• bible sitting next to a teapot

    Whitman Mission

    National Historic Site Washington

Endnotes: Chapter Six

1-9

1. "Interpretive Statement, Whitman Master Plan," Memorandum, p. 1, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Statement 1941, 1947," WHMI.

2. Supervisor of Historic Sites to Regional Director, 28 March 1941, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Statement 1941, 1947," WHMI.

3. Shortly after Marcus Whitman's death, William H. Gray, Henry Spalding and others promulgated the idea that Whitman rode east in 1843 with the sole purpose to convince the President that Oregon should belong to the U. S.; that, in fact, Whitman "saved" Oregon from Britain. See Drury, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, Vol. II for a complete history of this controversy.

4. "Interpretive Statement, Whitman Mission National Monument," Memorandum, P. 2, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Statement 1941, 1947," WHMI.

5. "Whitman National Monument Monthly Report," April 1942, Archives, File "A2615, MAR 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

6. Regional Director by Acting Regional Director to Superintendent MR, 13 July 1942, Archives, File "A26, The War Years 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

7. Ibid.

8. "Whitman National Monument Monthly Report," December 1942, Archives, File "A2615, MAR 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

9. Thomas R. Garth, "Museum Prospectus and Exhibit Plan," 1943, pp. 8 - 25, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Prospectus by Garth 1943," WHMI. The exhibit plans included: "The Original Inhabitants were Indians," "The Newcomers," "When Fur was King," "Christianity Comes West," "West to Oregon," "Home Life on the Mission Frontier," "Indian School at the Mission," "Whitman Returns East," "First Wagon Train to Reach Oregon," "Waiilatpu and the Oregon Trail," "The Settlement of Oregon," "The Whitman Massacre," "A Century After."

 

10-19

10. Superintendent MR to Regional Director, 2 April 1943, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

11. Garth, "Museum Prospectus," p. 2.

12. Superintendent MR to Custodian WNM, 11 August 1947, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

13. "Whitman National Monument Interpretive Statement," Memorandum, p. 1, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Statement 1941, 1947," WHMI.

14. Superintendent MR to Superintendent WNM, 26 August 1952, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

15. Regional Naturalist to Superintendent MR, 9 September 1952, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

16. Superintendent WNM to Superintendent MR, 21 September 1952, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

17. Regional Naturalist to Director, 8 October 1952, Archives, File "D6215, Museum Exhibits 1941 - 1953," WHMI.

18. Superintendent WNM to Superintendent MR, 16 November 1953, Archives, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits 1955 - 1961," WHMI.

19. "Master Plan Development Outline, Whitman National Monument, Interpretation," Memorandum, 28 may 1953, p. 1, Archives, File "D18, Master Plans 1954," WHMI.

 

20-29

20. Superintendent WNM to Superintendent MR, 16 November 1953, Archives, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits 1955 - 1961," WHMI.

21. Superintendent WNM to Superintendent MR, 15 May 1955, Archives, File "A2615, MAR 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

22. Jack Farr and Dr. Robert L. Whitner, "Museum Prospectus for Whitman National Monument," 1959, p. 3, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Prospectus 1959," WHMI.

23. Acting Regional Director to Director, 19 April 1960, Archives, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits 1955 - 1961," WHMI.

24. Ibid.

25. "Master Plan for Whitman National Monument," Mission 66 Edition, 1959, revised 1960, Archives, File "D18, Master Plans 1960 - 1962," WHMI.

26. Ibid., Vol. I, chapter 3, p. 4.

27. Erwin N. Thompson, "Interpretive Prospectus for Whitman National Monument," 1959,, revised August 1960, p. 4, Archives, File "K1817, Interpretive Prospectus 1960," WHMI.

28. Ibid., p. 62.

29. Ibid., p. 4.

 

30-39

30. Historian Whitman Mission to Superintendent Whitman Mission, 14 July 1962, Archives, File "A2615, MAR 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

31. "Annual Report on Information and Interpretive Services," Memorandum, 1982, Archives, File "A2615, MAR 1941 - 1962," WHMI.

32. Leland J. Abel and Floyd A. LaFayette, "Whitman National Monument Visitor Center Exhibit Plan," Archives, File "D6215, Visitor Center Exhibit Plan 1961 - 1962," WHMI.

33. Museum exhibits included: "Before the Missionaries," "Relics Found in Ruins of Whitman Mission," "American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions," "We Want You for Oregon," "The Call From the West," "Those Who Answered the Call," "The Trip West," "A Father's house Indeed," "The Cayuse Indians," "Indians of the Plateau," "Reinforcements for Oregon," "Missions in Oregon," "The Place of the Rye Grass," "Developments at Waiilatpu," "Marcus and Narcissa," "The Mission Children," "The Ride East," "The Oregon Trail," "The Gathering Storm," the massacre diorama, "Events that Followed," "Time and Distance."

34. Abel and LaFayette, "Exhibit Plan," p. 1.

35. The Oregonian, 27 June 1965, Archives, File "K34, Press Clippings 1963 - 1966," WHMI.

36. The September and October Monthly Reports from 1941 - 1966 mention the annual visit of the Whitman College freshmen class. 1967 marked the end of this tradition. During this same time period, Whitman College History Professor, Dr. G. Thomas Edwards remembers students reflecting anti-Vietnam War sentiment and denouncing the Whitmans. G. Thomas Edwards, "The Marcus Whitman Legacy and Whitman College Leaders," Paper presented at Missionary Influences on Northwest History Conference, Walla Walla, Washington, 23 - 27 July 1986; revised 1987, p. 7.

37. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 21 August 1973, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Wayside Exhibit Plan 1964 - 1978," WHMI. Superintendent Kowalkowski's comment that settlers would have come without the Whitmans further indicates the shift away from the earlier interpretation which credited the Whitmans with westward expansion.

38. Walla Walla Union-Bulletin, 23 February 1975, Archives, File "K34, Press Clippings 1974 - 1975," WHMI. Visitation from 1965 - 1973 fluctuated greatly with a decrease of 10,000 visitors from 1966 - 1967 and an increase of 10,000 from 1972 - 1973.

39. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 18 April 1975, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975," WHMI.

 

40-49

40. Raymond Stickler, "Whitman Mission National Historic Site Management Objectives," Memorandum, February 1971, p. 6, Archives, File "D18, Statements for Management," WHMI.

41. "Master Plan," 1959, revised 1964, chapter 3, section 2, p. 3, Archives, File "D18, Master Plan and Planning Program 1963 - 1964," WHMI.

42. Acting Superintendent Whitman Mission to Director, 28 June 1972, Archives, File "K18, Interpretive Activities 1973 - 1982," WHMI.

43. Reference to Director Hartzog's April 26, 1972 memorandum located in Acting Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 28 June 1972, Archives, File "K18, Interpretive Activities 1973 - 1982," WHMI.

44. Ibid.

45. Acting Superintendent Whitman Mission to Director, 31 July 1972, Archives, File "K18, Interpretive Activities 1973 - 1982," WHMI.

46. "A Proposal and Exhibit Design Directive for the Whitman Mission Visitor Center," Memorandum, 30 July 1973, pp. 2 - 3, Archives, File "D6215, Wayside Exhibit Plans 1964 - 1978," WHMI.

47. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 21 August 1973, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Wayside Exhibit Plan 1964 - 1978," WHMI.

48. Ibid.

49. "A Proposal and Exhibit Design Directive for the Whitman Mission Visitor Center," Memorandum, 30 July 1973, Archives, File "D6215, Wayside Exhibit Plan 1964 - 1978," WHMI.

 

50-59

50. "Comprehensive Exhibit Plan," Memorandum, June 1974, Working Files, File "ID (2) Museum Revisions 1980," WHMI.

51. "Whitman Mission National Historic Site Exhibit Plan," March 1975, p. 1, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975," WHMI.

52. Ibid.

53. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 18 April 1975, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975," WHMI.

54. Ibid.

55. Acting Regional Director to Manager Harpers Ferry Center, 13 May 1975, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975, WHMI.

56. "Whitman Mission National Historic Site Exhibit Plan," March 1975; revised 14 August 1975; 4 March 1976, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975," WHMI.

57. Ibid., p. 3.

58. Ibid., p. 9.

59. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 5 May 1976, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Exhibit Plan 1975," WHMI.

 

60-69

60. Ibid.

61. Acting Associate Regional Director, Management an Operations to Manager Harpers Ferry Center, 24 June 1976, Working Files, File "ID (7) Proposed Museum Changes," WHMI.

62. "Whitman Mission National Historic Site Sound/Slide Script," Memorandum, 13 January 1977; revised 7 February 1977; 22 March 1977, Working Files, File "Museum Replace," WHMI.

63. Kowalkowski, interview, 2 December 1987.

64. "Statement for Native American Cultural Interpretation," Draft, 3 July 1979, Archives, File "K18, Interpretation 1978 - 1979," WHMI.

65. Tom Jenness Coulee Dam to Dave McGinnis, 1 August 1980, Archives, File "K18, Interpretive Activities 1973 - 1982," WHMI.

66. Regional Director to Manager Harpers Ferry Center, 1 November 1983, Working Files, File "Museum Rehabilitation 11-3-83," WHMI.

67. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Manager Harpers Ferry Center, 3 October 1983, Central Files, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits 1983," WHMI.

68. Ibid.

69. Regional Director to Manager Harpers Ferry Center, 1 November 1983, Working Files, File "Museum Rehabilitation 11-3-83," WHMI.

 

70-78

70. Staff Curator Division of Exhibit Planning and Design, Harpers Ferry Center to Superintendent Whitman Mission, 10 July 1984, Working Files, File "Museum Replace," WHMI.

71. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Deputy Regional Director, 11 December 1984, Working Files, File "Museum Replace," WHMI.

72. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 5 March 1985, Working Files, File "Museum Replace," WHMI.

73. "1982 Annual Statement for Interpretive and Visitor Services Whitman Mission National Historic Site," p. 19, Archives File "K1817, Statement for Interpretation 1981 - 1982," WHMI.

74. "Whitman Mission National Historic Site Visitor Center Exhibits," May 1985; revised 8 July 1986, p. 33, (Memeographed.)

75. Regional Curator to Deputy Regional Director, 13 July 1987, Central Files, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits," WHMI.

76. Interpretive Specialist Pacific Northwest Region to Deputy Regional Director, 23 July 1987, Central Files, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits," WHMI.

77. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 23 July 1987, Central Files, File "D6215, Planning Preparation Maintenance Preservation of Museum Exhibits," WHMI.

78. Superintendent Whitman Mission to Regional Director, 30 November 1976, Archives, File "D6215, Whitman Mission Wayside Exhibit Plan 1964 - 1978," WHMI.

Did You Know?

Oregon Trail Wagon

Wagons used on the Oregon Trail had to carry nearly 2000 pounds of supplies. They traveled 2000 miles or more to the Oregon Country. Most wagons were pulled by oxen as they could eat the prairie grass and survive without lots of food for lengthy periods.