• Voyageurs NP Winter Black Bay Frozen Beaver Pond

    Voyageurs

    National Park Minnesota

Voyageurs

Voyageurs passing a waterfall

Artist Frances Anne Hopkins, 1869

National Archives of Canada

The earliest European exploration of this area is believed to have occurred about 1688 when French explorer Jacues de Noyon wintered along the Rainy River.

The European demand for beaver pelts brought fur traders into the region. The voyageurs paddled large birch bark canoes carrying trade goods and furs between the Canadian northwest and Montreal. The voyageurs were prompted by competition over the diminishing supply of furs in the east, and were the first Europeans to explore the northwest territory and to engage the indigenous peoples in the trade of furs on a commercial scale.

The Cree, Monsoni, and Assiniboin tribes were the primary inhabitants of the region at the time of initial European contact. However, by the mid-18th century they had largely abandoned the Rainy Lake area, leaving the region open for settlement by the Ojibwe.

By 1780 the Ojibwe had become the primary residents of the border lakes region, and they played a key role in commerce as suppliers of food, furs, and canoes. They were also guides during the fur trade, their intimate knowledge of the geography and resources was crucial to the European fur traders.

For more detailed information, see the following articles:

Special History: The Environment and the Fur Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park, 1730-1870

From Things Left Behind: A Study of Selected Fur Trade Sites and Artifacts, Voyageurs National Park and Environs

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