• Lower Cliff Dwelling


    National Monument Arizona

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  • Visitor Center is closed

    The Visitor Center and bookstore will be closed for several weeks for construction. A temporary Visitor Center will be set up in the parking lot. The trail to the Lower Cliff Dwelling will be open during this period. No entrance fees will be collected.

Ground Snake

ground snake

Ground Snake

NPS Photo

Ground Snake
Sonora semiannulata

Body length: 8 - 18"
Diet: Small arthropods

Ground snakes are true ground-dwellers, as their name suggests. They live in tunnel and rock crevice networks, feeding on arthropods such as spiders, centipedes, scorpions, and crickets. Small and secretive, ground snakes are rarely seen by humans. When found, they are easy to confuse with a variety of other snakes. In the Tonto Basin, ground snakes often have dark heads (as in the photo) and resemble blackhead snakes. However, while ground snakes have whitish bellies, blackhead snakes are red or orange underneath.

Ground snakes and several other small snakes have small fangs in the rear of their mouths that deliver a mild venom. Their bite may immobilize their tiny prey, but is certainly not dangerous to humans. At Tonto National Monument, they appear to be most common on shallow slopes at lower elevations.

Did You Know?

western diamondback rattlesnake

Tonto National Monument is home to at least 160 species of birds, 6 species of amphibians, 32 species of reptiles, 26 species of land mammals, and at least 14 species of bats. More...