• The dunes in soft light

    White Sands

    National Monument New Mexico

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  • Closures and Missile Tests

    Upcoming Missile Tests: From time to time the missile range that surrounds us performs missile testing that may require the closure of the park or Highway 70. Please follow the link below for up to date information on closures More »

  • Summer Monument Hours

    The monument currently opens at 7 a.m. and closes roughly 1 hour after sunset. More »

  • Road Safety Corridor

    The first four miles of Dunes Drive is a road safety corridor. Slowing or stopping in the corridor is prohibited. Dune Life Nature and Playa trails are also temporarily closed. The staff of White Sands National Monument apologizes for the inconvenience.

Selected Bibliography

Selected bibliography of publications relating to White Sands National Monument and the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Revised 1989)

Biology

  • Benson, S. B. l932. Three new rodents from lava beds of southern New Mexico. Univ. of Calif. Publ. Zool. 38(5):335-344.
  • Benson, S. B. l933. Concealing coloration among some desert rodents of the southwestern United States. Univ. of Calif. Publ. Zool. 40(1):1-70.
  • Blair, W. F. 1941. Annotated list of mammals of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Am. Midl. Natur. 26: 218-229.
  • Blair, W. F. 1941. Color variation in the spotted ground squirrels of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Contr. Lab. Vert. Genet., Univ. of Mich. 16:1-16.
  • Blair, W. F. 1943. Ecological distribution of mammals in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Contrib. Lab. Vert. Biology 20:1-24.
  • Blair, W. F. 1947. Estimated frequencies of the buff and gray genes (G,g) in adjacent populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus blandus) living on soils of different colors. Univ. of Mich. No. 36, May 1947.
  • Blair, W. F. 1947. Variation in shade of pelage of local populations of the cactus mouse (Peromycus eremicus) in the Tularosa Basin, and adjacent area of southern New Mexico. Contr. Lab. Vert. Biol. 37:1-7.
  • Borell, A. E. 1938. Birds of White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Unpublished report. White Sands National Monument library.
  • Bugbee, R. E. 1942. Notes on animal occurrence and activity in the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 45:315-321.
  • Bundy, Roy E. 1955. Color variation in two species of lizards (Phrynosoma modestum and Holbrookia maculata sub species). Unpublished dissertation. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Cameron. R. E. 1966. Desert Algae: Soil crusts and diaphanous substrata as algal habitats. Tech. Report No. 32-971, pp. 1- 41, Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, California.
  • Campbell, R. S. and I. F. Campbell. 1938. Vegetation on gypsum soil of the Jornada Plain, New Mexico. Ecology 19:572-577.
  • Chun, D. T. 1972. Measured physiological limitations of microorganisms isolated from Lake Lucero and gypsum crystal. M.S. Thesis. New Mexico State Univ.
  • Clark, G. G.; Crabbs, C. L., Bailey, C. L. 1986. Identification of Aedes-Campestris from New Mexico USA with notes on the isolation of Western Equine Encephalitis and other arboviruses. CDC San Juan Labs, San Juan, P.R. Journal of American Mosquito Control Assoc. 2(4) 529-534.
  • Cockerell, T. D. A., and F. Garcia. 1898. Preliminary note on the growth of plants in gypsum. Science 8:119-121.
  • Cutak, L. 1939. Plant life in the shimmering White Sands. Desert Plant Life 11:145-147.
  • Dice, L. R. 1930. Mammal distribution in the Alamogordo region, New Mexico. Occasional papers of the museum of zoology. Univ. of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich. 213:1-39.
  • Dick-Peddie, W. A. 1975. Vegetation of Southern New Mexico. New Mexico Geol. Soc. Guidebook, 26th Field Conf., Las Cruces Country, pp. 81-84.
  • Dick-Peddie, W. A. and W. H. Moir. 1970. Vegetation of the Organ Mountains. Range Sci. Dept. Sce. Ser. No. 4. Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.
  • Dittmer, H. J. 1959. A study of the root systems of certain sand dune plants in New Mexico. Ecology 40:265-273.
  • Dixon, J. R. 1967. Aspects of the biology of the lizards of the White Sands, New Mexico. Contrib. Sci. Los Angeles Co. Mus. No. 129:1-22.
  • Dixon, J. R. and P. A. Medica. l966. Summer food of four species of lizards from the vicinity of White Sands, New Mexico. Contrib. Sci. Los Angeles Co. Mus. 121:1-6.
