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    Valley Forge

    National Historical Park Pennsylvania

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Notes

Preface


1. David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1985), P. 26.

2. Ibid., p. 328.

3. Michael Kammen, A Season of Youth: The American Revolution and the Historical Imagination (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1978), p. 7

4. Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country, p. 353.

5. Ada Louise Huxtable, "Inventing American Reality," New York Review of Books, December 3, 1992, p. 24.

6. Michael Wallace, "Visiting the Past: History Museums in the United States," Radical History Review 25 (1981), 80.

7. Patricia Mooney-Melvin, "Harnessing the Romance of the Past: Preservation, Tourism, and History," The Public Historian 13 (Spring 1991), 46.

 
Chapter 1: The First Hundred Years at Valley Forge

1. John Fanning Watson, "Trip to Valley Forge and the Camp Hills," July 1828, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), pp. 42, 49, 51, 53.

6. Watson, "Trip to Valley Forge."

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. Anne F Rhoads, Douglas Ryan, and Ella W. Aderman, Land Use Study of Valley Forge National Historical Park (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1989 [internally distributed]), pp. i, 185—186.

10. James Kurtz Archaeological Inventory and Assessment: The Westeen Portion (Washington, D.C.: U S Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, 1990), pp. 17—23. In describing the industrial village of Valley Forge in the late nineteenth century, I paraphrase the 1987—1988 draft that drew on historical records, interviews, surface reconnaissance, and subsurface testing.

11. Henry Woodman, The History of Valley Forge (reprint ed., Oaks, Pa.: John Francis Sr., 1921), pp. 87—88, 96.

12. Jacqueline Thibaut, In the True Rustic Order: Historic Resource Study and Historical Base Maps of the Valley Forge Encampment, 1777—1779, vol. 3 of Valley Forge Report, ed. Wayne K. Bodle and Jacqueline Thibaut (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1980—82), p. 67.

13 Theodore W Bean, The History of Montgomery County (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1884), pp. 1123—1124.

14. Rhoads, Ryan, and Aderman, Land Use Study, pp. 187—188.

15. Enos Reeves, "Extracts from the Letter-Books of Lieutenant Enos Reeves," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 21(1897), 235.

16. Kurtz Archaeological Inventory, pp. 26—29, 168, 172.

17. Ibid., pp. 30—31, 49, 232.

18. Harlan D. Unrau, Administrative History of Valley Forge National Historical Park (Denver, Colo.: Denver Service Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1984 [internally distributed]), p. 20.

19. Kurtz Archaeological Inventory, p. 31.

20. Caleb Jones to Hannah Ogden, March 2, 1837, John Reed Collection, Record Group 10, Valley Forge National Historical Park (hereafter referred to as VFNHP), Valley Forge, Pa.

21. John F. Reed, "Vision at Valley Forge," Bulletin of the Montgomery County Historical Society 15 (Fall 1966), 28.

22. "Preamble and Constitution of the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests," Philadelphia, 1826, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

23. William Maclure to Mary D. Fretogeot, July 31, 1826, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

24. Arthur Eugene Bettor Jr., Backwoods Utopias: The Sectarian and Owenite Phases of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663—1 828 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950), p. 203.

25. Watson, "Trip to Valley Forge."

26. "Harvest Home Meeting of Chester and Montgomery Counties at the Valley Forge Encampment Ground," July 26, 1828, Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pa.

27. Ibid.

28. Daniel Webster, The Works of Daniel Webster, vol. 2 (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), p. 277.

29. "Harvest Home Meeting."

30. Webster, Works, pp. 278—279.

31. Isaac A. Pennypacker to John Fanning Watson, April 2, 1844, Supplement to Watson's Annals, AM3011, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

32. Woodman, History of Valley Forge, pp. 49—51, 67, 163—165. Woodman gives George Weedon's name as Joseph Wheedon.

33. Ibid., pp. 126—127.

34. George Washington, The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, vol. 5 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), p. 179.

35 Woodman, History of Valley Forge, pp. 54—56, 63, 100—101, 145.

36. Ibid., p. 91.

37. Ibid., pp. 27—28, 103—104.

38. Ibid., p. 104

39. Ibid., p. 153.

40. Benson J. Lossing, Washington: A Biography (New York: Virtue Emmens & Co., 1860), p. 571.

41. Daily Local News (West Chester, Pa., here and hereafter), April 3, 1873.

42. Daily Local News, June 4, 1873.

43. Daily Local News, August 6, 1873.

44. Karal Ann Marling, George Washington Slept Here: Colonial Revivals and American Culture, 1876—1986 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 25.

45. Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, pp. 217—225, Wallace, "Visiting the Past," pp. 66—67.

46. Daily Local News, July 26, 1873.

47. Theodore W. Bean, Washington at Valley Forge One Hundred Years Ago, or, The Foot-Prints of the Revolution (Norristown, Pa., 1876), p. 1.

48. Ibid., pp. 54—61.

49. Daily Local News, November 13, 1873.

50. George Washington to John Banister, April 21, 1778, in The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745—1799, vol. 11, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934), pp. 284—293.

51. George Washington Parke Custis, Recollections and Private Memoirs of George Washington by His Adopted Son (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1860), pp. 208—209.

52. Daniel Webster, Works, p. 279.

53. Watson, "Trip to Valley Forge.

54. Woodman, History of Valley Forge, p. 62.

55. Watson, "Trip to Valley Forge."

56. The Casket, April 1830.

57. William Perrine, "Washington's Christmas at Valley Forge,"' Ladies' Home Journal, December 1898, p. 7.

58. Marling, George Washington Slept Here, pp 4—8

59. Woodman, History of Valley Forge, p. 65.

60. Parke Custis, Memoirs of Washington, p. 275n, Lossing, Washington, p. 602n.

61. Bean, Washington at Valley Forge, p. 3.

62. Mrs. (Isabella) Thomas Potts James, Memorial of Thomas Potts (Cambridge, Mass., 1874), pp. 222—223.

63. William Cox Ewing, "Valley Forge Revisited" (1904), in George Ewing: Gentleman and Soldier of Valley Forge, ed. Thomas Ewing (Yonkers, N.Y. , 1928), p. 58, W. H. Richardson, "Valley Forge," New England Magazine 23 (February 1901), 607.

64. Daily Local News, July 26, 1875.

65. Woodman, History of Valley Forge, p. 101.

66. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 60—61.

67. "Inexpensive Trips Within Easy Reach," Philadelphia Bulletin, June 13, 1904.

68. Nathan Jones to "Dear Nephew," August 8, 1890, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

69. Howard DeHaven Ross, History of the DeHaven Family (New York: Pandick Press, 1929), pp. 9-13. This is the fourth edition of this work, the publication date of the first edition is unknown, but the second edition was published in 1895.

70. New York Times, May 27, 1990.

71. Daily Local News, June 27, 1878.

 
Chapter 2: The Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley Forge

1. Daily Local News, December 22, 1877.

2. Daily Local News, January 9, 1878.

3. Daily Local News, February 9, 1878.

4. H. J. Stager, History of the Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley Forge (n.p., 1911), p. 98.

5. Marling, George Washington Slept Here, p. 73.

6. Wallace, "Visiting the Past," pp. 64—65.

7. Marling, George Washington Slept Here, p. 74.

8. Judith Mitchell, "Ann Pamela Cunningham and Mount Vernon: A Southern Matron's Legacy" (Paper presented at the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the National Council of Public History, Valley Forge, Pa., April 29-May 2, 1993).

9. John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd, Historic Structure Report: Washington's Headquarters (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1981), pp. 1, 5, 17—20. (Hereafter cited as Washington's Headquarters.)

10. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 82.

11. Mitchell, "Ann Pamela Cunningham and Mount Vernon."

12. Marling, George Washington Slept Here, p. 44.

13. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 18—20.

14. Marling, George Washington Slept Here, pp. 78—79.

15. Barbara McDonald Powell, "The Most Celebrated Encampment: Valley Forge in American Culture, 1777—1983" (Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1983), p. 61.

16. Daily Local News, March 18, 1878.

17. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 82.

18. Daily Local News, May 24, 1878.

19. Daily Local News, June 5, 1878.

20. Daily Local News, May 31, 1878.

21. Daily Local News, June 8, 1878.

22. Daily Local News, June 4,1878.

23. "Final Arrangements for the Valley Forge Centennial," Philadelphia Times, June 18, 1878

24. "Program for the First Centenary," in file marked "Valley Forge Centennial and Memorial Association Proceedings, 1879" at Chester County Historical Society.

25. Proceedings on the Occasion of the Centennial Celebration of the Occupation of Valley Forge by the Continental Army Under George Washington, June 1878 (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1879), pp. 3—4, in ibid.

26. Ibid., pp 7—8.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid., pp 38—39.

29. Ibid., pp. 57—61.

30. Valley Forge Oration of Henry Armitt Brown (Philadelphia: Loughead & Co , 1895), in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

31. Ibid.

32. Anna Morrs Holstein to Francis M. Brooke, June 26, 1878, Francis M. Brooke Collection, Record Group 12, VFNHP.

33. "Woman's Work at Valley Forge," Daily Local News, June 24, 1878.

34. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 11.

35. Ibid., p. 84.

37. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 16, 218.

38. Daily Local News, May 22, 1879.

39. Daily Local News, June 4, 1879.

40. Daily Local News, June 19, 1879.

41. Daily Local News, June 20, 1879.

42. Ibid.

43. Daily Local News, June 21, 1879.

44. Daily Local News, June 25, 1879.

45. Daily Local News, December 9, 1878.

46. Daily Local News, October 30, 1885.

47. Village Record, July 11, 1882.

48. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 99-100.

49. Pamphlet printed by Patriotic Order Sons of America, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

50. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 227.

51. Ibid.

52. Daily Local News, May 22, 1886, and May 31, 1886.

53. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 107—108.

54. Ibid., p. 227.

55. Ibid., p. 228.

56. Daily Local News, April 8, 1887.

57. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 219.

58. Daily Local News, August 27, 1887.

59. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, pp. 32—33, 64, 79.

