• Wind Cave National Park - Two Worlds

    Wind Cave

    National Park South Dakota

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  • Trail Closure Information

    The Highland Creek Trail is closed. Backcountry Zones 1 and 2 are closed to all off-trail travel and use. The Sanctuary and Centennial Trails remain open to through traffic.

  • Temporary Road Closure Information

    Oct. 18 & 19: NPS 5 and 6 are closed for the entire weekend. Monday, Oct. 20, through Wednesday, Oct. 22, NPS 5 will be closed from Highway 87 to NPS 6. Highway 87 will be closed from Road 342 (Beaver Creek Road) north to the park boundary.

The Home of the Bison (Full Text): An Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Study of Traditional Cultural Affiliations to Wind Cave National Park

It is not an exaggeration to say that Wind Cave National Park (hereafter referred to as WCNP) is one of the most sacred and culturally significant areas of the Black Hills to the Lakotas and Cheyennes. It is also a location associated with a complex and changing history of human occupancy, which extends back to prehistoric times. In the historic era, roughly 1742 to 1877, the Lakotas, Cheyennes, and Arapahos were among many tribal nations who lived and traveled within reach of WCNP. For a brief period of time, circa-1880 to 1930, it was home to a small ground of European American homesteaders. The history of the lands on which WCNP now sits form a diverse and deeply layered cultural tapestry. The Home of the Bison: An Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Study of Traditional Cultural Affiliations to Wind Cave National Park provides reader with insight into how its lands and resources have dynamically changed in the course of a history with different waves of human occupation.

Cover Page

Title Page


Executive summary Pp.i-xxvii (chapters below)

I. Current and Historic Cultural Affiliations to Wind Cave National Park

II. The Cultural Foundations of Tribal Affiliations to WCNP

III.The Character of Contemporary Cultural Affiliations to WCNP

A. Landscapes and Landforms: Issues of Protection and Access

B. Resources and Their Protection

Resources and Their Protection - Animals

Resources and Their Protection - Plants

Resources and Their Protection - Minerals

C. Tribal Perspectives on the Park

D. Consultations and Further Study

III. Beginning a New Cycle

Preface and Acknowledgements Pp. xxviii-xxix

Table of Content Pp. xxx-xlviii (PDF 2.3mb)

Chapter One: Introduction - Passageways to Island Hills (PDF 2.6mb) Pp. 1-13

Part One - The Nations that Lived Among the Hills Introduction (PDF 1mb) Pp. 14-16

Chapter Two: Traces Of Diversity: The Prehistoric Record (PDF 1.9mb)Pp. 17-25

Chapter Three: The Arrival Of Horses and European Trade: 1742-1806 (PDF 3.8mb) Pp. 26-57

Chapter Four: Tribal Movements and The Bison Hide Trade: 1807-1850 (PDF2.8mb) Pp. 58-83

Chapter Five:Treaties And Broken Promises:1851 To 1877 (PDF 5.7mb) Pp. 84-132

Chapter Six: Homesteaders and Tourists:1878 to Present (PDF 5.4mb) Pp. 133-188

Part Two - Common Ground contested Terrain Introduction, (PDF 1mb) Pp. 189-191

Chapter Seven: The Social Relations Of Land Use And Adaptation (PDF 4.6mb) Pp. 192-244

Chapter Eight Competing Claims, Contested Access (PDF 4.1mg) Pp. 245-278

Part Three - Food Pack and Safe Introduction (PDF 1.8mb) Pp. 279-440

Chapter Nine: Nature and the Cosmos (PDF 3.14mb) Pp. 282-304

Chapter Ten: The Home and Gathering Place of the Animals (PDF 6.8mb) Pp. 305-381

Chapter Eleven: Gold, Grass, and Gypsum (PDF 6mb) Pp. 382-440

Part Four A Sancturary and Sacred Landscape Introducion (PDF 82kb) Pp. 441-442

Chapter Twelve: Sacred Sites and Observances (PDF 3.1mb) Pp 443-474

Chapter Thirteen: The Black Hills as Sacred Ground: The Chronology and Controversy (PDF 5.4mb) Pp. 475-529

Chapter Fourteen: The Sacred Significance of Wind Cave and Its Environs (PDF 5.2 mb) Pp. 530-577

Chapter Fifteen: Wind Cave National Park In Cosmology and History (PDF 4mb) Pp. 578-622

Chapter Sixteen Recommendations Coming Full Circle Pp. 623-653 (PDF 4.4mb)

Bibliography Pp. 654-697 (PDF 3.7mb)

Appendices A B C D Pp. 698-949 (see below)

Appendix A: The Animals Of The Black Hills And Wind Cave National Park: Their Cultural Uses & Meanings (PDF 1.2mb) Pp. 698-806

Appendix B: Plants(Fungi & Forbs) of The Black Hills and Wind Cave National Park: Their Cultural Uses & Meanings (PDF 7.7mb) Pp. 807-890

Appendix B: Plants (Grasses, Shrubs, & Trees) of The Black Hills and Wind Cave National Park: Their Cultural Uses & Meanings (PDF 2.7mb) Pp. 891-939

Appendix C: The Minerals and Soils of The Black Hills and Wind Cave National Park: Their Cultural Uses & Meanings (PDF 1.8mb) Pp. 940-945

Appendix D: Questionnaire and Tribal Contacts for Wind Cave National Park (PDF 1.8mb) Pp. 946-949

The complete study is available in the following 2 volumes.

Complete Volume 1 (68 mb)

Complete Volume 2 (4.3 mb)

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