• Sunrise over the Fort George River in the Timucuan Preserve.


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  • Fort Caroline Closed on November 2nd

    Fort Caroline National Memorial including Spanish Pond will be closed to the public on Sunday November 2nd, 2014. The visitor center and trails will reopen on Monday the 3rd of November. The Theodore Roosevelt Area and Ribault Column will remain open.

Territorial Change in Florida

Cover of Zephaniah Kingsley's Treatise

Kingsley's Treatise

When Florida became a United States territory in 1821, Zephaniah Kingsley was an influential, wealthy planter. He was considered “a classical scholar” by one of his peers, Congressional delegate Joseph M. White.

In 1823, Kingsley was appointed to the second Florida Legislative Council by the local representative for President Monroe. In a speech to the Legislature, Kingsley addressed a subject of concern to the lawmakers: the black population of Florida—both slave and free.

Although Kingsley advocated fair treatment of black freemen for the purpose of enlisting their support in controlling slaves, the majority of Southern slave owners feared free blacks. The prevailing attitude of Florida legislators was to aggressively enforce severely restrictive laws pertaining to the freemen.

A planter who defended, and profited by, the institution of slavery, Kingsley wrote and published, in 1829, his opinions on a “patriarchal” system of slavery and furthered his arguments for “liberal provisions” for free blacks. In the Treatise, Kingsley used one of his plantations as an example and presented an idealized picture of slave life.

To read an excerpt from Kingsley's Treatise, click here.

Continue to The Move to Haiti.

Return to History of Kingsley Plantation.

Did You Know?

Florida Territorial Governor William Pope Duval

One of the Huguenot inhabitants of la Caroline had the surname of "DuVal.” Jacksonville, Florida, where the national memorial is located, is within Duval County which is named for Florida's first civilian territorial governor, William Pope Duval, a Huguenot descendant. More...