60. Daily Local News, May 29, 1888.

61. "Washington's Headquarters," June 1891, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

62. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, p. 100.

63. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 136, 146.

64. Daily Local News, June 24, 1907. The Washington Elm was identified by a marker now in the collections of Valley Forge National Historical Park.

65. Anna Morrs Holstein to Mrs. James, July 12, 1887, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

66. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 147.

67. "The Valley Forge Reservation," in Historical Sketches, A Collection of Papers Prepared for the Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, vol. 5. (Norristown, Pa., 1925), p. 378, Unrau, Administrative History, p. 59.

68. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 113—114, 218.

69. Anna Morrs Holstein to Mrs. James, July 12, 1887.

70. Daily Local News, April 24, 1888.

71. Anna Morris Holstein to F. D. Stone, June 18, 1892, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

72. Mary T. McInnes, History of the Valley Forge Chapter, National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution (1944).

73. Ibid.

74. Minutes of the Valley Forge Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, October 1, 1900, Valley Forge Chapter, DAR, Norristown, Pa.

75. Ibid., April 5, 1901.

76. Ibid., October 1, 1901

77. Ibid., April 2, 1900, and October 1, 1900.

78. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 154.

79. Daily Local News, June 19, 1908.

80. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 155.

81. "Catalog of Historic Articles and Relics in the Room Furnished by the Merion Chapter, DAR, p. 7, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

82. William Cox Ewing, "Valley Forge Revisited," p. 64.

83. Kurtz Archaeological Inventory, pp. 46, 274.

84. William H. Sayer, "Valley Forge Park," Bulletin of the Montgomery County Historical Society 21 (Fall 1978), 222—223.

85. "A Deserted Village," Philadelphia Press, September 8,1895.

86. Clifton Johnson, "Midwinter at Valley Forge," Women's Home Companion, January 1902, p. 9.

87. Ibid.

88. Daily Local News, June 20, 1887.

89. Daily Local News, June 20, 1890.

90. American Republican, January 2, 1903.

91. Daily Local News, September 29, 1881

92. Daily Local News, October 18, 1890.

93. Daily Local News, June 22, 1900.

94. William M. Stephens, "Burial Places of the Soldiers at Valley Forge," Bulletin of the Montgomery County Historical Society 3 (April 1942), 155.

95. Norristown Times Herald, June 1, 1896. No modern evidence substantiates the presence of a vast number of graves in this area.

96. Daily Local News, April 30, 1902.

97. Norristown Times Herald, May 25, 1896.

98. Ado. Latch to Francis M. Brooke, January 14, 1898, Brooke Collection, VFNHP. No modem evidence substantiates the presence of a vast number of graves in this area either.

99. "A Deserted Village,'" Philadelphia Press, September 8, 1895.

100. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 16.

101. Anna Morris Holstein to F. D. Stone, December 29, 1891, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

102. Anna Morris Holstein to F. D. Stone, June 12, 1892, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

103. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 16.

104. Daily Local News, March 21, 1890.

105. "To Form a National Park," Daily Local News, December 5, 1889.

106. J. F. Seiders, Thirty Ancestors of Richard Henry Koch (Pottsville, Pa., 1939), p. 297.

107. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 135, 143—144.

108. Ibid., p. 135.

109. Anna Morris Holstein to F. D. Stone, June 21, 1892, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

110. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 139.

111. Ibid., p. 160.

 
Chapter 3: A Rocky Beginning for the Valley Forge Park Commission

1. Phoenixville Messenger, July 15, 1882.

2. Phoenixville Messenger, July 22, 1882.

3. Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, pp. 33, 66, 115—166.

4. Phoenixville Messenger, December 23, 1882.

5. Daily Local News, June 22, 1883. Other newspapers sometimes refer to the "Valley Forge Monument Association."

6. W. Herbert Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide to Valley Forge (Norristown, Pa., 1906), p. 84.

7. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 123.

8. Daily Local News, August 12, 1891.

9. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, October 1, 1899, Record Group 46 (micro film), VFNHP.

10. Ibid., June 17, 1893.

11. Sayer, "Valley Forge Park," p. 216.

12. Francis M. Brooke to Frederick D. Stone, October 26, 1893, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, Pa.

13. Sayer, "Valley Forge Park," p. 206.

14. Editor, "Notes and Queries," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 18 (1894), 384.

15. "Address of Samuel W. Pennypacker to the Patriotic Order Sons of America, 18 June 1898," Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

16. Thibaut, In the True Rustic Order, vol. 3 of Valley Forge Report, pp. 14—17

17. Records of the Valley Forge Pack Commission, July 6, 1893, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

18. Daily Local News, August 12, 1891.

19. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 7, 1893, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

20. "Valley Forge Land Values," Daily Local News, January 30, 1894.

21. "President's Report of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 1 February 1894," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

22. Daily Local News, April 21, 1894.

23. Daily Local News, May 5,1894

24. Daily Local News, May 23, 1894.

25. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, October 18, 1894, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

26. "Valley Forge Land Values," Daily Local News, October 23, 1894.

27. "President's Report of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 1 November 1894," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

28. "President's Report of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 22 March 1895," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

29. "Valley Forge Park," Daily Local News, June 6, 1895.

30. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 17, 1896, p. 16.

31. Francis M. Brooke, To the Senators and Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, February 22, 1897 (Valley Forge, Pa., 1897), p. 8, Brooke Collection, VFNHP.

32. Secretary of the Park Commission to "Dear Senator," March 6, 1899, Record Group 46, Carson #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

33. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 27, 1900, pp 21—22

34. Daily Local News, October 18, 1901.

35. Woodman, History of Valley Forge, p. 72.

36. Thibaut, In the True Rustic Order, p. 118.

37. "Sullivan's Bridge Monument," in Historical Sketches, 4:31, 41—42.

38. Daily Local News, April 21, 1894.

39. "For Valley Forge," Daily Local News, May 25, 1895.

40. Daniel Hastings to Francis M. Brooke, November 18, 1895, Brooke Collection, VFNHP.

41. "Report on the Waterman Monument," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

42. Brooke, To the Senators and Representatives, pp. 7—8.

43. John Faber Miller, counsel for W. M. Stephens, to Francis M. Brooke, December 29, 1897, Brooke Collection, VFNHP.

44. William F. Solly to Francis M. Brooke, April 2, 1898, and April 5, 1898, Record Group 2, VFNHP

45. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 2, 1902, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

46. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 16, 1902, p. 4.

47. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 20, 1904, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

48. Ibid., April 16, 1908, and December 14, 1910.

49. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1912, p. 11.

50. W. H. Richardson, "Valley Forge," New England Magazine 23 (February 1901), 605.

51. Norristown Times Herald, June 1, 1896.

52. Edward W. Hocker, "Valley Forge at a National Park," Outlook, April 6,1901, p. 788.

53. Daily Local News, October 3, 1901. Todd got his wish, the daughters held title to this lard until 1983, when it was transferred to the national park at Valley Forge. The state of Pennsylvania never did hold title.

54. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 16, 1902, p. 5.

55. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 24, 1939, and September 27, 1939, Record Group 46, VFNHP. The Waterman headstone is not normally on view to visitors, and since its removal there has been confusion over the exact location of Waterman's grave A 1901 newspaper account reported that the shaft had been constructed "right alongside" the grave, bus its exact location today is unknown.

56. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, October 2, 1901, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

57. Ellis Hampton to Francis M. Brooke, December 6, 1897, Brooke Collection, VFNHP.

58. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 6, 1904, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

59. Owen Wister, Lady Baltimore (New York. Macmillan, 1906), pp. 67—73.

 

Chapter 4: The Park Commission Triumphs


1. Hampton L. Carson, "The Life and Services of Samuel W. Pennypacker Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 41(1917), 41—42.

2. "State Commission Visits Valley Forge," Philadelphia Public Lodger, October 30, 1904.

3. Daily Local News, August 10, 1906.

4. Daily Local News, January 9, 1908.

5. Daily Local News, October 12, 1883.

6. "Save Valley Forge for a National Park," Philadelphia Press, December 20, 1900

7. Unrau, Administrative History of Valley Forge, p. 91.

8. "Save Valley Forge for a National Park."

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Julius Moritzen, "Valley Forge and the Nation," Harper's Weekly, June 22, 1901, p. 628.

12. Letter of the Valley Forge National Park Association, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

13. Daily Local News, December 2, 1901.

14. Daily Local News, January 30, 1902.

15. Daily Local News, January 31, 1902.

16. "Must Pennsylvania Lose Valley Forge?" North American, January 27, 1902.

17. Carson, "The Life and Services of Pennypacker pp. 41—42.

18. Daily Republican, November 28, 1916.

19. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 86.

20. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 24, 1893, Record Group 46, VFNHP

21. "Valley Forge Campground," Norristown Times Herald, June 1, 1896.

22. Moritzen, "Valley Forge and the Nation," p. 629.

23. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 136—138.

24. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 48.

25. Stager, History of the . . . Association, p. 150.

26. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1904, p. 4.

27. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide to Valley Forge, p. 71.

28. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 160—161.

29. Ibid., p. 161.

30. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 8, 1905, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

31. "Historic Real Estate," Philadelphia Public Ledger, July 17, 1905.

32. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 162—163.

33. Ibid., pp. 164—165.

34. Ibid., pp. 168—170.

35. Daily Local News, June 20, 1907.

36. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 231—232.

37. Ibid., p. 239.

38. Ibid., pp. 171, 174, 185, 190—191.

39. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 24, 1905, Record Group 46, VFNHP

40. Stager, History of the . . . Association, pp. 175, 181.

41. Ibid., p 183

42. A. H. Bower to William Sayer, March 3, 1909, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives. Not normally on view, this plaque is among the holdings of Valley Forge National Historical Park.

43. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 18, 1906, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

44. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 30, 1916, p 14

45. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 141, "Museum Committee Reports, 1 November 1916 and 5 June 1916," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

46. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 4, 1914, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

47. Ibid., September 5, 1917.

48. F. A. Collins, "Valley Forge Memorial Park," Outlook, April 11, 1917, p. 657.

49. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 101—103, 110—111.