  • Dunford, M. P. 1979. Distribution of cytotyes of Atriplex canescens of the Mesilla Valley and adjacent mesas of southern New Mexico (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:36.
  • Echelle, A. A., Echelle A. F., Edds, D. R. 1987. Population structure of four pupfish species cyprinodon from the Chihuahuan Desert Region of New Mexico and Texas USA Allozmic variation. Zool. Dept. Okla. State Univ. Copeia (3) 668-681.
  • Echlin, R. D. 1977. Plant community structure in northeastern White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Ero, K. M. 1978. Epidemiology, distribution and isolation of pathogenic fungi from White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Gehlbach, F. R. l966. Plant formations in the natural history interpretation of the Southwestern desert region. National Parks Magazine 40(220).
  • Goldman, E. A. 1933. New mammals from Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. Washington Academy of Sci. Jour. 23:463-473.
  • Gross, F. A. and W. A. Dick-Peddie. l979. A map of primeval vegetation in New Mexico. Southwest Naturalist 24:115-122.
  • Hafner, D. J.; Geluso, K. N. 1983. Systematic Relationships and Historical Zoo Geography of the Desert Pocket Gopher Geomys arenarius. Museum of Southwestern Biology, Dept. of Biology, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 64(3)405-413.
  • Helfert, S. C. 1978. Reproductive ecology of three lizard species at White Sands National Monument. M.S. Thesis, U.T. El Paso.
  • Helfert, S. C. and R. M. Helfert. 1977. Preliminary report on the fauna of Garton Pond and the adjacent artesian well. L.E.B. Research Report 7, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Hogg, D. L. 1979. Plant phenology in interdunal communities at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Hogg, D. L.. and W. H. Reid. 1977. Germination tests using the seed of Yucca elata Engelm. L.E.B. Research Report 1, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Hogg, D. L. and W. H. Reid. 1979. Phenology and environment in two interdunal communities at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:34.
  • Hubbard, J. P. and C. L. Hubbard. 1979. Birds of New Mexico's National Park lands. Tecolote Press, Inc., Glenwood, New Mexico.
  • Jackson, E. 1959. How does life endure on the White Sands. Desert Magazine 22(10):13-15.
  • Jester, D. B., and R. R. Suminski. 1982. Age and growth, fecundity, abundance, and biomass, production of the White Sands pupfish, Cyprinodon tularosa. (Cyprinodontidae) in the desert pond. The Southwestern Naturalist 27:43-45.
  • Lewis, T. H. 1950. The herptofauna of the Tularosa Basin and Organ Mountains of New Mexico with some ecological features of the Chihuahuan Desert. Herpetologica 6(1):1 -10.
  • Lewis, T. H. 1981. A Mongollon Description of Cyprinodon - Tularosa. Georgetown Univ., Washington DC. Southwestern Naturalist 26(1)71-72.
  • Lowe, C. H. and K. S. Norris. 1956. A subspecies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus from the White Sands of New Mexico. Herpetologica 12(2):125-127.
  • Lozano, R. 1979. The distribution and ecology of two Echinocereus triglochidiatus populations in White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Lozano, R. and W. Reid. 1979. Aspects of the ecology of cacti at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:35.
  • Lozano, R. and W. Reid. 1980. Life history of Echinocereus triglochidiatus at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. (proceedings supplement) 15:13.
  • Lozano, R. and W. Reid. 1982. Claret cup cactus in White Sands National Monument. In review. The Cactus and Succulent Journal, U.S. 54:196-201.
  • MacFarland, Craig. 1969. Habitat partitioning among the three species of lizards from White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Unpublished Master's Theseis. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Mapes, G.; Schabilion, J. T. 1979. Millaya-Tularosana New Genus. New Species. An upper paleozoic Genus of Marattialean Synangia. Ohio Univ., Athens, GA. American Journal of Botany 66(10)1164-1172.
  • Mayberry, L. F., J.T. Bristol and D. W. Duszynski. 1980. Isospora californica (PROTOZOA; EIMERIIDAE) in Peromyscus maniculatus (Crecetidae) from White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 25:125-126.
  • Mayberry, L. F., Bristol, J. R.; Duszynski, D. W.; Reid, W. H. 1980. Eimerca-Mocrotes New Species from Vulpes-Macrotes - Neomexicanus. Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Texas- El Paso. Z parasitenkd 61(2) 197-200.
