• Lower Cliff Dwelling


    National Monument Arizona

Research Projects

Lower Cliff Dwelling excavation

Lower Cliff Dwelling excavation

NPS Photo

Tonto National Monument's unique and varied resources have attracted scientists for many years. Much of what we know about the monument's archeological, biological and physical resources has been learned through past research. Yet, much still remains to be discovered. Click on the links for more information.

Natural Resources research projects

Cultural Resources research projects

The National Park Service partnered with Northern Arizona University to produce a series of overviews and fact sheets on Tonto National Monument. Click on the links to view these PDF documents.

Environment of the Tonto Basin

Geologic History
Geology at Tonto National Monument
Geology of Lower Ruins
Geologic Features
What Does Salado Mean?
Salado Overview
Roosevelt Red Wares and Salado Polychrome

Upper Cliff Dwelling Construction Sequence
Lower Cliff Dwelling Construction Sequence
Southwestern National Monuments 1918 - 1956

Did You Know?

crested saguaro

Tonto National Monument is home to a crested saguaro. Botanists disagree as to why some saguaros grow in this unusual form. Some speculate that it is a genetic mutation. Others say it is the result of lightning or freeze damage. About one in 150,000 saguaros develop this unusual growth.