Lesson Plan

The Battle of Stones River: A Contrast in Leadership Styles (Classroom Activities)

General Braxton Bragg and General William Rosecrans
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

Overall Rating

Add your review (0 reviews)
Grade Level:
Eighth Grade-College Undergraduate Level
Subject:
Civil War, Leadership, Military and Wartime History, Political Science, Psychology
Duration:
3 Days
Group Size:
Up to 36
Setting:
classroom
National/State Standards:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.7 & 12.9 / CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1 & 12.1a / TN US Gov 6.0 (LE 6.1 & 6.2) / TN Sociology 4.0 (LE 4.2) / TN US History 4.0 / TN CTE-Ag. Leadership Communications 1.0 (LE 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 & 1.5)

Overview

Compare the leadership styles of Generals Braxton Bragg and William S. Rosecrans during their bloody confrontation at Stones River. Students will discover how to apply the seven habits of highly effective people to a historical event.

Objective(s)

1.        Describe Leadership. (Day 1)

 

2.        Explain the major types and styles of leaders. (Day 1)

 

3.        Describe the Leadership types and styles of US Commanding General William S. Rosecrans and Confederate Commanding General Braxton Bragg at the Battle of Stones River. (Day 2)

 

4.         Apply by Comparing and Contrasting how these types and styles of leadership demonstrated by Rosecrans and Bragg at the Battle of Stones River made a difference in the outcome of the battle. (Day 3 & Day 4)



Background

See Source Document Excerpts.

Materials



Procedure

Day 1 Procedure:

 

Introduction of the Lesson/ Getting Started/Essential Question:

TTW ask students: Discussion: What characteristics define a good leader?

  

Essential Question: Which commanding general, William S. Rosecrans or Braxton Bragg, demonstrated better leadership qualities to impact the outcome of the Battle of Stones River? After reading selected excerpts from biographies of each general, excerpts from Stones River – Bloody Winter in Tennessee, additional primary source documents, as well as, summary information from Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Steven Covey, write a newspaper or blog article that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text.

 

Vocabulary Builder – Key Vocabulary: Leader, Leadership styles, Authoritarian leader, Democratic leader, Expressive leader, Instrumental leader, and Laissez-faire leader:

 

Also go over the Essential Question and Sections that will be covered to accomplish the goal!

 

Hook:

Begin Class with Video Clip on Leadership: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/leadership-styles-and-types-authoritarian-laissez-faire-democratic.html

Reaction:  After watching the video clip get student opinions on: Which type makes the best leader? Why??

 

Lecture:

Write on board: "Leadership is _____________________."

A good leader does:

1.    ___________________________________________.

2.    ___________________________________________.

3.    ___________________________________________.

 

Solicit student responses to information placed on board.

 

 Teach Key Concepts and Vocabulary – Pass out Leadership Primer and have students read the first page regarding Leadership terms and concepts.

 

Build Background Knowledge - Ask students to evaluate differences between good leaders and bad leaders. Check board and evaluate the "Good Leader" list and ask class to change or add any characteristics.                                

 

Develop Understanding -   After reviewing the "Good Leader" list. Now create a "Bad Leader" listing. Write on board:

A bad leader does:

1, ___________________________________________.

2.    ___________________________________________.

3.    ___________________________________________.

 

Monitor Comprehension - Ask students: Which leader they would like to serve under?

Curriculum Correlation:

TTW explain to students that leadership is more than just about US Government and US History, but Sociology and Agriculture. Have students look over the Leadership Handout and Teacher will post PowerPoint and explain each type of leader and solicit comments how that would affect an organization.                                                                                                     

 

Demo/Modeling: Go to PowerPoint and model each type of Leader and refer back to video: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/leadership-styles-and-types-authoritarian-laissez-faire-democratic.html

 

Checking Understanding:

 

Guided Practice (Group Work):WE DO: To make sure students understand the main points of this lesson, TTW do CHART ACTIVITY.  TTW have chart paper taped to various locations in the room with Leader Types at top of each (Authoritarian leader, Democratic leader, Expressive leader, Instrumental leader, and Laissez-faire leader.) Students will be divided into 5 different groups – Total Number of Student in Class divided by 5. Students will place descriptions regarding the Types of Leaders on each sheet. Groups will rotate for independent practice. After rotation have a spokesperson from each group explain to the class why that type of leader is important.

 

Independent Practice: YOU DO:

Monitor Progress: Assess students' completed CHART ACTIVITY using Leadership Handout to visually identify each Leadership Type. Review the answers to the Leadership Review.

