• Sunlight illuminates the top of historic Mission San José de Tumacácori church.

    Tumacácori

    National Historical Park Arizona

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  • Anza Trail Impassable in Areas

    Due to a large flood event, sections of the Anza Trail between the mission grounds and Tubac are impassable to both hikers and horses. Visitors may use the trail north to the first river crossing, but travel beyond that point is not recommended.

  • Pet Policy

    In compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations and Superintendent's Compendium, Tumacácori prohibits pets from all government buildings and the mission grounds. More »

Tumacácori's Timeline

1572
Indians kill pioneering Jesuit missionaries in Florida and on Chesapeake Bay. These failures, and a rebellion by Indians at a mission in what would become Carolina, cause Jesuits to shift efforst to New Spain

1687
Father Eusebio Francisco Kino is first Jesuit missionary permanently assigned to Pimería Alta

1691
Father Kino first visits Tumacácori and Guevavi at request of Indians from those villages and San Xavier del Bac. The Father Visitor there with Kino, impressed by this tribe of the Pima nation and their land, decides to expand the missionary effort there.

1749
At Guevavi, in February and March, disease kills nearly two neophytes daily.

1751
Pima Revolt: Indians kill two priests and more than 100 settlers and destroy buildings at several missions. Tumacácori and Guevavi temporarily abandoned.

1753
In response to the revolt, a presidio is built at Tubac, and Tumacácori is moved to the west side of the river. Name is changed from San Cayetano de Tumacácori to San José de Tumacácori.

1757
New missionary completes a small church that serves for 65 years.

1767-68
Jesuits are expelled from New Spain. Franciscans are assigned to former Jesuit missions.

1771
Mission headquarters is moved from Guevavi to Tumacácori; for the first time the mission has a resident priest.

early 1770's
Franciscans redecorate church, build adobe dwellings for Pimas, and wall-in the mission.

circa 1800
Franciscans begin building larger church. Lack of funds soon brings construction to a halt.

1801
A June Apache attack nearly wipes out all of Tumacácori's livestock.

1821
Mexican Independence: Church construction resumes, but Spain withdraws aid to missions, and the work ceases.

1823
Final phase of church construction begins.

1828
Mexico orders Spanish-born residents to leave the country. Only the native-born Mexican priests are left to care for missions, causing an extreme shortage of priest administrators. Tumacácori becomes a visita again.

1848
War with Mexico cuts supply lines. The Apache increase attacks, and the winter is extremely cold. In December soldiers abandon Tubac; the last residents leave Tumacácori.

1853
Gadsden Purchase: The Tumacácori sites becomes part of the United States.

1908
President Theordore Roosevelt proclaims Tumacácori National Monument on 10 acres of land relinquished by local homesteader Carmen Mendez.

1918
First custodian (Frank Pinkley) assigned to Tumacácori. Clean-up and stabilization begins a year later.

1937
Visitor Center and Museum are built according to traditional mission style as observed in northern Sonora.

1990
Congress creates Tumacácori National Historical Park which includes the old monument land and the missions of Guevavi and Calabazas.

2002
Approximately 310 acres of neighboring land is authorized by Congress to be added to Tumacácori National Historical Park. This includes the historic orchard area, one mile of Santa Cruz River corridor, and a section of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail.


Did You Know?

Did You Know?

The Santa Cruz River begins in the Patagonia Mountains of southern Arizona, runs south into Mexico, makes a sweeping U-turn and continues north through Sonora, Mexico and Arizona to join the Gila River and eventually the Colorado River which empties into the Gulf of California.