• Lower Cliff Dwelling


    National Monument Arizona

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  • Visitor Center is closed

    The Visitor Center and bookstore will be closed for several weeks for construction. A temporary Visitor Center will be set up in the parking lot. The trail to the Lower Cliff Dwelling will be open during this period. No entrance fees will be collected.

Couch's Spadefoot

couch's spadefoot toad

Couch's Spadefoot

NPS Photo

Couch's Spadefoot
Scaphiopus couchii

Body length: 2 1/4 - 3 1/2"
Diet: Arthropods, particularly termites

Couch's spadefoots are the original couch potatoes. For most of the year they sit in holes deep underground. Stimulated by the sound of the first summer rains, spadefoots burrow upward and emerge into the wet desert. Hopping to temporary pools created by the rain, the males call loudly to attract females. Over 90% of breeding occurs on that first rainy night.

Following breeding, the eggs and larvae develop quickly, faster than any other American frog or toad. In warm water, eggs hatch within 15 hours. While some frog tadpoles take over a year to develop, spadefoot tadpoles metamorphose into toads in 11 - 12 days, often only hours ahead of the drying pools. Scientists have determined that this remarkable toad is capable of eating enough food in one evening -- up to 55% of its body weight, usually in termites -- to enable it to survive an entire year! The "spade" located on each rear foot is a small knob which helps this species dig more efficiently.

Did You Know?

snow in the desert

Tonto National Monument averages 15" of rain annually. Snow is a rare occurrence, but as long as temperatures remain above freezing, the saguaros don't seem to mind!