991
Chris Bondun, Dave Worthington, Dan Horkan, Eric Mayes and Ross Hart
Chris Bondun, Dave Worthington, Dan Horkan, Eric Mayes and Ross Hart inventoried 9 stations in the LB survey, which is located in the Lakes Zone.

05/05/1991
Dave Springhetti, Myk Coughlin, Sarge Preston, Dennis Maynard and Jan Harms
Dave Springhetti, Myk Coughlin, Sarge Preston, Dennis Maynard and Jan Harms continued the SPH survey off of Omnibus Hall for a total survey of 98.7 feet.

Wind Cave Weekend 05/11/1991

Sandy Kraemer, Bob Stucklen and Rich Wolfert Sandy Kraemer, Bob Stucklen and Rich Wolfert inventoried 15 stations along the red and white travel corridor, between the Club Room and Half Mile Hall.

Mike Frazier, Louise Hose, Ted Lappin and Vi Allured
A survey trip was made to the Deep Confusion area by Mike Frazier, Louise Hose, Ted Lappin and Vi Allured. They surveyed 512 feet in the BC', BCA, BJ and BJA surveys.

Steve Smith, Kevin Smith and Jerry Hassemer
A bypass to the Frostline was surveyed by Steve Smith, Kevin Smith and Jerry Hassemer. With a little maintenance, this bypass may provide a travel corridor that is less sensitive to traffic than the Frostline. A total of 386 feet was surveyed in this area.

Doug Kent, Ken Hedrick and Chris Wooley
Doug Kent, Ken Hedrick and Chris Wooley surveyed 426 feet in the LV survey near the Figure Eight Room.

Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips, Vern Carlson and Dave Lester
Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips, Vern Carlson and Dave Lester inventoried 31 stations near the Frostline.

Margo Butner and Kathy Peety
Margo Butner and Kathy Peety inventoried approximately 10 survey stations along the route to the Artifact Room, just off the Post Office.

Louise Hose, Dave Lester and Mike Frazier
On May 12, Louise Hose, Dave Lester and Mike Frazier inventoried 8 stations near Franks Beard in the Historic Zone.

05/17/1991
Bob Kobza, Jim Nepstad, Stan Allison and Mike Paulick
On this day, a large, 200' long, 20-40' wide and 10-20' tall upper level room was discovered! This room, named Wakantanka was discovered by Bob Kobza, Jim Nepstad, Stan Allison and Mike Paulick. Wakantanka lies directly over the Club Room and in several places connects to the Club Room via 30-40' unclimbable pits. Nice flowstone and frostwork was also discovered in this area. The LSU survey done in this area accounted for 1059.7 feet of new cave.

05/25/1991
Paul Burger, Dina Venezky, Stan Allison and Bob Younger
Paul Burger, Dina Venezky, Stan Allison and Bob Younger managed to push a tight, blowing lead from the Snake Pit Entrance 70 feet to the north. This lead continues as a very tight passage into an area with no known cave.

05/26/1991
Bob Younger, Stan Allison, Dina Venezky and Paul Burger
Bob Younger, Stan Allison, Dina Venezky and Paul Burger surveyed 1072.8 feet of cave off of Wakantanka in the LSS and LST surveys. A climbable connection was made between Wakantanka and the southern end of the Club Room.

05/31/1991
Stan Allison and Dina Venezky
After two floods in late May, the cave was extraordinarily wet. Flowing water was noticed in several area of the cave that are usually dry. On May 31, Stan Allison and Dina Venezky observed a flowing stream in Monument Hall below Devils Lookout.

06/02/1991
Jim Nepstad, Dina Venezky and Stan Allison
Jim Nepstad, Dina Venezky and Stan Allison surveyed 952 feet of cave off of the Natural Entrance and Fairgrounds tour routes. Some walking-size passages were surveyed right off of the trail!

Wind Cave Weekend 06/07-09/1991

Kevin Reynolds, Skip Withrow and Bill Yett
On June 7, Kevin Reynolds, Skip Withrow and Bill Yett inventoried 22 stations along the red and white travel corridor near Half Mile Hall. They also surveyed 145.3 feet on the KSA survey.