 

 

 

Challenge with Reflection and Lesson Closure:

Students will complete the following question in a free-write: Describe the leadership characteristics of an ideal leader. Why does this make this particular leader effective? Cite examples from this lesson.

 

Teacher will pass out "Source Packet" for use on Day 2 and assign reading of all packet information.

 

Day 2 Procedure:

 

Introduction of the Lesson/ Getting Started/Essential Question:

Explain – Now that you have a general knowledge Types of Leaders and Good and Bad Qualities of Leaders, we will now examine two leaders during the Battle of Stones River.

 

At the end of these four class periods, you will be able to answer the following: 

 

Essential Question: Which commanding general, William S. Rosecrans or Braxton Bragg, demonstrated better leadership qualities to impact the outcome of the Battle of Stones River? After reading selected excerpts from biographies of each general, excerpts from Stones River – Bloody Winter in Tennessee, additional primary source documents, as well as, summary information from Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Steven Covey, write a newspaper or blog article that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text.

 

Vocabulary Builder – Key Vocabulary: Leader, Leadership styles, Authoritarian leader, Democratic leader, Expressive leader, Instrumental leader, and Laissez-faire leader; Confederate General Braxton Bragg; Federal General William S. Rosecrans;

 

Also go over the Essential Question and Sections that will be covered to accomplish the goal!

 

Hook:

Begin Class with Video Clip on Leadership during the Battle of Stones River: [TBD Video from Mike Browning.]

Reaction:  After watching the video clip get student opinions on: Which type makes the best leader? Why??

 

Lecture:

Write on board or display on PowerPoint. Pass out the Comparing Generals Document or have students copy on two sheets of paper from the board/PowerPoint.

 

Union Commanding General                   Confederate Commanding General     

William S. Rosecrans                                Braxton Bragg

Type of Leader: ________________        Type of Leader: ________________

Good Qualities:                                          Good Qualities:

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

Evidences from Text:____________        Evidences from Text: ____________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

Bad Qualities:                                           Bad Qualities:

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

_______________________________       _______________________________

Evidences from Text:____________        Evidences from Text: ____________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

_______________________________      ________________________________

Overall Impression: _____________      Overall Impression: ______________

_______________________________     ________________________________

_______________________________     ________________________________

 

If possible, Divide students into pairs and have one student pick a general and the other will have the opposite general. Have each student to "research" his/her general from the Source Document for approximately five minutes and place comments on Comparing Document. Then have pairs to swap sheets and self-evaluate each other's work. Give students five to seven minutes to share information with each other, and to revise their findings. Some may not have any corrections or additions.

 

Now come back together as a class. Have a couple of students come to the board or computer as "scribes." Get responses from every pair of students and have the scribe to write results on the board/computer.

 

As the Instructional Leader for your class – Discuss any debatable issues comparing the two generals and their Leadership Types/Styles. Is there consensus within the class?? Debatable Issues??

 

 Teach Key Concepts and Vocabulary – Are there any questionable vocabulary on the lists. Did all students have the acceptable types of leaders (Authoritarian leader, Democratic leader, Expressive leader, Instrumental leader, and Laissez-faire leader) from the previous day? Are there any words/phrases/terminology that could be interchanged?  

 

Build Background Knowledge - Ask students to evaluate differences between William S. Rosecrans and Braxton Bragg. Check board and evaluate the list and ask class to change or add any qualities.                               

 

Develop Understanding -   After reviewing the "Good Leader" list. Now create consensus about each leader. Use modeling to depict each General and their roles in the Battle of Stones River.

 

Monitor Comprehension - Ask students: Which commanding general they would like to have served under during the Battle of Stones River?

Curriculum Correlation:

TTW explain to students that leadership is more than just about US Government and US History, but Sociology and Agriculture. Have students look over their Contrasting Generals Document and explain each type of leader and solicit comments how that would affect the Army's organization after the Battle of Stones River.                                                                                                   

 

Demo/Modeling: Pick "volunteers" to portray William S. Rosecrans and Braxton Bragg in a brief five minute sketch.

 

 

Checking Understanding:

 

Guided Practice (Group Work):WE DO: To make sure students understand the main points of this lesson, TTW do REVIEW ACTIVITY.  TTW review main points of each Commanding General – Type of Leader; Good Qualities, Bad Qualities, and Overall Impression from responses listed on board/computer by "scribes." And have students to add or subtract information from their Comparing Generals Document.