50. Daily Local News, May 5, 1906, and January 9, 1908.

51. John Bruce Dodd, Classified Structure Field Inventory Report: School House (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1979).

52. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1906, p. 4.

53. Priscilla Walker Sheels to A. H. Bower, January 27, 1908, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

54. Daily Local News, January 9, 1908.

55. Daily Local News, November 11, 1907.

56. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1908, p. 4.

57. See Chapter 7

58. Collins, "Valley Forge Memorial Park," p. 657.

59. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 2, 1913, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

60. Dodd, Classified Structure Field Inventory Report: School House.

61. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 17, 1896, p. 17.

62. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1904, p. 3.

63. "Inexpensive Trips Within Easy Reach," Philadelphia Bulletin, June 13, 1904.

64. Unidentified writer to "Editor," August 10, 1906, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

65. A. H. Bower to W. B. Fletcher, September 14, 1908, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

66. Daily Local News, December 2, 1909.

67. "Report of the Special Electric Railway Committee, 6 October 1921 and 1 December 1921," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

68. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1904, p. 6.

69. John Bruce Dodd, Classified Structure Field Inventory Report: Observation Tower (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1978).

70. "Sullivan's Bridge Monument," pp. 31—32.

71. Portland (Maine) Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Maine at Valley Forge (n.p.,1908), p. 1.

72. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 18, 1906, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

73. Sons of the American Revolution, Maine at Valley Forge, pp. 4—5.

74. Ceremonies at the Dedication of the Equestrian Statue of Major-General Anthony Wayne Erected by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on the Revolutionary Campground at Valley Forge, June 20, 1908 (Harrisburg, Pa.: Harrisburg Publishing Co., 1909), p. 5, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

75. Ibid., p. 6.

76. "Statue of General Anthony Wayne Dedicated at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Press, June 21, 1908.

77. Samuel W. Pennypacker to Francis Rawle, July 6, 1909, Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

78. A. H. Bower to John Nicholson, July 6, 1909, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

79. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1910, p. 11.

80. Superintendent Hartranft to "Valley Forge Park Committee," January 3, 1911, Nicholson Scrapbooks, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

81. Superintendent Hartranft to "Whom Is May Concern," February 10, 1912, Nicholson Scrapbooks.

82. Scrapbook A-7.2, p. 228, Montgomery County Historical Society, Norristown, Pa.

83. Daily Local News, June 11, 1913.

84. Ibid.

85. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 13, 1906, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

86. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide, pp. 69-70, 82.

87. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 3, 1917, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

88. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 156.

89. Superintendent to H. C. Hill, September 27, 1919, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

90. Ad placed c. 1919, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

91. "Report of the Committee for the Restoration of Forts, 6 November 1912," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

92. Ibid., November 3, 1915.

93. Ibid., June 5, 1916.

94. Ibid., October 4, 1916.

95. Ibid., June 1, 1917.

96. Spring City Reporter, October 14, 1915

97. "President's Report of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 1 November 1894," Record Group 2, VFNHP.

98. Unnumbered pages from Congressional Record, Nicholson Scrapbooks, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

99. "The Proper Memorial at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Record, January 26, 1911.

100. Norristown Times Herald, April 12, 1911.

101. Irving Wanger to A. H. Bower, April 1, 1911, quoted in Park Commission Records for April 5, 1911, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

102. Ibid., April 5, 1911.

103. War Department to W. H. Sayer, December 17, 1913, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

104. Valley Forge Park Commission to Lindley Garrison, January 12, 1914, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

105. "America's Memorial Arch to Valley Forge Heroes," Philadelphia Public Ledger, June 21, 1914.

106. Valley Forge Park Commission, Twelfth Biennial Report . . . March 1, 1919.

107. "National Arch Presentation at Valley Forge, June 19, 1917," Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

108. W. H. Sayen to Governor Brumbaugh, May 8, 1917, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

109. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . December 30, 1916, p. 6.

110. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 152.

111. Sayer, "Valley Forge," pp. 224—230.

112. Ibid., p. 221.

113. Ebenezer Lund to Richmond. L. Jones, October 31, 1917, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

114. Ebenezer Lund to Richmond L. Jones, July 1, 1919, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

115. Undated Memo of Ebenezer Lund, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

116. Superintendent to Samuel G. Dixon, September 6, 1917, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

117. Superintendent to Dr. Edward Martin, Pennsylvania Commission of Health, August 23, 1919, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

118. E. B. Cassatt to William A. Patton, September 29, 1915, Record Group 46, Carton #1 General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

119. E. B. Cassatt to William A. Patton, May 29, 1919, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

120. Daily Local News, May 5, 1906.

121. F. W. Echfeldt to Edward W. Beale, May 28, 1917, Record Group 46, Carton #1, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

 
Chapter 5: The Churches at Valley Forge

1. W. Herbert Burk, ed , The Valley Forge Address of Theodore Roosevelt (Norristown, Pa. , 1909), pp. 30—32, 42—44. Burk's Washington's Birthday sermon appears in this volume.

2. Ibid., p. 32.

3. Ibid., p. 37.

4. W. Herbert Burk, "The Modern Foes of George Washington" (Paper delivered at Morristown, N.J., February 23, 1931), pp. 10—12, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

5. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide (1906), p. 31.

6. Eleanor H. S. Burk, In the Beginning at Valley Forge and the Washington Memorial Chapel (North Wales, Pa.: Norman B. Nuss, 1938), pp. 8—9.

7. Washington Chapel Chronicle, April 15, 1915. Copies of this parish newsletter can be found at the Horace Willcox Memorial Library at Valley Forge National Historical Park.

8. Washington Chapel Chronicle, November 15, 1912.

9. "At Valley Forge," Norristown Times Herald, August 12, 1911.

10. W. Herbert Burk, "Valley Forge: Its Pass, Present, and Future," in Historical Sketches, 4:242—243.

11. W. Herbert Burk, "The American Westminster," DAR Magazine 42 (December 1923), 704—707.

12. Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, p. 33.

13. Ibid., pp. 198, 205.

14. A. Edward Newton, "Change Cars in Paoli in The Greatest Book in the World and Other Papers (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1925), p. 147.

15. Daily Local News, February 14, 1886.

16. "Valley Forge Memorial Church," Village Record, July 20, 1886.

17. Daily Local News, August 23, 1888.

18. Daily Local News, November 19, 1890.

19. "Reverend James Guthrie Restrained," Daily Local News, October 10, 1890.

20. Edward W. Hocker, "Valley Forge at a National Park," Outlook, April 6, 1901, p. 789.

21. Washington Chapel Chronicle, June 15, 1908.

22. Daily Republican, January 13, 1936.

23. "Valley Forge: Successful Celebration of the 125th Anniversary,'" Norristown Herald, June 20, 1903.

24. Washington Chapel Chronicle, November 15, 1912.

25. Burk, "American Westminster," p. 703.

26. Ibid., p. 708.

27. Ibid., p. 704.

28. Eleanor Burk, In the Beginning at Valley Forge, pp. 12—14.

29. Ibid., pp 10—11.

30. "The President at Valley Forge," Norristown Times Herald, June 20, 1904.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid.

34. "Valley Forge Memorial," Daily Local News, February 23, 1909.

35. The Honorable Wilfred Powell, "Address of His Majesty's British Consul, the Honorable Wilfred Powell at the Dedication of the Lectern" (Washington Memorial Chapel, June 15, 1909), in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

36. Burk, In the Beginning at Valley Forge, p. 13.

37. W. Herbert Burk, Making a Museum: The Confessions of a Curator (n.p., 1926), pp 5—6, 12—20.

38. Ibid., pp. 30—34.

39. "The Halls of History" (pamphlet), Reed. Collection, VFNHP.

40. Burk, Making a Museum, pp. 57—69.

41. Washington Chapel Chronicle, August 15, 1909.

42. Miss Lee to W. Herbert Burk, July 25, 1909, Curator's Archives at Valley Forge Historical Society, Valley Forge, Pa.

43. Washington Chapel Chronicle, August 15, 1909.

44. Village Record, September 12, 1909.

45. Burk, Making a Museum, p. 42.

46. Washington Chapel Chronicle, May 15, 1911.

47. Miss Leeso W. Herbert Burk, April 6, 1916, Curator's Archives at Valley Forge Historical Society.

48. W. Herbert Burk to Burke & Herbert, Bankers, October 13, 1923, and W. Herbert Buck to Mrs. Robert E. Lee, December 13, 1923, Curator's Archives at Valley Forge Historical Society.

49. Washington Chapel Chronicle, July 15, 1910.

50. Burk, Making a Museum, pp. 48—49.

51. W. Herbert Buck to Mrs. C. M. Crosby, November 1, 1924, March 3, 1925, and n.d., Curator's Archives at Valley Forge Historical Society.

52. Burk, Making a Museum, p. 49.

53. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide, preface.

54. Samuel W. Pennypacker to W. Herbert Burk, September 9, 1906, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

55. Washington Chapel Chronicle, April 15, 1908.

56. Washington Chapel Chronicle, October 15, 1908.

57. Washington Chapel Chronicle, February 15, 1911.

58. Washington Chapel Chronicle, May 15, 1911.

59. Ibid.

60. W. Herbert Burk to the Wardens and Vestrymen of All Saints' Parish, as reprinted in Washington Chapel Chronicle, December 15, 1910.

61. Washington Chapel Chronicle, September 15, 1910.

62. Washington Chapel Chronicle, October 15, 1910.

63. Washington Chapel Chronicle, April 15, 1908.

64. Washington Chapel Chronicle, April 15, 1910.

65. Ibid.

66. W. Herbert Burk to "Dear Friend," November 11, 1905, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

67. W. Herbert Burk to Stock Certificate Holders of Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley Forge, September 29, 1905, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

68. Stager, History of the Centennial and Memorial Association, pp. 225, 235.

69. Washington Chapel Chronicle, June 15, 1911.

70. Washington Chapel Chronicle, July 15, 1912.

71. Washington Chapel Chronicle, July 15, 1913.

72. Washington Chapel Chronicle, March 15, 1913.

73. Washington Chapel Chronicle, September 15, 1913.

74. Charles Custis Harrison, "Memoirs" (c. 1925—27), pp. 105—106, University of Pennsylvania Archives, Philadelphia, Pa.

75. Samuel W. Pennypacker to Charles Custis Harrison, December 22, 1905, Charles Custis Harrison Papers, University of Pennsylvania Archives.