Doug Kent, Garry Petrie, Dave Steinman and Tim Nuce
On June 8, Doug Kent, Garry Petrie, Dave Steinman and Tim Nuce surveyed 570.2 feet on the CS survey near Deep Confusion. They discovered a nice room 80' long, 30' wide and 15' tall.

Jim Wilson, Aaron Birenboim, Lisa Shertz and Steve Shertz
Jim Wilson, Aaron Birenboim, Lisa Shertz and Steve Shertz inventoried 13 stations on the red and white travel corridor near Half Mile Hall. A mouse was seen the Roadblock which is approximately 1500 feet away form the elevator, and further from the Natural Entrance.

Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips and Vern Carlson
Bill Hawn, Robert Phillips and Vern Carlson surveyed 404 feet of cave in the VA and VB surveys near the Frostline. A room filled with various gypsum formations was named the "Cotton Field".

Mike Frazier, Marty Smith and Randy Brown
34 stations were inventoried along the green travel corridor from Half Mile Hall to the Wind Gate by Mike Frazier, Marty Smith and Randy Brown.

Paul Burger, Harry Burgess and Stan Allison
Paul Burger, Harry Burgess and Stan Allison surveyed 988.5 feet near the end of the Silent Expressway. An extremely large, 2' diameter by 1' thick, disc shaped coral fossil was discovered. This is possibly the largest known fossil in the cave!

06/14/1991
Kevin Smith and Stan Allison
Kevin Smith and Stan Allison photographed "zebra rock" near the Muddle Room to aid the Colorado Grotto in the inventory process.

06/18/1991
Brad Stephenson, Anne Bohnet, Joelle Selk, Jennifer Cullen, Bob Younger and Stan Allison
Brad Stephenson, Anne Bohnet, Joelle Selk, Jennifer Cullen, Bob Younger and Stan Allison surveyed 84.2 feet of cave off of the Fairgrounds.

06/22/1991
Anne Bohnet and Stan Allison
Ten members of the Pennington County Search and Rescue group made the Club Room Loop with Anne Bohnet and Stan Allison. This trip was made for the purpose of orienting the group to the difficulties of cave rescue at Wind Cave.

06/29/1991
Paul Burger, Jim Nepstad and Stan Allison
Paul Burger, Jim Nepstad and Stan Allison surveyed 790.4 feet of cave near Mystery Lake and the Elephant Trunk. Highlights of this survey in the BWB, BXB and BXC included the infamous Big Butt Canyon.

 

July/August 1991

During the months of July and August, Wind Cave passed the 60 mile mark. The length was increased from 59.6 miles to 60.5 miles. Approximately 2000 feet of previously surveyed passage was inventoried in addition to the 0.9 miles of inventory done as part of the survey process.

07/03/1991
Anne Bohnet, Tom Kopp and Stan Allison
An after-work trip was performed by seasonal rangers, Anne Bohnet, Tom Kopp and Stan Allison. They surveyed 371 feet off of Wakantanka in the LSA survey. Mostly in upper-level cave, they found a nice flowstone area and an unclimbable pit dropping into the Club Room.

Wind Cave Weekend 07/13/1991

During the Colorado Grotto weekend, Wind Cave passed the 60 mile mark! Two trips were made to the North Zone.

Kevin Smith, Kirk Haley and Ken Headrick
Kevin Smith, Kirk Haley and Ken Headrick surveyed 190 feet of cave in the UB' survey. The KYZ and KYX survey, also in the North Zone accounted for 525.4 feet of new cave.

Jim Clark, Steve Smith and Veronica Stahl
Jim Clark, Steve Smith and Veronica Stahl reported leaving leads going everywhere in this area.

Pat Jablonski, Bill Yett, Rusty Yett and Sandy Kraemer
Pat Jablonski, Bill Yett, Rusty Yett and Sandy Kraemer made a trip to the Snowdrift Avenue area, locating passages for future surveys.

