National Park Service

State of the Park Reports

State of the Park Report for Salem Maritime National Historic Site

Cultural Resources

Women in traditional dress walk past St. Joseph Hall on Derby Street during a Polish Community parade, c. 1940. Salem Maritime's buildings can be seen in the background. (NPS collections)
Women in traditional dress walk past St. Joseph Hall on Derby Street during a Polish Community parade, c. 1940. Salem Maritime's buildings can be seen in the background. (NPS collections)

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Archeological Resources Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
A total of nine National Register contributing archeological sites have been identified within the district, the majority of which are directly related to its maritime shipping history. The two largest resources include the buried remains of Derby and Central wharves, dating from 1762 to 1914. In addition to the wharf structures, a number of commercial building and warehouse remains dating from 1765 to 1938 also have been identified including Elias Hasket Derby's counting House or Upper Store Site, the Forrester Warehouse Foundation, Forrester's Warehouse 77 Site, John Derby's "New" Store, John Prince's Store, and the Office and Shed 74 site. Finally, the Narbonne House Site, a residential site with an occupancy spanning from 1675 to 1927, has also been identified as a contributing archeological resource (from 2012 National Register update).

There are some concerns as to the reliability of the ASMIS survey that was completed in 2005 so the status of archeological resources in Salem is green and stable with medium confidence in the information/metrics presented here. It should also be noted that there are a significant number of undocumented sites, with no immediate plan to examine most of them; many of these may qualify as local resources for ASMIS.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Knowledge Percent of sites with known date ranges associated with them Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Archeological Overview and Assessment (2005), Salem Maritime National Historic Site Historical Research 1626–1990 (1991), Narbonne House Investigations (1982), Derby and Central Wharf Investigations (1998), Terrestrial and Marine archeological remote sensing and archeological monitoring (1995); most known sites at the park are associated with a research theme.
Inventory Percent of park intensively studied Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is improving; low confidence in the assessment. ASMIS survey completed within O&A done 7 years ago. Inventory is complete but reliability unknown; some sites may be better classified as local resources. Derby Counting House survey is underway.
Condition Percentage of archeological resources in good condition Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Regional archeologist receives multiple PEPC statements, indicating that effects on archeological resources are taken into account for projects. 86% of listed sites (57 of 66) are listed in good condition. All sites in the park are considered stable.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Cultural Anthropology and Ethnographic Resources Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.Brief - St. Joseph Hall
At the time of European settlement, the Naumkeag people, the Native Americans inhabiting the Salem area, were part of a loose confederation known as the Pawtucket or Penacook Indians. Smallpox epidemics, hostility between tribes, and the encroachment of European settlers pushed these people north and west. Salem was founded in 1626, and by the end of the 18th century, it was one of the leading international trading ports in the United States.

Descendants of shipping families remain an important element in the composition of contemporary community. Subsequent industrial activity attracted a succession of immigrant populations which formed their own communities in Salem, including Irish, Polish and other groups, in the 19th and 20th centuries. The park site is situated in the heart of what was the former Polish neighborhood, and it preserves an historic meeting hall which was an important social institution in the Polish community.

Overall, ethnographic resources for the park appear to be good, but there is much work that can be done to expand the body of knowledge for the park. A rating of unchanging green, with a high level of confidence expresses the quality of the work that has been completed to date, as well as the potential for further scholarship.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Knowledge Does sufficient research exist to understand the relationship of the park's ethnographic resources to the historic contexts of the park? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. The Polish community and its relationship to St. Joseph's Hall have been documented. An Ethnographic Overview and Assessment study to identify other social and ethnic groups related to the site is scheduled in the next two years. Groups to be investigated include descendants of shipping families, other European groups that contributed to the development of modern Salem and Native Americans (in conjunction with Saugus). This plan recognizes that the story of Salem and its maritime and immigrant dynamics cannot be told with resources within the park boundaries.
Are there appropriate studies to document ethnographic resources and uses? Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. The community associations with St. Joseph's Hall have been documented and consultations are ongoing. The relationships between the park's historic structures and the descendant community of shipping families will be part of the Ethnographic Overview and Assessment study.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Cultural Landscapes Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is an 8.93-acre historic district that fronts on Salem Harbor in Salem, Massachusetts. The district is historically associated with the important role that Salem played in the development of international maritime trade during from the late 17th century to the mid-19th century. The district is located within an urban setting south of Salem's historic downtown core area around Salem Common.