76. Harrison, "Memoirs," p. 104.

77. Ibid., p. 108.

78. Ibid., pp. 106—107.

79. Ibid., p. 107. The elms have since died of Dutch elm disease.

80. Ibid., pp. 107—108.

81. Ibid., pp. 108—110.

82. "Honor for Creating Memorial," Philadelphia Public Ledger, February 9,1928.

83. W. Herbert Burk, "Valley Forge Miracles: A Sermon Preached in the Washington Memorial Chapel by Rev. W. Herbert Burk, 13 October 1929," in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

84. Burk, "American Westminster," p. 709.

85. Harrison, "Memoirs," p. 107.

86. Burk, "American Westminster," p. 709.

87. Stephen Elmer Slocum, "The American Westminster," The Mentor 13 (October 1925), 46.

88. Burk, "American Westminster," p. 713.

89. Eleanor Burk, In the Beginning at Valley Forge, p. 31.

90. Washington Chapel Chronicle, May 15, 1915.

91. Burk, "American Westminster," pp. 701—703.

92. Eleanor Burk, In the Beginning at Valley Forge, p. 33.

93. Burk, "Valley Forge Miracles."

94. Handbill for Victory Hall, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

95. W. Herbert Burk to Lt. Pat O'Brien, March 13, 1918, in Curator's Archives at Valley Forge Historical Society.

96. Lois B. Cassatt to "Dear ______," January 15, 1919, Reed. Collection, VFNHP.

97. Burk, Making a Museum, pp. 70—71.

98. Washington Chapel Chronicle, March 20, 1909.

99 W. Herbert Burk, "Good News for the Home Lovers of Valley Forge: A Sermon Preached in the Washington Memorial Chapel by Rev. W. Herbert Burk, 22 December 1918," in Reed Collection, VFNHP

100. Ibid.

 
Chapter 6: Historical Accuracy vs. Good Taste: Valley Forge in the 1920s and 1930s

1. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide, p. 202.

2. "Valley Forge Campground," Norristown Times Herald, June 8, 1896.

3. "Land Committee Report," November 4, 1920, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, Record Group 46, VFNHP

4. Charles E. Hires to Governor Gifford Pinchot, January 28, 1924, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

5. Richmond L. Jones to Sen. T. L. Eyre, March 13, 1920, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

6. Richmond L. Jones to T. L. Eyre, March 13, 1920, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

7. "Land Committee Report, "January 2, 1919, in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

8. "Land Committee Report," December 2, 1920, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

9. Ibid.

10. George Wheeler Stone, "The Mount Joy Forge on Valley Creek," in The Scope of Historical Archaeology: Essays in Honor of John L. Cotter, ed. David G. Orr and Daniel G. Crozier (Philadelphia: Temple University Department of Anthropology, 1984), pp. 87—100.

11. Ibid., pp. 94—110.

12. Ibid., pp. 110—119.

13. Jacob Orie Clark to Valley Forge Park Commission, October 5, 1921, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

14. John S. Kennedy to John P. Nicholson, November 15, 1921, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives. "Loops" are masses of iron that have gone partway through the refining process, also spelled "loop" or "loupe" and also called "blooms."

15. Richmond L. Jones to J. S. Kennedy, November 17, 1921, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

16. Richmond L. Jones to J. S. Kennedy, December 5, 1921, Record Group 46, Carton #2, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

17. "Digging Begins in Two Parts of Park for Foundations of Shop Burned by British," Philadelphia Inquirer, December 2, 1928.

18. Helen Schenek, "The Upper Forge at Valley Forge" (Report for the Museum of Applied Science Center for Archaeology [MASCA], November 1984), pp. 27—31.

19. Jerome Sheas, "The Forges at Valley Forge," Picket Post, July 1944, p. 6.

20. Schenek, "The Upper Forge," p. 74.

21. Ibid., p. 77.

22. "1776 Smithy Found," Philadelphia Public Ledger, March 6, 1932. This story appeared at the time actual preparations were being made to dismantle the building.

23. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 10, 1929, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

24. Albert C. Myers, "Statement Regarding Hay Creek Forge," Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, inserted after the minutes of March 28, 1934, VFNHP.

25. Israel R. Pennypacker, The Valley Forge Burned by the British Troops, September 1777, and an Analysis of the Myers Report (June 1929), p. 11, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

26. Ibid., pp. 6—7.

27. Israel R. Pennypacker, The Burned Valley Forge: Judge Koch's Report and the Evidence Contrary to Its Conclusions (November 1929), p. 13, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

28. Jacob Orie Clarke to Israel R. Pennypacker, July 25, 1930, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

29. Jacob Orie Clark to Israel R. Pennypacker, August 11, 1930, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

30. George Schultz to Israel R. Pennypacker, May 14, 1930, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

31. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 23, 1930, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

32. Albert C. Myers, "Statement Regarding the Hay Creek Forge," Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, inserted after minutes of March 28, 1934, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

33. George Schultz to Gilbert Jones, February 12, 1945, Record Group 2, VFNHP

34. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 12, 1925, VFNHP.

35. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, pp. 37—38.

36. Richard A. Koch to Members of the Park Commission, May 19, 1931, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 7 May 1931 [sic], Record Group 46, VFNHP.

37. George Edward Brumbaugh and Albert Ruthruaff, "Report Regarding Architectural Services at Valley Forge National Historical Park Prior to Its Administration by the U. S. Department of the Interior," March 31, 1980, Record Group 2, VFNHP

38. Horace Wells Sellers to Albert C. Myers, April 7, 1932, in Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarter, pp. F9-F10.

39. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, p. 41.

40. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 22, 1933, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

41. Ibid., April 26, 1933, and May 24, 1933.

42. Laura Lee, "George Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge Gets Old Period Furniture," Philadelphia Bulletin, February 19, 1934.

43. Horace Wells Sellers to Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, January 11, 1927, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 13, 1927, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

44. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 28, 1933, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

45. John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd, Historic Structure Report: Varnum's Quarters (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1981), pp. 11, 12. (Hereafter referred to as Varnum's Quarter.)

46. Ibid., p. 36.

47. "Varnum's Encampment Quarters Is a Fine Work of Restoration," Picket Post, October 1945, p. 25.

48. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 24, 1961, and December 20, 1960, Record Group 46, VFNHP. Staff as Valley Forge National Historical Park believe that the objects furnishing Varnum's Quarters today are not the DAR objects. Exactly what happened to those is unknown. They may have been removed from the park by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission when Valley Forge became a national park in 1976.

49. "Israel Pennypacker Reviews the Work of the Valley Forge Park Commission," Norristown Times Herald, December 7, 1932.

50. Ibid.

51. Emily D. Stephens, The Story of the Eviction of the Stephens Family; or, Tyrannic Rule at Valley Forge (Norristown, Pa.: Author, 1937), Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

52. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 24, 1935, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

53. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer to E. C. Smith, May 16, 1934, Record Group 46, Carton #6, General Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

54. Daily Republican, October 3, 1935.

55. Daily Republican, November 19, 1935.

56. Letter from Governor to Edward C. Shannon, January 18, 1936, text reprinted in Daily Republican, February 7, 1936.

57. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, 28 July 1937, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

58. Ibid., November 12, 1935.

59. Ibid., special session held July 3, 1942.

60. Daily Republican, July 7, 1942.

61. Gilbert Jones to Karl F. Scheidt, January 29, 1943, Record Group 46, Carton #3, Commission Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

62. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 29, 1923, VFNHP.

63. Executive Meeting Minutes, January 12, 1923, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

64 Ibid., June 25, 1923.

65. W. Herbert Burk to "The Student Body," February 1, 1921, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

66. W. Herbert Burk to "My Dear Compatriot," January 26, 1923, Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

67. Sixth Annual Report of the Valley Forge Historical Society, June 19, 1924, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

68. W. Herbert Burk to James B. Bailey, August 31, 1926, Washington Memorial Chapel Files, Defenders' Gate, Valley Forge, Pa.

69. W. Herbert Burk to G. H. Morgan, Chair of Valley Forge Park Commission, October 12, 1926, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

70. Burk, Historical and Topographical Guide, p. 38.

71. W. Herbert Burk to the Rt. Rev. Thomas Garland, July 12, 1926, Washington Memorial Chapel Files.

72. "The National Washington Memorial Church," Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

73. "New Valley Forge Church Is Started," Philadelphia Public Ledger, February 23, 1928.

74. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 30 August 1927 to 1 June 1929, p. 8.

75. Israel R. Pennypacker, "Valley Forge," American Mercury, March 7, 1926, p. 344.

76. "Valley Forge a National Problem," Society Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

77. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 12, 1928, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

78. Ibid., October 10, 1928.

79. "Dr. Burk Charges Animus to Chapel," Philadelphia Bulletin, December 18, 1928.

80. "Dr. Burk in Row over Auto Ban at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Inquirer, December 18, 1928.

81. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 8, 1929, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

82. "Valley Forge Manor at Historical Valley Forge" (c. 1927 advertisement), Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

83. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 30 August 1927 to 1 June 1929, p. 6.

84. Israel R. Pennypacker, Address of Israel R. Pennypacker Made Before Pennsylvania Society and New York Color Guard Sons of the Revolution at Valley Forge, June 7, 1930 (Philadelphia: John T. Palmer Co., 1930), p. 7, in Valley Forge Miscellaneous Files, Chester County Historical Society.

85. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 12, 1928, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

86. W. Herbert Burk, "What Shall We Do with Valley Forge?" Reed Collection, VFNHP.

87. W. Herbert Burk, "Valley Forge Miracles: A Sermon Preached in the Washington Memorial Chapel by W. Herbert Burk, 13 October 1929," Reed Collection, VFNHP.

88. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 25, 1931, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

89. Ibid., October 28, 1931.

90. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, June 19, 1929, Valley Forge Historical Society.

91. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 25, 1931, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

92. Lawrence Ritchey to Israel R. Pennypacker, April 16, 1931, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 22, 1931, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

93. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 27, 1931, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

94. W. Herbert Burk to Mrs. C. H. Hinchman, May 18, 1931, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

95. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer to W. Herbert Burk, May 25, 1931, Oberholtzer Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

96. "President Hoover's Visit on Memorial Day, 30 May 1931," pp. 13—17, Reed Collection, VFNHP

97. "President Hoover at Valley Forge," Norristown Times Herald, May 30, 1931.

98. William R. Gardner to Officers of the Valley Forge Historical Society, July 12, 1933, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, inserted after the 1933 annual report.

99. Coatesville Record, April 13, 1931.

100. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 5, 1941, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

101. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 26 July 1939 to 1 January 1943, p. 18.

102. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, June 19, 1930, Valley Forge Historical Society.

103. Valley Forge Historical Society Treasurer to _____, November 17, 1933, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

104. "Museum Report," in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, June 19, 1938, Valley Forge Historical Society.

105. Daily Republican, August 2,1929.

106. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 22, 1931, Record Group 46, VFNHP

107. Ibid., July 27, 1932.

108. Ibid., September 28, 1932.

109. "Israel Pennypacker Reviews Work of the Valley Forge Park Commission," Norristown Times Herald, December 7, 1932

110. Cornelius Weygandt, The Blue Hills (New York: Henry Hols & Co., 1936), p. 113.

 
Chapter 7: The "Complete Restoration" of Valley Forge

1. Daily Republican, June 21, 1935.

2. Ibid.

3. Gilbert Jones, "Future May Learn from the Past," Picket Post, October 1944, p. 2

4. Gilbert Jones, "People's Mandate to Restore the Valley Forge Encampment Urged by Park Commissioners," Picket Post, April 1946, p. 6.

5. Ibid., p. 7.

6. Ibid., p. 16.

7. Michael Wallace, "Visiting the Past: History Museums in the United States," Radical History Review 25 (1981), 76—77, Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, pp. 359-362.

8. Charles B. Hosmer Jr. , Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926—1949, 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: Preservation Press, 1981), 1:65—67.

9. Wallace, "Visiting the Past," p. 77.

10. Ada Louise Huxtable, "Inventing American Reality," New York Review of Books, December 3, 1992, p. 24.

11. Wallace, "Visiting the Past," p. 73.

12. Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, pp. 504—505.

13. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 24 October 1935 to 1 January 1939.

14. Daily Local News, January 28, 1936.

15. Ibid.

16. Daily Republican, December 3, 1936.

17. Daily Republican, December 8, 1936.

18. Coatesville Record, November 30, 1936.

19. "Valley Forge Restoration Attacked and Defended," Philadelphia Bulletin, December 2, 1936.

20. Ibid.

21. Gilbert Jones, quoted in an interview in the Daily Republican, August 15, 1938.

22. Daily Republican, December 28, 1938.

23. Daily Republican, June 6, 1939.

24. Harry Emerson Wildes, Valley Forge (New York: Macmillan, 1938), p. 311.

25. Gilbert Jones, "Commissioners Urge Restoration of Valley Forge Encampment," Picket Post, July 1944, p. 12. Fort Mordecai Moore is identified in current park literature as the unnumbered redoubt just south of Redoubt #2. Stirling Redoubt is now identified as an unnumbered redan east of Inner Line Drive just north of Conway's Brigade. Fort George Washington is called Redoubt #3. The rifle pit is now identified as a redan on Mount Joy below the inner line earthworks and above Redoubt #3, it is not identified on park literature. According to Classified Structure Field Inventory reports done on these structures by John Bruce Dodd in 1979, Fort Mordecai Moore was incorrect in many details, Stirling Redoubt was located where a redoubt had perhaps never existed, and the rifle pit might not have been a rifle pit at all but another field work.

26. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 25, 1942, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

27. Jones, "People's Mandate," p. 11.

28. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 26, 1944, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

29. Ibid., July 24, 1946.

30. Ibid., November 27, 1946.

31. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . January 1947 to January 1951, p. 4.

32. George Edwin Brumbaugh to Norris D. Wright, October 5, 1946, George Edwin Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66, Winterthur Museum and Gardens, Wilmington, Delaware.

33. "Report Covering Certain Buildings and Areas in Valley Forge National Park," Brumbaugh Papers, Box 8.

34. George Washington, The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745—1799, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, vol. 10 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), p. 171.

35. Typed copy of the poem "Valley Forge" by Dr. Albigence Waldo from The Historical Magazine, vol. 7, 1863, in Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

36. Frank E. Schermerhorn, "Roof-Log from a Hut at Valley Forge," Picket Post, April 1948, p. 23. The same poem also appeared in the April 1947 issue of Picket Post with the title "Ode to the Last Log of a Soldiers' Hut." In this version the last line read: "To Chance of God and faith in Washington."

37. Coatesville Record, July 6, 1905

38. Philadelphia Record, September 26, 1909.

39. Edgar Williams, "That Log Cabin in Valley Forge," Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, June 14, 1959

40. All these log structures are still visible at Valley Forge except for the guard huts, which were no longer needed once the park guards were furnished with motor vehicles and radio communication. Because they were also confusing to visitors, who thought they were replica huts, they were all taken down except for one near the arch, which houses equipment for the arch lights.

41. Philadelphia Record, September 26, 1909.

42. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 21, 1948, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

43. "Camp Huts Again Rising on Historic Winter Encampment as Restoration Work Goes On," Picket Post, July 1947, pp. 28—29.

44. "Specifications for Log 'Hutts,' " Brumbaugh Papers, Box 70.

45. "Rigors of Washington's Winter at Valley Forge Recalled by Restoration Project," New York Herald Tribune, August 24, 1947.

46. Milton G. Baker to Norris D. Wright, August 5, 1947, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

47. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, July 23, 1947, Record Group 46, Valley Forge National Park.

48. Ibid., November 26, 1947.

49. Plans for the first Levittown were announced on May 7, 1947, and by 1949 some 4,000 units were sold. Within a few more years, Levittown communities contained literally thousands of nearly identical houses on regularly spaced parallel streets. It is interesting so note that William Levitt employed mass production techniques he himself had learned while erecting military housing during World War II.

50. Norman Randolph to Thomas W. Sears, July 16, 1948, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

51. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 25, 1948, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

52. Ibid., February 25, 1948, and May 26, 1948.

53. "Report Concerning Certain Buildings and Areas in Valley Forge National Historic Park," Brumbaugh Papers, Box 8.

54. Ibid.

55 Norman Randolph to Members of the Military Works Committee, August 31, 1948, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

56. "Press Release: Knox Artillery Shop Restoration as Valley Forge Park," Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

57. Norman Randolph to Norris D. Wright, September 23, 1948, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66

58 George Edwin Brumbaugh, "Report to the Valley Forge Park Commission on the Colonel William Dewees Mansion, Valley Forge," Picket Post, January 1950, p. 16.

59. Unpublished book manuscript by George Edwin Brumbaugh, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 108.

60. Brumbaugh, "Report . . . on Dewees Mansion," pp. 13—16.

61. John Bruce Dodd and Cherry Dodd, Historic Structure Report: The David Potts House (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 198 1), p. 41. (Hereafter referred to as David Potts House.)

62. George Edwin Brumbaugh to Norman Randolph, January 17, 1948, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

63. George Edwin Brumbaugh to Norris Wright, December 18,1948, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

64. Dodd and Dodd, David Potts House, p. 69.

65. Brumbaugh, "Report . . . on Dewees Mansion," p. 17.

66. Dodd and Dodd, David Potts House, pp. 20, 36—43.

67. Report . . . January 1947—January 1951, p. 19.

68. George Edwin Brumbaugh to Norman Randolph, April 22, 1952, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

69. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 19, 1955, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

70. Ibid., May 22, 1956.

71. Ibid., April 22, 1958.

72. George Edwin Brumbaugh to Milton G. Baker, August 22, 1966. Brumbaugh Papers, Box 66.

73. Report titled "Reconstruction of Soldiers' Huts, Valley Forge State Park Research Documentation," n.d., Record Group 2, VFNHP.

74. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 19, 1958, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

75. Ibid., February 23, 1960.

76. Ibid., April 26, 1960.

77. Ibid., May 22, 1962.

78. Edward Pinkowsky, Washington's Officers Slept Here (Philadelphia: Sunshine Press, 1953), p. 19.

79. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 28, 1963, Record Group 46, VFNHP

80. Ibid., April 26, 1965. It is now called the Steuben Memorial.

81. Ibid., September 27, 1965.

82. Ibid., December 20, 1965.

83. Interview with Tom McGimsey, historic architect at Valley Forge National Historical Park, August 5, 1992.

84. G. U. Dryanski, "What Happened to the Forge at Valley Forge?" Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, July 22, 1962, p. 4.

85. Helen Schenek, "The Upper Forge at Valley Forge," Journal of the Museum of Applied Science Center for Archaeology, November 1984, pp. 40—41.

86. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 23, 1968, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

 
Chapter 8: New Uses for an Old Story

1. W. Herbert Burk to E. B. Cassatt, December 4, 1920, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

2. W. Herbert Burk to Jessie Tuttle, October 18, 1921, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

3. W. Herbert Burk to Mrs. William Pierce, October 4, 1923, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

4. Israel R. Pennypacker, "Valley Forge," American Mercury, March 7, 1926, p. 343.

5. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 13, 1928, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

6. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, August 20, 1928, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

7. Ibid., June 28, 1933.

8. Ibid., October 24, 1934.

9. Theresa L. Wilson to W. Herbert Burk, October 25, 1926, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

10. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, September 25, 1939.