Doug Kent, Robert Phillips, Kent Parkhurst and Stacy Smythe
Doug Kent, Robert Phillips, Kent Parkhurst and Stacy Smythe surveyed 562 feet of cave in the Deep Confusion area. Along their CT survey, they found an unclimbable pit dropping into Andy's Icebox. Most leads in this survey apparently end in paleo-fill.

Jim Nepstad, Stan Allison, Rich Wolfert and Carl Pagano
Jim Nepstad, Stan Allison, Rich Wolfert and Carl Pagano surveyed 472 feet off of the north end of Wakantanka. A connection was made to the red and white trail right before the Club Room, making Wakantanka more easily accessible. Thus far, approximately 3500 feet of virgin cave has been surveyed in the Wakantanka area, showing the potential for new discoveries in other internal areas of Wind Cave.

Kathy Petty, Nancy Cox and Margo Butner
Kathy Petty, Nancy Cox and Margo Butner made an inventory trip to the Artifact Room area.

Gary Petrie, Paul Burger and Louise Hose
Gary Petrie, Paul Burger and Louise Hose surveyed 663 feet of cave, mainly in interconnections in the Lunar Tubes area. Strong air was noted in the SBA survey.

Dave and Steve Lester
Dave and Steve Lester surveyed 75 feet off of Half Mile Hall in the TPC survey.

07/20/1991
Chris Brondum, John Hunter, John Gudgeon, Ross Hart, Dan Horkan, Dave Worthington and Cory Edwards
A group of 7 from the Hole in the Wall Grotto in Wyoming led an inventory trip to the area north of the Coke Room. Stations were inventoried from KY300 to KY326. Involved in this inventory were: Chris Brondum, John Hunter, John Gudgeon, Ross Hart, Dan Horkan, Dave Worthington and Cory Edwards.

07/28/1991
Debbie Wong and Stan Allison
Debbie Wong and Stan Allison surveyed 146 feet of cave off of the Fairgrounds area.

07/31/1991
Stan Allison, Keith Grabner and Cindy Czydel
Stan Allison, Keith Grabner and Cindy Czydel made a work trip to examine the feasibility of using the Frostline overpass as a main route. Due to the loose rocks in the bypass that would be knocked down into the Frostline, it was deemed unusable as a main route.

08/07/1991
Kevin Smith
Kevin Smith inventoried 11 stations along the Garden of Eden tour route.

08/08/1991
Kevin Smith, Marianne and Stacy Smythe
Kevin Smith, Marianne and Stacy Smythe did an inventory trip to the Room Draculum, Rainbow Falls and Skydeck area. A total of 45 stations were inventoried on this trip.

Wind Cave Weekend 08/10/1991

Bill Yett, Eric Dutton, Fred Luiser and Steve Posey
Bill Yett, Eric Dutton, Fred Luiser and Steve Posey led a digging trip to the Snake Pit Entrance.

Kevin Smith, Steve Smith, Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn and Ken Headrick
Kevin Smith, Steve Smith, Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn and Ken Headrick surveyed 216 feet of cave in the North Zone.

Louise Hose, Dave Lester, Steve Lester and Aaron Birenboim
Louise Hose, Dave Lester, Steve Lester and Aaron Birenboim surveyed 504 feet of cave north of the Coke Room. They reported that their KYE and KYF surveys still have many leads to be checked.

Pat Jablonski, Sandy Kraemer, Tim Moreland, Rich Wolfert, Greg Glasner, Margo Butner, Tim O'Conner, Ken Rappe and Steve Rappe
A team consisting of Pat Jablonski, Sandy Kraemer, Tim Moreland, Rich Wolfert, Greg Glasner, Margo Butner, Tim O'Conner, Ken Rappe and Steve Rappe surveyed 206 feet in the CT' survey. This survey connects Snowdrift Avenue to Snowman's Heaven.

Dave Springhetti, Sarge Preston, Rick Bogue, Jan Harms, Bob Croyle, Rhonda Gerhard, Kathy Smith, Karel Bielstein and Nick Bielstein
The Paha Sapa Grotto made a trip to the Rescue Pit area surveying approximately 250 feet in the JJA' survey. Involved were: Dave Springhetti, Sarge Preston, Rick Bogue, Jan Harms, Bob Croyle, Rhonda Gerhard, Kathy Smith, Karel Bielstein and Nick Bielstein.