The cultural landscape is important as a representative and highly intact work of NPS Landscape Architect Norman T. Newton, who created the park's original General Development Plan/Master Plan from 1938 to 1939 under the direction of Chief Architect Thomas Vint. Salem was the first National Historic Site designated under the 1935 Historic Sites Act and Newton's Master Plan reflects early NPS thought regarding the restoration and interpretation of historic properties within the National Park System.

The Master Plan Landscape demonstrates Newton's efforts to enhance visitors' experience through the improvement of views and the incorporation of Colonial Revival style design elements based on historic references. Primary components of the as-built plan include open views of the wharves, a network of sidewalks, wood perimeter fences, plantings, and the retention of pre-existing 19th-century landscaping around the Custom House – Public Stores. Two historic properties north of Derby Street (the Narbonne House and St. Joseph Hall) are excluded from the Master Plan Landscape because the NPS acquired them in the late 20th century. Today, the landscape provides an evocative setting for the historic district's buildings and structures and contains historic resources contributing to the historical and architectural significance of the park.

In general, the condition of the cultural landscape is rated yellow, trending upward with high confidence due to several major projects slated for upcoming years as well as the current progress being made on the Cultural Landscapes Report which will serve as a jumping off point for other documents.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Knowledge Does sufficient research exist to understand the relationship of the park's cultural landscapes to the historic context(s) of the park? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Sufficient research exists, yet the landscape has not been fully documented or evaluated.
Percentage of cultural landscapes evaluated using appropriate historical contexts. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. 100% of cultural landscapes are evaluated using appropriate historical contexts in the National Register documentation (2012).
Inventory Is the scope of cultural landscapes in the park understood? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Scope is understood; landscape is considered fundamental in the context of National Park Service history.
Condition Percentage of cultural landscapes in good condition. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Given the absence of a Cultural Landscape Inventory (CLI) for the park, condition has not been assessed.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Historic Structures Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.
The historic structures that constitute the core of the Salem Maritime National Historic Site (established in 1938) are preserved to tell the story of a once vital and prosperous commercial seaport, whose heyday spanned three centuries. The centerpiece of the site is the three wharves: Derby Wharf (1762), Central Wharf (1791), and Hatch's Wharf (1819). Associated with the wharves are the U.S. Custom House and Public Stores (1819) at the head of Derby Wharf, along with several distinctive domestic structures—the Narbonne House (1675), Derby House (1762), and Hawkes House (1780).

The Custom House was the workplace of author Nathaniel Hawthorne, and his experiences there are featured in the introduction to his novel The Scarlet Letter, while the homes were lived in by the merchants, mariners, craftsmen, and widows who made Salem one of the leading seaports in the country in the 17th through the early 19th centuries. In addition, Salem Maritime has several structures that supported the work on the historic waterfront, including the West India Goods Store (c. 1800), a retail shop built by a resident of the Derby House, the Scale House (1829) where the Customs Service stored equipment, the Forrester Warehouse Foundation (pre-1832) which is the only original remnant of the dozens of warehouses that once stood on the wharves, and Derby Wharf Light Station (1871), erected at the end of Derby Wharf to aid navigation in Salem Harbor. The Hawkes House and West India Goods Store are currently office space and storage space respectively; the rest of the buildings are museum buildings and open regularly to the public.

In recent years, Salem Maritime NHS has acquired three additional historic structures that enhance interpretation and provide additional office space. St. Joseph Hall (1909) was built as a club house by the Polish community that moved into the area around Derby Street in the late 19th century. Today it is administrative offices, maintenance facilities, and an education center. Two warehouses have also been moved to the property: the Central Wharf Warehouse (c. 1805) originally stood a few blocks away, and when it was threatened with demolition, it was moved to the site in 1976 and is now the Orientation Center for Salem Maritime. Pedrick Store House (c. 1770) was also threatened with demolition at its original site in Marblehead. The building was disassembled and conserved in 2003, and reassembled on Derby Wharf beginning in 2007 to serve as an interpretive facility and a maintenance facility for the replica tall ship Friendship, which has been an interpretive exhibit at Derby Wharf since 1999.

Currently, Salem Maritime National Historic Site has 14 historic structures certified in the National Park Service's List of Classified Structures (LCS), with 13 of these structures listed in good condition and 1 in fair condition. There are 14 additional structures in the shadow records, awaiting evaluation based on the 2012 National Register documentation. Of the shadowed structures, 11 are in good condition, 1 in fair condition, and 2 in poor condition. Historic Structures Reports (HSR) exist for nearly all of the certified structures; however, many of these HSRs are at least 40 years old. Historic American Buildings Survey measured drawings are extant for many of the principal historic structures. These measured drawings were produced between the years 1939 and 1968.