  • Mayberry, L. F. and W. H. Reid. 1980. Eimeria macrotis sp. n. from Vulpes macrotis neomexicanus Merriam 1902. Zeitschrift fur Parasktenkunde 61:197-200.
  • McDougal, W. B. 1940. Plant of the White Sands, special report. White Sands National Monument library.
  • McKinnerney, M. 1978. Carrion communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Southw. Natur. 23:563-576.
  • Medica, P. A. 1967. Food habits, habitat preference, reproduction and diurnal activity in sympatric species of whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus) in south central New Mexico. Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci. 66(4):251-276.
  • Metcalf, A. L. 1984. Distribution of Land Snails of the San Andres and Organ Mountains. Southwestern Naturalist 29(1)35- 44.
  • Meyer, D. E. 1959. Studies on background color selection in two species of lizards (Holbrookia maculata subspecies and Phrynosoma modestum). Unpublished dissertation. Univ. of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Muma, M. H. 1975. Two Vernal Ground Surface Arachnid Populations in Tularosa Basin New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 20(1)55-69.
  • Norris, K. S. and C. H. Lowe. 1964. An analysis of background color-matching in amphibians and reptiles. Ecology 45(3).
  • Parsons, R. F. 1976. Gypsophily in plants - a review. Amer. Midl. Natur. 96:1-20.
  • Patrick, G. R. 1980. Plant succession in the gypsum dune field of White Sands National Monument. M.S. Thesis, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Patrick, G. R. and W. Reid. 1979. Dune crest vegetation at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:34.
  • Patrick, G. R. and W. H. Reid. 1980. Plant succession in the parabolic interdunes at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. (proceedings supplement) 15:12-13.
  • Powell, A. M. and B. L. Turner. 1977. Aspects of the plant biology of the gypsum outcrops of the Chihuahuan Desert. In R. H. Wauer and D. H. Risking (eds). Transactions of the Symposium of the Biological Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region - United States and Mexico. U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service Transactions and Proceedings Series, Number Three. pp. 315-325.
  • Reid, W. H. 1977. Notes on the Lost River area (with special reference to Salt cedar (Tamarix). L.E.B. Research Report 4, University of Texas- El Paso.
  • Reid, W. H. 1979. Catalog of White Sands National Monument plant specimens in the University of Texas- El Paso Herbarium. Unpubl. report submitted to the National Park Service.
  • Reid, W. H. 1979. Letter: Critical habitats outside the dunefield (to Chief Naturalist R. Schumerth). White Sands National Monument files.
  • Reid, W. H. 1979. White Sands National Monument, Natural Resources Inventory and Analysis. Final Report CX 702980023, National Park Service. pp 409.
  • Reid, W. H. 1980. Oryx activity in White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Final Report CX 702900311, National Park Service. pp37.
  • Reid, W. H. 1980. Vegetation, physical environment and disturbance in White Sands National Monument. In, Proc. 2nd Conf. Research in the National Parks. pp. 71-85. Human Impact on Natural Resources, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
  • Reid, W. H. and R. D. Echlin. 1978. Plant associations within White Sands National Monument (abstract). Bull. N.M. Acad. Sci. 18:10.
  • Reid, W. H. , D. Hogg and G. Patrick. 1979. Structure of plant associations at White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:33.
  • Reid, W. H., O. Key, B. Miranda and G. Patrick. 1980. Growth rates of some desert woody species (abstract). J. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. (proceedings supplement) 15:14.
  • Reid, W. H. and G. R. Patrick. 1983. Gemsbok in White Sands National Monument. Southwest Naturalist. 28:97-99.
  • Reid, W. H. , G. R. Patrick and R. Lozano. Additions to the cactus flora of White Sands National Monument. Southwest Naturalist. 26:205-207.
  • Reid, W. H. and G. Patrick. 1981. Activity of Oryx gazella in White Sands National Monument (abstract). J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 13:60. 57th Annual Meeting AAAS/SWARM.
  • Reid, W. H., R. Lozano and R. Odom. 1983. Non-equilibrium population structure in three Chihuahuan Desert cacti. Southwest Natur. 28:115-117.
  • Reid, W. H. 1980. White Sands National Monument, Natural Resources Inventory and Analyses. Field Report. CX702900001, National Park Service. Pp 104.