During the Labor Day weekend 38 cavers followed the Club Room Loop in four different trips. These trips were a part of the Rocky Mountain Regional.

September/October 1991

At the beginning of September, Wind Cave was 60.5 miles long. By the end of October, the surveyed length of Wind Cave had grown to 62.1 miles, equaling 100 kilometers. The total length surveyed during these two months was 1.6 miles. Approximately 1600 feet of previously surveyed cave was inventoried, along with the 1.6 miles of inventory accomplished with the survey process.

Wind Cave Weekend 09/14/1991

Doug Kent, Skip Withrow and Dave Lester
Doug Kent, Skip Withrow and Dave Lester pushed the western edge of the cave from the Chimera Room. They surveyed 565 feet of cave, discovering some exceptional aragonite.

Louise Hose, Pat Seiser and Vi Allured
Louise Hose, Pat Seiser and Vi Allured surveyed 551 feet of new cave in the Coke Room area.

Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Tim Moreland
476 feet of cave was found in the North Zone by Ted Lappin, Garry Petrie and Tim Moreland. Their survey ended in an area with a 6" helictite bush.

Steve Smith, Dan Harness, Bonnie-Ann Burnette and Susan Onimus
Steve Smith, Dan Harness, Bonnie-Ann Burnette and Susan Onimus surveyed 149 feet off of Grand Central Station in the North Zone.

Kevin Smith
Kevin Smith inventoried 55 stations along the tour routes, accounting for approximately 1210 feet of inventory.

Dawn Reed, Paul Burger and Stan Allison
Dawn Reed, Paul Burger and Stan Allison were doing mop-up survey in the Silent Expressway when they found a tight crawl taking good air. After pushing through the "Silent Struggle", they surveyed 500 feet of cave to the south leaving the air and several leads going south. Including the mop-up survey, a total of 974.5 feet was surveyed.

09/28/1991
Jim Nepstad, Mike Wiles, Stan Allison and Paul Burger
Jim Nepstad, Mike Wiles, Stan Allison and Paul Burger returned to the area past the Silent Struggle. After unsuccessfully pushing a few leads, the air was located in the "Looney Tubes". Following the air to the south, a sharp squeeze names "Les Miserables", led to a huge passage 600 feet long, 50-100 feet wide, and up to 30 feet tall! This passage, named "Southern Comfort", went 650 feet further south than any other passage in Wind Cave! A new form of boxwork consisting of two plates of white dogtooth spar was found in this passage. Beautiful, calcified floor cracks, and extensive ripple marks were also found. A total of 2149 feet was surveyed.

10/11/1991
Robert Phillips, Murray Vogel and Bill Hawn
Robert Phillips, Murray Vogel and Bill Hawn made a trip to Coyote Cave. Robert managed to squeeze past the previous the previous barrier, finding the lead continuing as a tight crawl.

Wind Cave Weekend 10/12/1991

The October Colorado Grotto weekend on was a very productive weekend.

Kevin Smith, Kirk Haley and Bruce Costa
Kevin Smith, Kirk Haley and Bruce Costa surveyed 452.4 feet in the John Wayne Room vicinity.

Carl Pagano, Any Johnson, Jason Moran and Mike Dodaro
Carl Pagano, Any Johnson, Jason Moran and Mike Dodaro inventoried 5 stations in the Chris' Chisel Crack area, near the Lakes.

Dough Kent, Vi Allured, Ted alpine and Doug Pflugh
Dough Kent, Vi Allured, Ted alpine and Doug Pflugh explored and surveyed 607 feet west of the Chimera Room.

Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn and Murray Vogel
Robert Phillips, Bill Hawn and Murray Vogel inventoried 14 stations in the Railroad Junction area.

Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza, Paul Burger and Stan Allison
Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza, Paul Burger and Stan Allison returned to Southern Comfort. Surveying 879 feet in crawls and an exciting high lead (140 feet tall!), they felt air at the end of the day in a crawly maze area.