 

 

Independent Practice: YOU DO:

Monitor Progress: Assess students' completed Review Activity using Comparing Generals Document to visually identify each Leadership Type. Review the answers to the Leadership Review.

 

Challenge with Reflection and Lesson Closure:

Students will complete the following question in a free-write on the top of their document: "For your exit ticket today, which commanding general would you like to have served under during the Battle of Stones River?  Cite examples from our discussion and turn in to teacher as you leave."  

 

Teacher will pass out "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Summary" for use on Day 3 and assign reading of all packet information.

Day 3 Procedure:

 

Introduction of the Lesson/ Getting Started/Essential Question:

Explain – Now that you have a general knowledge of Types of Leaders, Good and Bad Qualities of Leaders, and evaluated the two major leaders during the Battle of Stones River, today we will apply "proven principles of fairness, integrity, honesty, and human dignity" from The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People to those same leaders.

 

At the end of these four class periods, you will be able to answer the following:  

Essential Question: Which commanding general, William S. Rosecrans or Braxton Bragg, demonstrated better leadership qualities to impact the outcome of the Battle of Stones River? After reading selected excerpts from biographies of each general, excerpts from Stones River – Bloody Winter in Tennessee, additional primary source documents, as well as, summary information from Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Steven Covey, write a newspaper or blog article that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text.

 

Vocabulary Builder – Key Vocabulary: Leader, Leadership styles, Authoritarian leader, Democratic leader, Expressive leader, Instrumental leader, and Laissez-faire leader; Confederate General Braxton Bragg; Federal General William S. Rosecrans; Seven Habits of Highly Effective People include: Habit 1 : Be Proactive; Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind; Habit 3: Put First Things First; Habit 4: Think Win-Win; Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then To Be Understood; Habit 6: Synergize; Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw.

 

Also go over the Essential Question and Sections that will be covered to accomplish the goal!

 

Hook:

Begin Class with Video Clip on the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18qG-hDUzXA&safe=active

Reaction:  After watching the video clip get student opinions on: Which principle do you think is the most important? Why??

 

Lecture:

 

Have student get out The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Summary to use during this lesson. TTW display PowerPoint - http://www.slideshare.net/accountsdirect/leadership-and-7-habits-of-highly-effective-people

 

 TTW will then pass out the "7 Habits of Highly Effective People Applied to the Battle of Stones River Document."

 

TTW will divide the class into 7 groups – Have each student say aloud a number from 1 to 7. Allow all students to get with their respective group. Assign each group one of the 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and for them to select a Spokesperson and a Reporter. TTW give each group two pieces of poster board or chart paper and a marker. Have each group to "research" their "Habit" for approximately five minutes from the and to share information with each other about their "Habit." Have the Reporter of the group collect important information about their habit and place on the poster board/chart paper.  

 

The second part of the group activity is to research the Source Document that was used on Day 2. The objective for this part of the lesson is to APPLY the "Habit" discussed in part 1 to each commanding general. (Students should have already read the Source Document previous to class.) Students will "research" the Source Document and search for ways that each general exhibited a characteristic of the "Habit." This should last for about 5-7 minutes. Each Reporter should copy the following to the poster board/chart paper:

 

Habit # (1-7) :                  ____________________________________________  Principle:__________________________________________________________   

 

William S. Rosecrans: ______________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Evidence from the text: _____________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Braxton Bragg: _______________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Evidence from the text: _____________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Now come back together as a class. TTW will give the following directions. Have each "Habit" Spokesperson display their poster board/chart paper somewhere in the classroom. Then begin an "information walk." Everyone will take the 7 Habits Applied Document to each station and write down the information from the chart to their handout.  There will be 6 rotations so that Habit 1 will rotate to Habit 2, etc. and each station visit will last for 3-4 minutes. So at the end of the rotation, all students will have visited all stations. The 7 Spokespersons will need to copy notes from other students.

 

As the Instructional Leader for your class – Discuss any debatable issues comparing the two generals and their application of the 7 Habits. Are there any  debatable issues or controversies??

 

 Teach Key Concepts and Vocabulary – Are there any questionable vocabulary on the lists. Did all students have the acceptable documentation? Are there any other issues that need clarification?  

 

Build Background Knowledge - Ask students to evaluate differences between William S. Rosecrans and Braxton Bragg. Check stations and evaluate the list and ask class to change or add any differences.                               

 

Develop Understanding - Now create consensus about each leader, and their respective "habits."