  • Reid, W. H., and G. R. Patrick. l983. Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) in the White Sands National Monument. The Southwestern Naturalist. 28(1):96-102.
  • Royce, C. L., Cunningham, G. L. 1982. The Ecology of Abronia- Angustifolia Nyctaginacae. Dept. of Botany and Microbiology. Univ. of Okla. Southwestern Naturalist 27(4). 413-424.
  • Saiz, R. B. 1974. White Sands mysterious stranger. New Mexico Wildlife 19(5):8-11
  • Saiz, R. B 1975. Ecology and behavior of the gemsbok at White Sands Missile Ranger, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis, Colo. State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO.
  • Santos, Perseus F. and W.G. Whitford. 1983. The influence of Soil Biota on Decomposition of Plant Material in a Gypsum Dune Habitat. Southwestern Naturalist 28(4):423-427.
  • Santos, Perseus F. and W. G. Whitford. l983. Seasonal and Spatial Variation in the Soil Microarthropod Fauna of the White Sands National Monument. Southwestern Naturalist 28(4):417-421.
  • Schaffner, E. R. 1948. Flora of White Sands National Monument. M.S. Thesis, New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Schoenly, K., and W. Reid. 1983. Community structure of carrion arthropods in the Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Arid Envir. 6:253-263
  • Schoenly, K. G. and Reid, W. H. 1987. Dynamics of heterotrophic succession in carrion arthropod assemblages: Discrete series or a continuum of change? Oecalogia 73:192-202
  • Schoenly, K. and W. Reid. 1979. Granivore communities at White Sands National Monument. Abstract. J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 11:88
  • Shields, L. M. 1950. Leaf xeromorphology as related to physiological and structural influences. Bot. Rev. 16:399- 447.
  • Shields, L. M. 1951. Leaf xeromorphology in dicotyledon species from a gypsum sand deposit. Amer. Jour. Bot. 38:175-190.
  • Shields, L. M. 1953. Gross modifications in certain plant species tolerant of calcium sulfate dunes. Amer. Midl. Nat. 49:224-237.
  • Shields, L. M. 1953. Miracle of survival. New Mexico Magazine. April 1953.
  • Shields, L. M. 1953. Nitrogen sources of seed plants and environmental influences affecting the nitrogen supply. Botan. Rev. 19(6).
  • Shields, L. M. 1956. Vascular vegetation of a recent volcanic area in New Mexico. Ecology 37(2).
  • Shields, L. M. 1956. Zonation of vegetation within the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Southwest Natur. 1(2):49-68.
  • Shields, L. M. 1957. Alga and lichen stabilized surface crusts as soil nitrogen sources. Amer. Jour. Bot. 44(6):489-498.
  • Shields, L. M. 1958. Leaf Kjeldahl nitrogen in relation to leaf structure for plant species growing in a semi-arid recent volcanic area. Phytomorphology 8(3 & 4): 265-277.
  • Shields, L. M. 1962. Effects of nuclear testing on desert vegetation. Science 135 (3497):38-40.
  • Shields, L. M. and W. K. Mangum. 1954. Leaf Nitrogen of plants growing in a gypsum sand deposit. Phytomorphology. 4:27-38.
  • Smith, H. M. 1943. The White Sands earless lizard. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 23(30):339-344.
  • Spellenberg, R. and R. K. Delson. 1977. Aspects of reproduction in Chihuahuan Desert Nyctaginaceae. In, R. H. Wauer and D. H. Riskind (eds.) Trans. Sum. Biol. Resources of the Chih. Desert - U.S. and Mexico. U.S. Dept. of Interior. National Park Service Trans. and Proc. Series, Number Three. pp. 273-287.
  • Stroud, C. P. 1950. A survey of the insects of White Sands National Monument, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Amer. Midl. Natur. 44(3):659-677.
  • Turner, Dr. Paul. 1987. Ecology and Management needs of the White Sands Pupfish in the Tularosa Basin of New Mexico. Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Sciences. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Waterfall, U. T. 1946. Observations on the desert gypsum flora of southwest Texas and adjacent New Mexico. Amer. Midl. Nat. 36:456-466.
  • Wooton, E. O. and P. C. Standley. 1915. Flora of New Mexico. U.S. Natl. Mus., Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 19:1-753.
  • Worthington, R. D. 1976. Density estimates of two lizards in interdune habitat at White Sands National Monument. White Sands National Monument library.
  • York, J. C. and W. A. Dick-Peddie. 1969. Vegetation changes in southern New Mexico during the past hundred years. In, W. G. McGinnies and B. J. Goldman (eds.) Arid lands in perspective, Amer. Assoc. for the Adv. of Sci. and Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Conservation