11. Address given by John Robbins Hart at the Washington Memorial Chapel, April 27, 1941, Valley Forge Miscellaneous File, Chester County Historical Society.

12. John Robbins Hart, Valley Forge During World War II (New York: American Historical Co., 1944), pp. 21, 22, 29.

13. Walker Haeuster to Valley Forge Park Commission, June 22, 1939, Record Group 46, Carton #2, Commission Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

14. Edward C. Shannon to Governor Arthur James, June 30, 1939, Record Group 46, Carton #2, Commission Correspondence, Pennsylvania State Archives.

15. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 27, 1939, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

16. Ibid., January 27, 1943.

17. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . January 1943—January 1947, pp. 12—13.

18. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 23, 1943, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

19. R. J. Gillis to L. Ralph Phillips, February 2, 1942, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

20. Gilbert Jones to the Hon. Michael Francis Doyle, September 1, 1942, and Hon. Michael Francis Doyle to L. Ralph Phillips, August 31, 1942, both in Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

21. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 25, 1945, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

22. Script for Evacuation Day radio program, June 18, 1944, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

23. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 26, 1945, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

24. "U.S. Carrier Valley Forge Goes into Commission with Mementos of the Historic Winter Encampment," Picket Post, January 1947, pp. 47—49.

25. Daily Republican, November 30, 1945.

26. Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, pp. 586—587, 657.

27. Wallace, "Visiting the Past," p. 82.

28. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . January 1947—January 1951, pp. 18—19.

29. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, October 26, 1949, Record Group 46, VFNHP

30. "National Jamboree of the Boy Scouts of America, 1950" (pamphlet), Reed Collection, VFNHP

31. McCullough's articles were reprinted in a souvenir booklet printed in 1950 and titled "Jamboree 1950 as reported in the Philadelphia Inquirer." The material quoted here comes from the article originally printed on June 25, 1950. A copy of the booklet is in the Reed Collection, VFNHP

32. Ibid., article of July 8, 1950.

33. Ibid., article of July 1, 1950.

34. Ibid., article of July 3, 1950.

35. Ibid., article of July 1, 1950.

36. Ibid., article of July 5, 1950.

37. "Official Map of Boy Scout Jamboree 1957," Reed Collection, VFNHP.

38. Collier Rhoads, "Slip of Tongue Elevates Nixon as Crowds Cheer," Norristown Times Herald, July 13, 1952.

39. "Spectacular Show, Fireworks Give Jamboree Brilliant Start," Norristown Times Herald, July 18, 1964.

40. "Question Box," Picket Post, January 1965, pp. 29-30.

41. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 24, 1965, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

42. Report titled "Patterns of the Past: Geophysical and Aerial Reconnaissance at Valley Forge," ed. Elizabeth Ralph and Michael Parrington, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

43. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 28, 1971, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

44. Ibid., September 27, 1971.

45. Address of Dwight D. Eisenhower, reported in Four Years of Work for Freedom, 1949—1953 (Valley Forge, Pa.: Freedoms Foundation, August 31, 1953), Freedoms Foundation Archives, Valley Forge, Pa.

46. Newsletter of Freedoms Foundation, January 1965, Freedoms Foundation Archives. Over the years, the title of this publication has been changed several times, it will consistently be referred to here as Newsletter of Freedoms Foundation.

47. Chuck Bauerlein, "Teaching America About Freedom," Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, December 18, 1983, p. 27.

48. The Archive, June 23, 1949.

49. Typed transcript, E. F. Hutton's Remarks on 22 October 1949," Freedoms Foundation Ar chives.

50. President's Report, in Four Years of Work for Freedom, 1949—1953.

51. E. F. Hutton to K. D. Wells, May 31, 1949, Wells Correspondence, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

52. Undated, untitled typed account of the history of the Freedoms Foundation based on staff recollections, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

53. Address of E. F. Hutton to Rotary Club in Miami, February 9, 1949, Wells Correspondence, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

54. Report of Don Belding, in Four Years of Work for Freedom, 1949—1953.

55. Freedoms Foundation, Report from Valley Forge, 40th Anniversary Edition (Valley Forge, Pa. , 1989), p. 2.

56. From the Credo of the Freedoms Foundation as is appeared on the cover of Atlantic Magazine, April 1949. In full, the articles were: "Right to worship God in one's own way, Right to Free speech and press, Right to assemble, Right to petition for grievances, Right to privacy in our homes, Right to habeas corpus—no excessive bail, Right to trial by jury—innocent till proved guilty, Right to move about freely at home and abroad, Right to own private property, Right to work in callings and localities of our choice, Right to bargain with our employers, Right to go into business, compete, make a profit, Right to bargain for goods and services in a free market, Right to contract about our affairs, Right to the service of government as a protector and referee, Right to freedom from 'arbitrary' government regulation and control." A current copy of the Credo shows that some wording has been changed since this appeared in 1949. The Credo now includes "Right to peaceably assemble, Right to petition for redress of grievances, Right to trial by jury—innocent until proved guilty, Right to bargain with our employers and employees." The "Right o free elections and personal secret ballot" appears in the current version but not in this 1949 version.

57. "On the Cover," Atlantic Magazine, April 1949, inside cover.

58. Daily Republican, April 18, 1949.

59. Daily Republican, November 19, 1949.

60. Daily Republican, February 22, 1958.

61 "VP Nixon Presents Awards at Freedoms Foundation Ceremonies," Norristown Times Herald, February 22, 1953.

62. Report of the address of Cecil B. DeMille at Freedoms Foundation, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

63. "Two Area Winners of Freedom Awards," Norristown Times Herald, November 21, 1949

64. Descriptions of school awards program in Four Year of Work for Freedom, 1949—1953.

65. Greg Walter, "Snow Job at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Magazine, February 1968, p. 71.

66. Ibid., p. 73. This is not to suggest that McCarthy had any connection with the Freedoms Foundation. Nothing uncovered in the research for this book indicated that this was the case.

67. Letter to Editor from Harry Sayre, President of UPA-CIO, The Archive, April 19, 1951.

68. Radio Reports Inc. Script for Freedoms Foundation to Air 12:00 Noon, June 3, 1949, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

69. Taped Radio Spot Commercials, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

70. Freedoms Handbook, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

71. Bauerlein, "Teaching America About Freedom," p. 27.

72. E. F. Hutton's remarks on October 22, 1949.

73. Ibid.

74. Freedoms Foundation souvenir, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

75. Quoted in Daily Republican, August 18, 1949.

76. Message of Kenneth D. Wells, in Newsletter of Freedoms Foundation, June 1957.

77. E. F. Hutton's remarks on October 22, 1949.

78. Fact Sheet on Freedoms Foundation Library, Freedoms Foundation Archives.

79. "Mementos of Freedom," Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, December 8, 1963, p. 7.

80. The Medal of Honor Grove: Its Origins and History (Valley Forge, Pa.: Freedoms Foundation, n.d.).

81. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 23, 1918, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

82. Interview with Robert Miller, President, Betty Miller (his wife), and Dr. Charles Hepburn, Vice President, at Freedoms Foundation, Valley Forge, Pa., September 10, 1992.

83. John F. Reed, "Dedication at Valley Forge," Picket Post, January 1968, p. 27.

84. Daily Republican, April 28, 1952.

85. Daily Republican, June 23, 1958.

86. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 20, 1960, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

87. Ibid., May 23, 1961.

88. Ibid., October 26, 1964.

 
Chapter 9: The Siege of Valley Forge

1. Traffic Regulations for Dogwood Display Sundays, 1936, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

2. "A Threat to the Hallowed Acres," Norristown Times Herald, August 26, 1949.

3. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 28, 1948, and May 26, 1948, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

4. Ibid., March 25, 1930.

5. Ibid., June 25, 1963.

6. Ibid., May 28, 1963.

7. Ibid., September 25, 1967.

8. Kenneth D. Wells to Joseph Neff Ewing, January 27, 1958, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

9 "New Post Office at Valley Forge Dedicated," Picket Post, October 1964, pp. 18—19, 29.

10. "Two Hundred Attend Hearing for Commercial Plan in Schuylkill Township," Daily Republican, November 20, 1962.

11. John F. Reed to Schuylkill Township Supervisors, November 21, 1962, Reed Collection, VFNHP.

12. "Valley Forge Crisis" (Joseph Perron, 1967), Reed Collection, VFNHP.

13. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 15, 1968, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

14. Ibid., April 22, 1968.

15. Ibid., February 26, 1968.

16. Ibid., November 25, 1968.

17. Ibid., March 25, 1968.

18. Ibid., June 14, 1968.

19. Ibid., February 23, 1970.

20. Ibid., February 22, 1971.

21. Phyllis and Charles Martin to Charles E. Mather, March 14, 1971, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

22. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 22, 1971, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

23. Ibid., July 23, 1973.

24. Ibid., June 23, 1969.

25. Ibid., August 31, 1970.

26. Quoted in "Valley Forge Ok's Vets Antiwar Rally," Norristown Times Herald, September 1, 1970.

27. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 28, 1970, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

28. Robert Fowler, "Rabbi, Wife Wounded by Guard," Philadelphia Inquirer, October 18, 1970.

29. Robert Fowler, "Guard Suspended in Shooting of Rabbi in Valley Forge Park," Philadelphia Inquirer, November 7, 1970.

30. Pat Sheehy, "'No Peace on Earth' Say Veterans Camped at Park," Today's Post, December 27, 1971

31. "Hoodlum Hangout at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Inquirer, May 8, 1969.

32. Press Release from Valley Forge State Park, May 21, 1971, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

33. Robert Bridges, "Hoodlums Desecrate Valley Forge, Commissioner Says," Philadelphia Bulletin, July 14, 1971.

34. Jerome Sheas's Report in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, inserted after December 28, 1970, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

35. Ibid.

36. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, October 24, 1968.

37. Maria Goddard to Joane Fulcoly, March 21, 1968, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

38. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 4, 1974, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

39. S. K. Stevens to M. M. Ammerman, September 14, 1971, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

40. Gertrude Kimble to Valley Forge Park Commission, June 1, 1971, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

41. Interview with Meade Jones, President, Valley Forge Historical Society, August 7, 1992.

42. "Society's Stolen Artifacts Recovered by Police," Picket Post, 3rd quarter 1977, pp. 18—20.