Bonnie-Ann Burnett, Donna Lehman, Pat Fisher, Margo Butner and Bryan Smith
Bonnie-Ann Burnett, Donna Lehman, Pat Fisher, Margo Butner and Bryan Smith surveyed 246.6 feet in the Snowdrift Avenue area.

Jim Wilson, Eric Dutton, Aaron Birenboim and Dan Hanson
Jim Wilson, Eric Dutton, Aaron Birenboim and Dan Hanson surveyed 183.5 feet off of Half-Mile Hall in a delicate passage.

10/26/1991
Stan Allison, Paul Burger and Doug Kent
Stan Allison, Paul Burger and Doug Kent traveled out to Southern Comfort. Pushing leads in the mazy area left from the last trip, they made a breakthrough into a large room 100 feet wide, 100 feet long, and 40 feet tall! The large room soon turned into a passage 400 feet long, well over 50 feet wide in places, and 20-30 feet tall! As this room and passage are located in the northwest of Southern Comfort it was named the "Northwest Territory". Many nice gypsum decorations were found in this area, as well as 2 foot thick chunks of manganese. Airflow at the northern ends of these passages hints at a connection with the Silent Expressway. A total of 1792 feet was surveyed on this trip. So far a little over a mile of cave has been found beyond the Silent Struggle.

November/December 1991

At the beginning of November, the surveyed length of Wind Cave was 62.1 miles. By the end of December, Wind Cave's length was increased to 64.6 miles. The total length surveyed during these two months was 2.5 miles. Approximately 1.1 miles of previously surveyed passage were inventoried, along with the 2.5 miles of inventory accomplished in conjunction with survey.

11/03/1991
Rick Bogue, Sarge Preston and Dave Anderson
Paha Sapa Grotto members Rick Bogue, Sarge Preston and Dave Anderson surveyed 137 feet of cave above the Boxwork Chimney in the JJC survey.

Wind Cave Weekend 11/15-16, 1991

Robert Phillips, Murray Vogel, Bill Hawn and Steve Huck
On November 15, Robert Phillips, Murray Vogel, Bill Hawn and Steve Huck inventoried 26 stations along the EP and RT surveys. While at station RP-2, they noted paleo-fill in an area below false floors in the lower level of cave.

Jim Clark, Kirk Haley and Skip Withrow
On November 16, Jim Clark, Kirk Haley and Skip Withrow surveyed 446.2 feet in the Porcupette Passion area. Their YE and YCA surveys contained an extremely delicate aragonite and gypsum area. In addition to their survey, they inventoried 20 stations along the YC survey.

Jim Wilson, Ted Lappin, Pat Seiser and Margie Robinson
Jim Wilson, Ted Lappin, Pat Seiser and Margie Robinson surveyed 542 feet in the KKT survey. This area off of Half-Mile Hall contained calcite needles and nice spar.

Bill Hawn, Murray Vogel, Steve Huck and Bob Phillips
Bill Hawn, Murray Vogel, Steve Huck and Bob Phillips surveyed 467.3 feet in the OR survey.

Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza and Stan Allison
Jim Nepstad, Bob Kobza and Stan Allison surveyed 2459.9 feet in the LTE, LTF, LTG and LTH surveys. Surveying through a faulted, crawly area, they broke into a area of large, going passages. One of these passages, Gypsy Road, had gypsum crust and crystals virtually everywhere. One section 20 feet high and 20 feet wide had strong airflow! At the end of the day they had pushed the cave 550 feet further west and left large leads going south and west!

John Scheltens, Andy Flurkey and Ed LaRock
John Scheltens, Andy Flurkey and Ed LaRock surveyed 1139.1 feet of cave in the MT survey west of the Multi-purpose Room.

Carl Pagano, June Golaz, Bryan Smith and Jim Myers
Carl Pagano, June Golaz, Bryan Smith and Jim Myers surveyed 192 feet in the XYY survey near Independence Hall.

