Lesson Plan

Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure - A Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plan

Cliff dwelling
Cliff dwelling
Courtesy of Tonto National Monument

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Grade Level:
Fifth Grade-Twelfth Grade
Subject:
American Indian History and Culture, Archaeology, History, Westward Expansion
Duration:
Variable. Adaptable to student and teacher needs.
Group Size:
Up to 36
Setting:
indoors or outdoors
National/State Standards:
Relevant U.S. History Standards for Grades 5-12: Era 1 - Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620) Standard 1A; Era 4 - Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) Standard 2E; Era 6 - The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900) Standard 1D
Keywords:
lesson plan, Teaching with Historic Places, Tonto National Monument, Arizona History, american indian history, archeology, American Antiquities Act of 1906, Conservation movement, Salado culture, Westward Expansion, cliff dwellings, Tonto Basin, U.S. Government Policy

Overview

Using the National Register of Historic Places nomination form for Tonto National Monument Archaeological District and National Monument, this lesson will describe how archaeology helped researchers learn about the Salado culture of the Tonto Basin and the importance of preserving remains of the Salado and other cultures. Students will use maps, readings, documents, photos, drawings and illustrations to tell the story of preservation and history.

Objective(s)

  1. Describe how archaeology helped researchers learn about the Salado culture of the Tonto Basin, including why they lived in cliff dwellings.
  2. Explain the importance of preserving remains of the Salado and other cultures from the past.
  3. Outline the circumstances that led to the passage of the 1906 Antiquities Act and explain the impact the act had on the preservation of ancient ruins.
  4. Debate the relative merits of preserving a historic place in their community or allowing the site to be developed.




Background

Information on how to use a Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan can be found here.

Historical context for the lesson plan topic can be found in the lessons Setting the Stage section.



Materials

  1. One map of Tonto National Monument and the surrounding area; 
  2. Three readings about how archaeology helped us learn about the history of the Salado people, the history of the Antiquities Act, and its effects on America's preservation and conservation efforts; 
  3. One document, the American Antiquities Act of 1906; 
  4. Seven photos of the cliff dwellings, the 1876 Centennial Exhibition, Salado pottery, a woven shirt, and sandals; 
  5. One drawing of Upper and Lower Cliff Dwellings; 
  6. One illustration showing the location of all national monuments.  


Procedure

Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure

Each Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan contains the following teaching activities: Getting Started (inquiry question), Setting the Stage (historical background), Locating the Site (maps), Determining the Facts (readings, documents, charts), Visual Evidence (photographs and other graphic documents), and Putting It All Together (activities). See Parts 2-7 for information about how to use these resources.

Click here to go directly to the lesson plan.

Getting Started

Begin this lesson by asking students to discuss possible answers to the inquiry question that accompanies the "Getting Started" image. Provide them with paper print-outs of the image and question, or direct them to the lesson plan website. To facilitate a whole class discussion, you may want to print or scan the image to make an overhead transparency or digital slide. The purpose of this exercise is to engage students' interest in the lesson's topic by raising questions that can be answered as they complete the lesson.

Rather than serving merely as an illustration for the text, the image is a document that plays an integral role in helping students achieve the lesson's objective. To assist students in learning how to "read" visual materials you may want to begin this section by having them complete the Photo Analysis Worksheet for one or more of the photos. The worksheet is appropriate for analyzing both historical and recent photographs and will help students develop a valuable skill.

Getting Started section for this lesson

Setting the Stage

This section is intended to be used, if necessary, as background material. Read this material aloud to students or summarize it, or provide them with paper print-outs, or direct them to the lesson plan website. If students have computers, you can direct them to the page on the website.

Setting the Stage section for this lesson

Locating the Site

Provide students with the maps and questions included in Locating the Site. You can give them paper print-outs or direct them to the lesson plan website. Have students work individually or in small groups to complete the questions. At least one map familiarizes the students with the historic site's location within the country, state or region. Extended captions may be included to provide students with information necessary to answer the questions.

Locating the Site section in this lesson

Determining the Facts

Provide students with copies of the readings, documents and/or charts included in this section or direct them to the lesson plan website. Allow students to work individually or in small groups. The series of questions that accompanies each of these readings is designed to ensure that students have gathered the appropriate facts from the material.

Determining the Facts section for this lesson

Visual Evidence: Images

Distribute the lesson's visual materials among students. Provide them with paper print-outs, or direct them to the lesson plan website. Have the students examine the photographs and answer the related questions. Note that two or more images may be studied together in order to complete the questions. Extended captions may be included to provide students with important information.

Rather than serving merely as illustrations for the text, the images are documents that play an integral role in helping students achieve the lesson's objectives. To assist students in learning how to "read" visual materials, you may want to begin this section by having them complete the Photo Analysis Worksheet for one or more of the photos.

Visual Evidence: Images section for this lesson

Putting It All Together

After students have completed the questions that accompany the maps, readings and visuals, they should be directed to complete one or more of the activities presented below. These activities engage students in a variety of creative exercises that help them synthesize the information they have learned and formulate conclusions. At least one activity leads students to look for places in their community that relate to the topic of the lesson. In this way students learn to make connections between their community and the broader themes of American history they encounter in their studies.

Putting It All Together section for this lesson

Assessment

Assessment is built into the lesson plan in the form of questions for all documents, including maps and images, and in the student products completed for Step 7, Putting it All Together.

Additional Resources

Students and educators who want to know more can find sources of additional information (with links) here: Supplementary Resources.