43. Robert Fowler, "Valley Forge Guards Pocket Fees from Guided Tours of Shrine," Philadelphia Inquirer, January 7, 1971.

44. Robert Fowler, "Valley Forge Park Chief Admits Taking Kickbacks," Philadelphia Inquirer, February 9,1971.

45. Robert Fowler, "Head of Park Is Ousted at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Inquirer, March 16, 1971.

46. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 21, 1973, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

47. Ibid., July 22, 1974.

48. "State of the Union," January 22, 1973, a handwritten report inserted in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

49. Special Status Committee Report, March 4, 1974, in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

50. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 24, 1974, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

51. Ibid., September 23, 1974.

52. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, and Gilboy, Stauffer & Giombetti, Stibinski & Davies, Architects, Engineers, and Planners, A Master Plan for Valley Forge State Park (Harrisburg, Pa., April 20, 1975), p. 2.

53. Ibid., p. 8.

54. Ibid., p. 54.

55. Ibid., pp 8, 14.

56. Ibid., p. 15.

57. Ibid., p. 52.

58. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 23, 1974, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

59. Statement of Jack Schwartz, May 5, 1975, in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, inserted after June 23, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

60. Ibid.

61. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 22, 1974, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

62. "State of the Union," handwritten report in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 23, 1973, Record Group 46, VFNHP

63. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 24, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

64. "Valley Forge Park Fee Suggestion Is Rapped by Commission," Norristown Times Herald, February 24, 1976.

65. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 28, 1976, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

66. Horace Mather Lippincott "The Problem of a College in a City," in Brumbaugh Papers, Box 67, Winterthur Museum.

67. "The Valley Forge Ideal and the University of Pennsylvania," Brumbaugh Papers, Box 89.

68. "Report of the Philadelphia Committee on the Establishment of a College of Liberal Arts at Cressbrook Farm, Valley Forge, and Embodying a Plan for Such a College. Submitted at the Baltimore Conference of the Association of Pennsylvania Alumni, October 24—25, 1935," Brumbaugh Papers, Box 67.

69. Ibid.

70. George Edwin Brumbaugh to E. Wallace Chadwick, June 27, 1935, Brumbaugh Papers, Box 67.

71. "Tredyffrin Board Delays Decision on Chesterbrook," Today's Post, December 12, 1971.

72. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 533.

73. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 21, 1971, Record Group 46, VFNHP

74. Daily Local News, February 11, 1972.

75. Margaret Giacalone, "We Need Chesterbrook," Suburban and Wayne Times, April 27, 1972.

76. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 534—535.

77. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 28, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

78. Coleman McCarthy, "Valley Forge: A New Struggle for the Sacred Ground," Philadelphia Inquirer (Washington Post News Service), June 8, 1975.

79. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, August 26, 1936, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

80. Ibid., December 18, 1962.

81. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 26, 1976, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

82. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 545.

83. Editorial, Philadelphia Bulletin, May 14, 1974.

84. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, December 24, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

85. Ibid., February 28, 1976.

86 Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 529, 530, 535—536.

87. Ibid., pp. 537, 539, 541.

88. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 24, 1974, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

89. Ibid., September 22, 1975.

90. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation, Hearings on H.R. 2257, H.R. 5621 and H.R. 7999, 94th Cong., 1st sess., September 29, 1975.

91. Ibid., pp. 15—16.

92. Ibid., p 65

93. Ibid., pp. 80—81.

94. Ibid., pp. 82—83.

95. Ibid., p. 125—127.

96. Ibid., pp. 45—51.

97. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 563—564, 566—567, 569.

98. Ibid., pp. 570—571.

99. Ibid., p. 609.

100. "Only Gradual Changes at the Park," Picket Post, 4th quarter 1976, p. 21

101. "Valley Forge Unit to Be 'Watchdogs,' " Norristown Times Herald, September 28, 1976.

102. Unrau, Administrative History, pp. 613—614.

 
Chapter 10: A Struggle for Growth and Professionalism at the Washington Memorial

1. This point is made in much correspondence and literature originating at the Washington Memorial during Burk's day. In fact, the parish newsletter, the Washington Chapel Chronicle, is subtitled "A Record of Religion and Patriotism."

2. Obituary for Dr. John Robbins Hart, Daily Republican, September 19, 1967.

3. Daily Local News, January 1, 1936.

4. Daily Republican, August 20, 1937.

5. John Robbins Hart to Walter L. Wright, July 3, 1941, Washington Memorial Chapel Files, Defenders' Gate.

6. John Neff Ewing to John Robbins Hart, July 10, 1941, Washington Memorial Chapel Files.

7. "Daughters of American Revolution Go Forward in Plans to Build Bell Tower for Valley Forge," Picket Post, July 1946, p. 26.

8. Daily Republican, September 24, 1941.

9. Daily Local News, February 24, 1942.

10. "Memorial Tower Fund of DAR over $60,000," Picket Post, January 1947, p. 41.

11. "Daughters of the American Revolution Campaign for Thanksgiving Bell Tower Is Nearing the Goal Fixed at $ 100,000," Picket Post, April 1947, p. 31.

12. "National Carillon Soon to Be Housed in Tower Provided by Funds Obtained by Daughters of American Revolution," Picket Post, July 1947, p. 31.

13. Gertrude S. Carraway, "Valley Forge Bell Tower Cornerstone Relaid," DAR Magazine 84 (August 1950), 652—653.

14. "Demolition of Original Chapel and Teddy Roosevelt Letters Link Memories of Great Memorial," Picket Post, January 1948, p. 47.

15. Daily Republican, September 21, 1939.

16. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, July 28, 1941.

17. Executive Meeting Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, October 12, 1942.

18. Ibid., May 10, 1943.

19. Directors' Meeting Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, November 13, 1944.

20. Annual Meeting of the Valley Forge Historical Society, January 13, 1947.

21. Daily Local News, February 9, 1957.

22. "Tom Thumb's Family Sees Midget's Piano," Picket Post, October 1947, p. 22. The piano is still among the holdings of the historical society bus not on view to visitors.

23. Gilbert Jones to Mr. Joseph B. Ganser, March 2, 1945, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society. The fate of this object is unknown today.

24. "Letters by George Washington Found in a Museum's Dust," Kansas City Star, April 8, 1951. The signet ring has since been stolen from the museum.

25. John Robbins Hart to Dear Director, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, filed after March 10, 1952.

26. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, December 8, 1958.

27. "Society Museum Must Present Drama, Not Cabinet of Curios or Castoffs," Picket Post, January 1945, p. 9.

28. Lloyd Eastwood-Siebold, "A New Day Is Dawning," Picket Post, October 1950, p. 4.

29. "The Valley Forge Library," Picket Post, February 1962, p. 40.

30. Henry C. Biddle to Parishioners and Friends of the Chapel, August 4, 1965, in Reed Collection, VFNHP.

31. Interview with Dr. Sheldon M. Smith, retired rector of Washington Memorial Chapel, June 24, 1992.

32. Ibid.

33. Frank Law to Mr. Moll, January 30, 1968, Record Group 46, Pennsylvania State Archives.

34. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 28, 1976, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

35. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, December 9, 1967.

36. W. L. Cremers of the vestry to Francis Forbes, 3rd vice president of Valley Forge Historical Society, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, filed after February 13, 1968.

37. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 24, 1969, Record Group. 46, VFNHP.

38. Interview with Dr. Sheldon M. Smith, June 24, 1992.

39. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, December 15, 1969.

40. Howard Gross to the vestry, May 25, 1972, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, filed after June 26, 1972.

41. Secretary of the Vestry William Gesner to Howard Gross, June 19, 1972, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

42. Building Inspector, Notes on Inspection, July 11, 1972, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

43. Margaret Roshong to Park Commissioners, March 2, 1970, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 23, 1970, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

44. Margaret Roshong to Charles E. Mather, March 21, 1970, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 23, 1970, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

45. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 24, 1973, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

46. Proposed Agreement between Valley Forge Historical Society and Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, May 14, 1975, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, May 14, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP

47. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, December 11, 1976.

48. Ibid., April 1, 1978.

49. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, May 23, 1979.

50. Ibid.

51. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, November 10, 1979.

52. Julia Cass, "Valley Forge Pits a Church Against History," Philadelphia Inquirer, January 6, 1980.

53. Meade Jones to Dear DAR Member, October 1, 1979, in Litigation Papers of the Valley Forge Historical Society, Valley Forge, Pa.

54. Frank Law to Friends of the Washington Memorial Chapel, January 1980, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

55. Sheldon Smith to Dear Friends, May 19, 1980, reprinted in Chapel Dateline, filed in Litigation Papers of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

56. Meade Jones to the Rt. Rev. Lyman C. Ogilby, July 6, 1979, General Files of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

57. Interview with Meade Jones, President of the Valley Forge Historical Society, August 7, 1992.

58. William Scott Margaree III to Meade Jones, March 29, 1978, in Litigation Papers of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

59. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, December 15, 1984.

60. Interview with Dr. Sheldon M. Smith, June 24, 1992.

61. Collections Policy adopted in 1985, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, January 26, 1985.

62. Press release by the Valley Forge Historical Society, February 22, 1982, in Litigation Papers of the Valley Forge Historical Society.

63 "Valley Forge Historical Society Permanent Exhibit Opened July 4, 1984," Valley Forge Journal, December 1984, p. 146.

64. Message from the President," Valley Forge Journal, June 1982, p. 5.

65. Michael Kammen to Meade Jones, November 24, 1981, in Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, January 30, 1982.

66. Toby Raphael, "An American Treasure Preserved," Picket Post, 2nd quarter 1979, pp. 15—17.

 
Chapter 11: New Interpretations at Valley Forge

1. "Question Box," Picket Post, July 1971, p. 40.

2. W. Herbert Burk, Washington at Valley Forge: A Drama, act 1, scene 4.

3. "General's Wife Played Dominant Role in Camp," Daily Republican, June 30, 1950.