Vi Allured, Dan Hansen and Carol Boyles
Vi Allured, Dan Hansen and Carol Boyles inventoried 32 stations in the RA, RB, RC, LA and JD surveys.

Stan Allison, Paul Burger, Bob Kobza and Jim Erickson
Stan Allison, Paul Burger, Bob Kobza and Jim Erickson surveyed 2404 feet in the LTI, LTJ, LTK, LTL, LTM and LTN surveys. Beginning their survey at the end of Gypsy Road, they soon discovered Blind Faith. Blind Faith was over 100 feet wide, 200 feet long, with 30-50 foot ceiling heights! It is clearly one of the largest rooms in the cave; it contains a massive flowstone slope, as well as large frostwork deposits. Beyond Blind Faith the cave was pushed further to the south.

11/29/1991

The Minnesota Speleological Society visited Wind Cave during Thanksgiving

Rick Nelson, Gene Kramer, Keith Nelson, Mike Winn and Cindy Schmidt
On November 29, Rick Nelson, Gene Kramer, Keith Nelson, Mike Winn and Cindy Schmidt inventoried 21 stations along the LS survey near the Loose Screw Room.

Mark Wickham, Carl Okling, Scott Laguard, Dave Trumm and Craig Miller
Mark Wickham, Carl Okling, Scott Laguard, Dave Trumm and Craig Miller inventoried 11 stations in the KR survey near Half-Mile Hall.

11/30/1991
John Scheltens, Rick Bogue and Myk Coughlin
John Scheltens, Rick Bogue and Myk Coughlin surveyed 1000 feet in the YT survey.

12/07/1991

Rick Bogue, Jan Harms and Marc Lamphere
Rick Bogue, Jan Harms and Marc Lamphere survey 38 feet in the YUK survey.

Paul Burger, Dawn Reed, Jim Nepstad and Stan Allison
Paul Burger, Dawn Reed, Jim Nepstad and Stan Allison surveyed 1300 feet in the PH and LOL surveys. They managed to follow good air to the south through an area with strongly dipping limestone.

12/10/1991
Darryl Maleike and Stan Allison
Darryl Maleike and Stan Allison surveyed 165 feet in the LOD survey at the Garden of Eden elevator landing.

Wind Cave Weekend 12/14/1991

Carl Pagano,Tim Moreland, Norm Thompson and Brian Smith
Carl Pagano,Tim Moreland, Norm Thompson and Brian Smith surveyed 412.4 feet of cave in the XYZ survey in the Colorado Grotto Zone.

Kevin Smith, Christian George and Eric David
Kevin Smith, Christian George and Eric David inventoried 58 stations in the NSGL and ID surveys.

Rich Wolfert, Dave Lester, Bob Stucklen and Randy Brown
Rich Wolfert, Dave Lester, Bob Stucklen and Randy Brown surveyed 88 feet in the FT survey, finding a tight, blowing lead out of the Atlas Underground Hempworks. They also inventoried 13 stations in the XJ, XR and R surveys.

Bill Hawn, Bob Phillips,Tim Johnson and Dan Hansen
Bill Hawn, Bob Phillips,Tim Johnson and Dan Hansen inventoried 41 stations along the JF and AA surveys.

Jim Nepstad, Louise Hose, Vi Allured and Eric Dutton
Jim Nepstad, Louise Hose, Vi Allured and Eric Dutton surveyed 261 feet in the AP survey, looking for a short-cut to the Northwest Territory. They reported the chance of finding a short-cut looked very slim.

Stan Allison, Harry Burgess and Doug Kent
Stan Allison, Harry Burgess and Doug Kent surveyed 1400 feet in the Blind Faith area. They found several nice flowstone deposits in their LOK and LOG surveys and left many leads to be checked.

12/27/1991
Jim Myers, Jamie Myers and Eric Liligren
Jim Myers, Jamie Myers and Eric Liligren surveyed 219.9 feet in the JM survey near the Cairn Room.

Did You Know?

Sign used at Wind Cave in 1903 when the cave became a national park.

Wind Cave is the first cave in the world to be designated as a national park. That occurred on January 9, 1903.