  • Antevs, E. 1954. Climate of New Mexico during the last Glacio- Pluvial. Jour. Geol. 62:182-191.
  • Charles, T. 1939. White Sands National Monument, Alamogordo, New Mexico. U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, Berkeley, California.
  • Emerson, F. W. 1935. An Ecological reconnaissance in the White Sands, New Mexico. Ecology 16:226-233.
  • Schmidt, R. H., Jr. 1979. A climatic delineation of the "real" Chihuahuan Desert. J. Arid Envir. 2:243-250.

Geology

  • Amos, W. H. 1959. The life of a sand dune. Scientific American, July 1959.
  • Atkinson, R. 1977. White Sands, wind, sand, and time. Southwest Parks & Monuments Association.
  • Banghold, R. A. 1941. The physics of blown sand and desert dunes. 1971 Reprint. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Bath, G. D. 1977. Aeromagnetic maps with Geological interpretation for the Tularosa Valley, South-Central New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-258.
  • Bath, G. D., D. L. Healy, and L. S. Karably. 1977. Combined analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies at Tularosa Valley, New Mexico (abs.). Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs. with Programs, 9(1):3-4.
  • Belknap, W., Jr. 1957. New Mexico's great White Sands. National Geographic Magazine 90:113-137.
  • Darton, N. H. 1920. White Sands. U.S.G.S. Bull. 697:184-186.
  • Darton, N. H. 1928. Red Beds and associated formations in New Mexico, with an outline of the geology of the state. U.S.G.S. Bull. 794:59, 216-218.
  • Darton, N. H. 1940. The Tularosa Malpais. Sci. Monthly 50:419-424.
  • Dodge, N. N. 1971. The natural history of White Sands National Monument. Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, Globe, Arizona.
  • Dunham, K. C. 1935. The geology of the Organ Mountains. New Mexico School of Mines. State Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources Bulletin No. 11.
  • Ellis, R. W. 1935. Glaciation in New Mexico. Univ. of New Mexico Bull. No. 276. Geol. Series 5(1).
  • Fischer, H. 1967. The White Sands, The Gypscous Desert in New Mexico Populus-Monilifera-D. Naturwiss Rundsch 20(10):426- 432.
  • Free, E. E. 1912. An investigation of the Otero Basin, New Mexico, for potash salts. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Circular 61.
  • Fryberger, Steven G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Krystinik, Lee F. 1988. Stokes surfaces and the effects of near-surface groundwater-table on aeolean deposition. Sedimentology (1988)35,21-41.
  • Harrington, E. R. 1940. Valley of the sands. New Mexico Magazine XVIII(2):9-11.
  • Hendrickson, P. 1976. Lake Lucero. Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, Globe, Arizona.
  • Herrick, C. L. 1900. The geology of the White Sands of New Mexico. J. Geol. 8:112-128.
  • Herrick, H. N. 1904. Gypsum deposits in New Mexico. U.S.G.S. Bull. 223:98-99.
  • Huntington, E. 1914. White Sands. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publ. 192, pp. 37-42.
  • Jicha, Henry L., Jr. 1954. The White Sands - a short review in New Mexico. Geol. Soc. Guidebook of Southeastern New Mexico, Fifth Field Conference, p. 88-92.
  • Kottolowski, F. E. 1963. Palezoic and Mesozic strata of Southwestern and south-central New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Bull. 79.
  • Kottolowski, F. E., R. H. Flower, M. L. Thompson, and R. W. Foster. 1956. Stratigraphic studies of the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Memoir 1.
  • LeMone, D. V. White Sands National Monument. Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas-El Paso. El Paso, Texas.
  • Lindberg, J. D. and M. S. Smith. 1973. Reflectance spectra of gypsum sand from the White Sands National Monument and basalt from a nearby lava flow. Amer. Mineralogist 58:1062-1064.
  • Martinez, J. D. 1967. The relationship between optical orientation and shape anisotrophy in detrital gypsum grains. Geological Society of America.
  • McKee, E. D. 1966. Structures of dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico (and a comparison with structures of dunes from other selected areas). Sedimentology 7:1-69.
  • McKee, E. D. (ed.). 1979. A study of global sand seas. Geol. Survey Professional Paper 1052.
  • McKee, E. D. and J. R. Douglass. 1971. Growth and movement of dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. U.S. Geol. Survey Professional Paper 750-D, pages D108-114.
  • McKee, E. D. , J. R. Douglass and S. Rittenhouse. 1971. Deformation of lee-side laminae in eolian dunes. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 82(2):359-378.
  • McKee, E. D. and R. Moiola. 1976. Geometry and growth of the White Sands dune field, New Mexico. J. Res. U.S. Geol. Survey 3:59-66.
  • Meinzer, O. E. and R. F. Hare. 1915. Geology and water resources of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. U.S.G.S. Water Supply Paper 343.
  • Melbase, J. Report on the gypsum sands near Alamogordo, New Mexico, special report. White Sands National Monument library.
  • Neher, R. E. and O. F. Bailey. 1976. Soil Survey of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service. 1-64.
  • Pray, L. C. 1952. Stratigraphy and Structure of the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. PhD. disser., California Institute of Technology.
  • Pray, L. C. 1961. Geology of the Sacramento Mountains escarpment, Otero County, New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Bull. 35.
  • Reid, W. H. 1977. Letter: Research Natural Area recommendations for White Sands National Monument (to Supt. J. Thomson). White Sands National Monument files.
  • Ruhe, R. V. 1964. Landscape morphology and alluvial deposits in southern New Mexico. U.S. Soil Conservation Service.
  • Russell, C. P. 1935. The White Sands of Alamogordo. Natl. Geog. Mag. 68:250-264.
  • Simpson, Edward L. 1983. The geometry and structure of interdune deposits at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Graduate College of University of Nebraska.
  • Simpson, Edward L. and D. B. Loope. 1985. Amalgamated interdune deposits, White Sands, New Mexico. Dept. of Geology. University of Nebraska. Lincoln, Nebraska.
  • Talbot, G. 1931. Desert snow fields. New Mexico Highway Journal 9(6):18-20.
  • Tarr, R. S. 1891. A recent lava flow in New Mexico. Amer. Nat. 25:524-527.
  • Vandiver, V. 1936. White Sands geological report. Southwestern Monuments Special Report No. 3.
  • Vargas, R. L. 1969. Sea of Gypsum White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. U.S.A. Sand Study Plant Ecology Pac. Discovery 22(1):28-31.
  • Weber, R. and F. Kottlowski. 1959. Gypsum resources in New Mexico. Bulletin 68. State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources. Socorro, New Mexico.