4. Edward Pinkowsky, Washington's Officers Slept Here (Philadelphia: Sunshine Press, 1953), p. 6.

5. Virginia L. Atkinson, "Campfollowers of the American Revolution," Picket Post, Summer 1976, pp. 13—17. To this day, little is known about women at Valley Forge, mainly because there is no primary source material. We do know that certain officers' wives were present and did gather together to socialize, but whether they made any contribution to the welfare of the common soldiers is unknown. It is also known that campfollowers were present, and their roles as nurses and laundresses are mentioned. Exactly how these women lived and where they were housed is unknown.

6. Dodd and Dodd, Varnum's Quarters, p. 14.

7. Interview with Tom McGimsey, August 5, 1992.

8. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, pp. 43—45, 54.

9. Ibid., p 46

10. Ibid., p. 125.

11. Interview with Tom McGimsey, August 5, 1992

12. Anne Woodward, A Furnishing Plan for the Headquarters of General George Washington at Valley Forge, Pa. (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge State Park, 1974), pp. 1, 10—11, 19, 37, 43, 65.

13. Valley Forge National Historical Park, Interpretive Prospectus (Valley Forge, Pa. , February 15, p. 9.

14. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, November 26, 1963, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

15. Dodd and Dodd, Washington's Headquarters, p. 53. Since then, many changes have been made in the interests of historical accuracy.

16. Joan Perkolup, " 'Soldier' Puts Life into Revolutionary Tales at Valley Forge," Philadelphia Bulletin, August 23, 1970.

17. Betty Sampson, "History of the Valley Forge Living History Volunteers, 1974—1976," in Record Group 2, VFNHP.

18. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, April 26, 1971, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

19. "Park Panel Sets Strict 'Bicen' Policy," Norristown Times Herald, May 1, 1971.

20. Alfred Stern, "A Preliminary Report on Operation Valley Forge," June 1949, in Record Group 2, VFNHP.

21. Barry Spyker, "Ballad of Valley Forge: Hills Come Alive with Music," Norristown Times Herald, May 10, 1976.

22. "The Great Cow Chase" (handbill), Reed Collection, VFNHP.

23. Press Kit for Bicentennial Wagon Train Pilgrimage, in Record Group. 2, VFNHP.

24. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, March 24, 1975, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

25. George H. Ebner to Creed C. Black, n.d., in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, June 28, 1976, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

26. Editorial, Picket Post, 4th quarter 1976, p. 4.

27. Unrau, Administrative History, p. 608.

28. Interview with Richard Wells, April 22, 1993. At the time the GMP was written, Wells was team captain of the Planning Team, Mid-Atlantic/North Atlantic Team, Denver Service Center.

29. Wallace B. Elms to Regional Director, December 7, 1984, Alfred H. Link to Joseph W. Westner, December 18, 1984, Wallace B. Elms to Regional Director, February 8, 1985. The papers in notes 29 through 33 were privately obtained through public information officer, National Park Service, Mid.Atlantic Regional Office, Philadelphia.

30. Wallace B. Elms to Regional Director, February 8, 1985, Mary C. Carroll to Edwin G. Holl, March 15, 1985.

31. James W. Coleman Jr. to Regional Director, September 23, 1985.

32. Supplementary Case/Incident Report, October 5, 1985, no. 850839, VFNHP.

33. Wayne Bodle to Dr. Larry E. Tise, March 14, 1986, William Penn Most Jr. to John Fowler, July 29, 1986.

34. Helen Schenek, "Archaeological Prospecting at Valley Forge," Journal of the Museum of Applied Sciences Center for Archaeology, December 1978, p. 16.

35. Valley Forge Park Commission, Report . . . 1 June 1958 to 31 May 1960, Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, September 27, 1960, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

36. Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, February 24, 1964, VFNHP.

37. Michael Parrington, Helen Schenek, and Jacqueline Thibaut, "The Material World of the Revolutionary War Soldier at Valley Forge, " in The Scope of Historical Archaeology: Essays in Honor of John L. Cotter, ed. David G. Orr and Daniel G. Crozier (Philadelphia: Temple University, Department of Anthropology, 1984), pp. 132—133, Douglas C. George, Archaeological Collection Management at Valley Forge (Philadelphia: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, February 1986), p. 32.

38. Parrington, Schenek, and Thibaut, "Material World of the Revolutionary Soldier," p. 130.

39. John L. Cotter, "Preliminary Report on Archaeological Investigations at the Pennsylvania Encampment at Valley Forge, July—October, 1966," pp. 1—8, Record Group 2, VFNHP.

40. Parrington, Schenek, and Thibault, "Material World of the Revolutionary Soldier," pp. 134—138.

41. George, Archaeological Collection Management, pp. 48—51.

42. "State of the Union, " handwritten report inserted in Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission, January 22, 1973, Record Group 46, VFNHP.

43. George, Archaeological Collection Management, p. 6.

44. Patterns of the Past: Geophysical and Aerial Reconnaissance at Valley Forge, " report edited by Elizabeth Ralph and Michael Parrington, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

45. Louis J. Venuto to Chief of Interpretation, August 31, 1983, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

46. Interview with Joseph Lee Boyle, historian at Valley Forge National Historical Park, April 14, 1993.

47. Wayne K. Bodle The Vortex of Small Fortunes: The Continental Army at Valley Forge, 1777—1778, vol. 1 of Valley Forge Report (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1980—82), p. 76.

48. Ibid., pp. 77, 81.

49. Ibid., p. 97.

50. Ibid., p. 123.

51. Ibid., p. 351.

52. Jacqueline Thibaut, The Fatal Crisis: Logistics and the Continental Army at Valley Forge, 1777—1778, vol. 2 of Valley Forge Report, ed. Wayne K. Bodle and Jacqueline Thibaut (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1980—82), pp. 227, 237.

53. Ibid., p 267.

54. Ibid., p 339.

55. Ibid., p 371.

56. Ibid., p 392.

57. Ibid., pp. 664—665.

58. Ibid., p. 666.

59. John F. Reed, Valley Forge: Crucible of Victory (Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Freneau Press, 1969), p. 5

60. Ibid., p. 41.

61. Ibid., p. 68.

62. John B B Trussell Jr , Birthplace of an Army: A Story of the Valley Forge Encampment (1976, reprint, Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1983), p. iii.

63 Ibid., pp. 5—10, 111.

64. Ibid., p. 116.

65. John Shy to Gil Lusk, August 20, 1979, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

66. Charles W. Snell to Chief Historian, November 17, 1980, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

67. Charles W. Snell to Chief Historian, November 18, 1980, Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

68. John Luzader to Chief Historian, n.d., Valley Forge National Historical Park Archives.

69. Memorandum to Associate Director of Cultural Resources from Regional Director of Mid. Atlantic Region, March 2, 1984, Files of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, National Park Service, Philadelphia. The additional studies included a demographic analysis of the Continental Army at Valley Forge, a study on the life of the common soldier at Valley Forge, a study of revisionist interpretations of the Valley Forge encampment, a study of the impact of regional geography economics and demography on the Valley Forge encampment, and a study of the organization and effective strength of the main Continental Army. So far, only the first additional study has been done.

70. Richard. L. Blanco, The War of the American Revolution: A Selected Bibliography of Published Sources (New York: Garland, 1984), entry no. 737.

71. Valley Forge National Historical Park, Interpretive Prospectus (Valley Forge, Pa., February 15, 1982), pp. 2, 3, 6.

72. Interview with Bob Dodson, Chief of Interpretation at Valley Forge National Historical Park, August 3, 1992.

73. David M. Lockwood, "The Symbolism of Valley Forge Restored," Suburban and Wayne Times, July 20,1989.

74. David M. Lockwood, "Suffering of Washington's Army Was Very Real," Suburban and Wayne Times, July 27, 1989.

75. Minutes of the Valley Forge Historical Society, November 18, 1989.

76. Ibid., January 18, 1990.

77. Ibid., March 18, 1990.

78. John Bruce Dodd and. Cherry Dodd, Historic Structure Report: The Philander Knox Estate (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1981), p. 116.

79. Interview with Tom McGimsey, historic architect as Valley Forge National Historical Park, August 5, 1992.

80. The Kennedy-Supplee Mansion (Wayne, Pa.: Middle States Preservation, December 1986), p. 2.

81. John Bruce Dodd, Classified Structure Field Inventory Report, Kennedy-Supplee Mansion (Valley Forge, Pa.: Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1979).

82. James Kurtz, Archaeological Inventory and Assessment: The Western Portion (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, 1990), introduction.

83. Ibid., p. 297.

 
Epilogue: Valley Forge—Past, Present, Future

1. Interview with Dr. Richard Stinson, Director of Washington Memorial Chapel, August 13, 1992.

2. Chuck Bauerlein, "Teaching America About Freedom," Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, December 18, 1983, p. 28.

3. Interview with Robert W. Miller, President, Betty Miller (his wife), and Charles Hepburn, Vice President, Freedoms Foundation, September 11, 1992.

4. 1990: The Year in Review (Valley Forge, Pa.: Freedoms Foundation, n.d.).

5. Charles Hepburn, "An Examination of Certain Passages from Barbara MacDonald Powell, 'The Most Celebrated Encampment: Valley Forge in American Culture, 1777—1983,' " p. 7, in Vertical Files at Horace Willcox Library, VFNHP.

6. Interview with Denny Beach, August 3, 1992.

7. Al Kerr to Editor, Philadelphia Inquirer, March 29, 1992

8. Interview with Denny Beach, August 3, 1992.

9. Thomas Clinton McGimsey, "Untangling the History of the Pawling Wetherill House at Walnut Hill Estate" (M.S. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1992), pp. 70—71, available at Horace Willcox Memorial Library, VFNHP.

10. Interview with Denny Beach, August 3, 1992.

Did You Know?

Particpants of the Revolutionary Run Events

Valley Forge has 1.3 million visitors a year who enjoy the beauty, history, and trails and recreational resources of the Park. One third are regional repeat users.