 

Monitor Comprehension - Ask students: Which commanding general demonstrated more of the 7 Habits of Highly effective People during the Battle of Stones River?

Curriculum Correlation:

TTW explain to students that leadership is more than just about US Government and US History, but Sociology and Agriculture. Have students look over their Contrasting Generals Document and explain each type of leader and solicit comments how that would affect the Army's organization after the Battle of Stones River.                                                                                                   

 

Demo/Modeling: If time allows have spokespersons to portray William S. Rosecrans and Braxton Bragg in a brief sketch or charcterization.

 

Checking Understanding:

 

Guided Practice (Group Work):WE DO: To make sure students understand the main points of this lesson, TTW do REVIEW ACTIVITY.  TTW review main points of each of the 7 Habits from responses listed on poster board/chart paper by each group. And have students to add or subtract information from their research that has NOT been mentioned.

 

Independent Practice: YOU DO:

Monitor Progress: Assess students' completed 7 Habits Applied Document to visually identify each of the 7 Habits. Review the document as needed.

 

Challenge with Reflection and Lesson Closure:

Students will complete the following question in a free-write on the top of their document: "For your exit ticket today, which of the 7 Habits was the most significant during the Battle of Stones River?Cite examples from our discussion and turn in to teacher as you leave."

 

Teacher will remind students of the Field Trip or Virtual Field Trip for Day 4 of the Unit.

Assessment

Formal: Assess – Chapter – EXAM with 80% Minimum Mastery.

Essential Question regarding: Which commanding general, William S. Rosecrans or Braxton Bragg, demonstrated better leadership qualities to impact the outcome of the Battle of Stones River? After reading selected excerpts from biographies of each general, excerpts from Stones River – Bloody Winter in Tennessee, additional primary source documents, as well as, summary information from Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Steven Covey, write a newspaper or blog article that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text. This article/blog will be posted to a public source (Class Blog or Local Newspaper or School Student Newspaper) after grading; Student Portfolio /Notebook will be checked for minimum participation on this Section. 

Teacher will use the CCSS Argumentative Rubric for scoring the completed newspaper article/blog. The Argumentative Rubric may be found at: http://tncore.org/sites/www/Uploads/TNCORE/Rubrics/OpArgRubric-Gr9-12-Literacy.pdf 

Informal: Student Participation will be monitored throughout the lesson with the utmost prerogative being every skill being achieved by every learner every time.  

On-going: This lesson will be used as a "springboard" and an essential step to completing the Unit on Leadership. 

Unit Assessment: UNIT EXAM with 80% Minimum Mastery  



Additional Resources

Texts: Source Packet with Primary Source Excerpts from the following sources:

 

Edge of Gloryby William Lamers; Paperback: 520 pages; Publisher: Louisiana State University Press; Louisiana pbk. ed edition (May 1, 1999); Language: English; ISBN-10: 080712396X; ISBN-13: 978-0807123966.

General Braxton Bragg, C.S.A.by Samuel J. Martin; Hardback: 536 pages; Publisher: Publisher: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers Publication date: 4/26/2011 Language: English; ISBN-13:. ISBN-13: 9780786459346.

 

 Stones River – Bloody Winter in Tennessee by James Lee McDonough: Paperback: 286 pages; Publisher: University of Tennessee Press; 1 edition (January 31, 1983); Language: English; ISBN-10: 0870493736; ISBN-13: 978-0870493737.

 

Common Core State Standards – Argumentative Rubric

Classroom Presentation Computer with Dell Projector

 

Videos:

Types of Leadership: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/leadership-styles-and-types-authoritarian-laissez-faire-democratic.html

 

Video Clip on Leadership during the Battle of Stones River: [TBD Video from Mike Browning.]

 

Video Clip on the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18qG-hDUzXA&safe=active

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Summary PowerPoint: http://www.slideshare.net/accountsdirect/leadership-and-7-habits-of-highly-effective-people

CCSS Argumentative Rubric for scoring the completed newspaper article/blog. The Argumentative Rubric may be found at: http://tncore.org/sites/www/Uploads/TNCORE/Rubrics/OpArgRubric-Gr9-12-Literacy.pdf



Vocabulary

Leader: Someone who influences other people.

Leadership styles: Ways in which people express their leadership.

Authoritarian leader: A leader who leads by giving orders.

Democratic leader: An individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus.

Expressive leader: An individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader.

Instrumental leader: An individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task-oriented leader.

Laissez-faire leader: An individual who leads by being highly permissive.