OverviewIn "The Bean Lab", students will compare how native food plants grow at three culturally historic places near Flagstaff, Arizona. Students will plant and grow Hopi Black Beans in three different soil types taken from areas near Walnut Canyon National Monument, Wupatki National Monument, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. All materials will be supplied to interested teachers.
Guiding Question: How does the soil type at Walnut Canyon, Wupatki, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monuments affect the growth rate of the Hopi Black Bean?
Critical Content: Learn how the three geologically different areas affected farming by the Ancestral Puebloans.
Students will …
- develop an experimental hypothesis based on observations and background information
- carry out an inquiry experiment, and collect qualitative and quantitative data
- reflect on their predictions compared to experimental outcome
- reflect on the impacts that abiotic factors (soil type) has on the growth rate of native plants
The purpose of this lesson is to provide a hands-on inquiry lesson focused on comparing how native food plants grow at three culturally historic places near Flagstaff, Arizona. Students will plant and grow Hopi Black Beans in three different soil types taken from areas near Walnut Canyon National Monument, Wupatki National Monument, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. Students will take qualitative and quantitative data on the growth rates and productivity of each soil sample, and compare that to the history of farming in each monument, and the cultures that lived there.
This lesson is designed to be a multi-week lesson, with only a small portion of each day actually dedicated to taking data. There are three major learning events within this lesson: 1) The background and setup of the lab; 2) The collection of data and observations; 3) A discussion and reflection on the results.
Schools Residing in Arizona:
We are able to provide the list of materials from the “Classroom Materials Kit” to you at your classroom via mail or if you reside near the Flagstaff Area National Monuments headquarters office you are welcome to come pick it up in person. Please contact Holly Richards at Wupatki National Monument (928) 679-2365, or by email at Holly_Richards@nps.gov to make arrangements.
Schools Outside Arizona:
Unfortunately, due to Department of Agriculture restrictions in each state, we are unable to mail any organic lab materials outside the state of Arizona. We are happy to send the rest of the kit to your classroom, and provide directions for adapting this lesson to fit your class and area. The Hopi Black Beans may be purchased commercially; however, obtaining the soil for your area may require a little more creativity.
Suggested Modification: It is suggested to contact one of the commercial soil distributors or quarries in your state, and find out if they carry any soils similar to our three monuments in Arizona. Walnut Canyon soil is Limestone derived, Wupatki is derived from eroded Moenkopi Formation (in a pinch you could use a soil derived from red sandstone), and Sunset Crater's soil is actually small sized black cinders ~ 6mm or less, the smaller the better.
Classroom Materials Kit: (Set for 35 students)
- 35 (5oz) clear plastic cups (1 per student)
- 10 plastic spoons (approx. 5 mL each)
- 70 Hopi Black Beans (2 beans per cup)
- Approximately 4 cups or 946 grams Walnut Soil
- Approximately 4 cups or 946 grams Wupatki Soil
- Approximately 4 cups or 946 grams Sunset Soil
- Needle or pin to puncture the bottom of each cup (3 holes in the center of the cups
- Sunlight/Solar Plant Lab with UV lights?
- Marker or Sharpie for labeling
- Trays for placing cups and water drainage
Before Getting Started:
- Double check that you have all materials.
- Photo copy:
- Background Information (1 per student)
- Bean Lab Setup Worksheet (1 per lab group)
- Bean Lab Data Recording Sheet (1 per student)
- Bean Lab Summary Sheet (1 per student)
Background information. As a class, read about the Ancestral Puebloans who lived near or around Sunset Crater Volcano, Wupatki, and Walnut Canyon (see appendix). What is the climate around Arizona? What was grown?
Divide the class into three equal groups, one for each monument. Have each group observe what they notice about the soil from around their monument, and draw or record their qualitative observations in their Lab Journals. Each group should also read about the monument itself, and the people who farmed in their monuments' area, then as a group, whiteboard what they learned. Each group should then share their information with their class.
Hypothesis. Have each student hypothesize which soil would grown the tallest beans in the shortest amount of time, and support their hypothesis with the information and observations they have made during the background steps.
Set up. It is suggested that each teacher moisten the soil the night before the lab to help the soil absorb the water for the students (hydrophobic reaction). Divide the class into smaller lab groups for setting up their lab and use of materials. The lab groups can be divided in a variety of different ways, and how is left to the discretion of the teacher. It is suggested to divide the groups by soil type to prevent soil mixing and material conservation. Give the students the "Bean Lab Setup Worksheet" (see materials section) and have them work as groups to setup their lab. Each group should also be given a lab tray to place their finished bean cups on an area either near a window for sunlight or under a plant UV light.
Data/Measurements. Have the students record their first day data on their "Dara Recording Sheet" (see materials section). Each student should record how much water they used (milliliters is suggested), if there is any growth, how much growth and if they see any leaves each day. Repeat this for as long as you run the experiment. Make sure to account for weekend on your Day #.
The length of this lab is suggest to be 3 weeks long, but is left to the discretion of the teacher and the school's available time. At the end of the lab, the class should come together to compile the data and evaluate what the data means. There is a suggested "Lab Summary Sheet" in the materials section for student reflection and assessment.
Have the students reflect on how the different soil types would have affected life at each monument.
Other Observations. Students may notice that water condenses on the sides of the cup each day, or how the roots grow. Other observations may include noting which soils take longer to absorb the water, and which soils have other organisms in them.
The assessment for this lab has room for adaptation and modification. This particular lesson involves a prediction and outcome analysis and reflection on results by the students. Students will use the questions at the back of their Data Lab Journals to reflect on what they observed and expected. Please see the attached Data Lab Journal in the appendix. Teachers for this grade ranger may also consider using the "Bean Lab Summary Sheet" in the grades 5-8 materials.
It is suggested that classes visit one of the 3 monuments and compare what they saw in the lab to what they can see at the monument itself. Students can compare the soil they saw in class to what is around them at the monument. They can predict what vegetation they could see before their visit, and then compare it to what they actually see. There are many resources available at the monument, which may be made available for your visit.
Wupatki National Monument has its own vegetable garden for visitors to see. Students could compare what they see to what they saw in the lab, and then talk to a Park Guide to understand how the park compensates for the growing conditions at the park today.
Walnut Canyon National Monument is a great place to see how water was transported and moved over hazardous terrain, by imagining people climbing ladders and canyon walls while carrying large ceramic jars. You could have the students draw what they think life would have been like here, or make a storyboard.
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is a great place to see how natural disasters caused people to move and adapt. Check out a lava flow and see which plants have come back and taken root out of the lava flows.
- Testing and finding a correlation between the soil's pH and permeability.
- Soil nutrient rehabilitation. Students could use Miracle Grow to see how that affects the growth rates.
- Different water sources.
- Vary the water amounts used to grow the beans.
- Start a class garden.
- Maintain the beans, and see how long they last.
- Maintain the beans, and learn how to cook with them.
This lesson plan was developed by high school teacher Amanda Stalvey, as part of the Teacher-Ranger-Teacher program.