Hydrology

  • Allmendinger, R. J. 1971. Hydrologic control over the origin of gypsum at Lake Lucero, White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. M.S. Thesis. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.
  • Allmendinger, R. J. and F. B. Titus. 1973. Regional hydrology and evaporative discharge as a present-day source of gypsum at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro.
  • Davis, L. V. and F. E. Busch. 1965. Summary of hydrologic investigations by the U.S. Geol. Survey at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. U.S.G.S. Open File Report n. NM115.
  • Davis, L. V. 1904. Lake Otero, an ancient salt lake basin in southeastern New Mexico. Am. Geol. 34:174-189.
  • Hood, J. W. 1959. Ground water in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Roswell Geological Society Guidebook of the Sacramento Mountains. pp. 236-250.
  • Kottolowski, F. E. 1958. Lake Otero - second stage in the formation of New Mexico's White Sands. Geol. Soc. of Am. Bull. 69:1733-1734. (Abstr.)
  • McLean, J. S. 1970. Saline ground water resources of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Office of Saline Water, Research and Development Progress Report n. 561.
  • Sakai, H., O. Matsubaya and S. S. Shannon. 1976. Interpretation of the regimen of ephemeral gypsiferous lakes in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico, using 34S/32S, 180/160, and D/H ratios. Paper presented at International Geol. Congress in Sydney, Australia in August 1976.
  • Sprester, F. R. 1980. Hydrologic evaluation of Garton Lake, White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. White Sands National Monument library.

Management

  • Bureau of Land Management. 1985. White Sands resource area final resource management plan environmental impact statement. Las Cruces district office, New Mexico.
  • Clifton, Donald E. 1985. Preliminary Testing on six White Sands Missile Range and White Sands National Monument "sites", Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Office of Installation Support, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.
  • Pinto, O. M., J. M. Lenko and A. N. Johnson. 1975. Draft environmental impact statement - White Sands Missile Range interaction with White Sands National Monument. U.S. Army, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.
  • Potter, F. C. 1938. The origin of the White Sands and proposed museum exhibits. White Sands National Monument, NM.
  • Toll, R. W. White Sands National Monument, feasibility report. White Sands National Monument library.
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1986, 1987. Final Environmental Impact Statement of the proposed ground based free electron laser technology integration experiment. White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

Last Updated: Wednesday, December 22, 2004

Did You Know?

Photo of kangaroo rat

Because there is virtually no fresh water within the White sands dunefield, animals that live in the dunes must get almost all their water solely from the food they eat. Desert animals have evolved many ways of conserving moisture. The kangaroo rat eats only dry seeds and never drinks water.