Historic Structures receive an overall rating of stable green. Reported with high confidence, the green stable rating is because of the 2012 National Register (NR) documentation, even though there are several overarching needs at the site, as follows: the need to update the List of Classified Structures to reflect the recent NR documentation; the need to update Historic Structure Reports that were for the most part written over 40 years ago; the need to provide training and mentoring opportunities for maintenance personnel in the preservation and protection of historic structures; and the need to provide training for staff and Future Leaders in the potential human and environmental threats to historic park structures.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Knowledge Does sufficient research exist to understand the relationship of the park's historic structures to the historic context(s) of the park? Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. With the 2012 National Register nomination update, a foundation has been established for enhancement of the park's understanding of its historic structures in these recently evaluated contexts.
Percentage of historic structures evaluated using appropriate historical contexts. Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. 100% of structures have been evaluated in the National Register update.
Documentation Percentage of historic structures with adequate National Register documentation Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. 100% have National Register documentation with the completion of the National Register update (2012)
Are all historic structures recorded at a level commensurate with their significance and mandated purpose? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is deteriorating; high confidence in the assessment. 100% of what records have survived are in the archives with finding aids. Most of our historic structure reports were done in the 1970s, and could use updating to reflect the large amount of scholarly research that has been published in the last 40 years.
Condition Percentage of historic structures in good, fair, poor condition. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. 14 structures are currently in LCS, 13 of 14 are listed in good condition (93%) and 1 is in fair (7%)

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
History Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.Brief - Pedrick Store House
The secretarial order that formally designated Salem Maritime in 1938 stated in part that the park was to engage with "the maritime history of New England and the United States." In terms of historical study, this has meant that Salem Maritime has focused on the nearly 400 year history of Salem itself, and its important role in the development of the country.

Using the resources as touchstones, historical research at the site relates to the 17th-century development of trade within the British Empire, and the growth of Salem's economy, as seen in the Narbonne House, built in 1675 by butcher Thomas Ives. The Derby House and wharves give focus to study on the expansion of British trade, particularly with the Caribbean Islands, and the privateering that provided support to the American Revolutionary War effort. The Custom House provides an opportunity to look at the development of government structure in the early republic, and to dip into literary history through the connection with Nathaniel Hawthorne. St. Joseph Hall and the Salem Armory support investigation into the immigrant communities in the city, and the seaport's transition into an industrial center in the later 19th century.

As a historic unit within the National Park System, Salem Maritime NHS was administratively listed in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register) on October 15, 1966. The original National Register documentation for the district was prepared in 1976. A portion of the district is also located within the boundaries of the Derby Waterfront National Register Historic District, listed in 1976, and the Derby Street Local Historic District, listed in 1974. The Narbonne House is a contributing resource within the Salem Common National Register Historic District, listed in 1974, and was enumerated in the appendix of the First Period Buildings of Eastern Massachusetts Thematic Resource Area in 1990. Derby Wharf Light was individually listed in the National Register in 1987 as part of the Lighthouses of Massachusetts Thematic Resource Area. Salem Maritime is also significant in the history of the National Park System, with the General Development Plan/Master Plan Landscape of 1938–39 reflecting early NPS thought regarding the restoration and interpretation of historic properties within the National Park System.

A rating of green, unchanged, with high confidence demonstrates that the History condition is in very good shape, with the completion of a National Register update which was submitted to the Federal Preservation Officer in July of 2012. Other documentation, such as the Administrative History, is in need of updating, but there are no current plans for these projects.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Knowledge Has sufficient research been conducted to understand the national significance and historical contexts for the site? Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. There is no general Historic Resource Study for the park, but there are some Historic Structure Reports for specific buildings/structures. It is possible that the park doesn't necessarily need one, as a large body of scholarly research already exists.
Does the appropriate level of investigation precede planning decisions involving cultural resources? Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Not in the past, but reports about the history of vessel exhibits, for example, are being done. Cultural Landscapes Report will be thorough and the new National Register update is thorough.
Documentation Percentage of historic properties with adequate National Register documentation or with DOEs. Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. 100% of historic properties have adequate National Register documentation as of July 2012.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Museum Collections Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.Brief - Restoration of the Custom House Eagle
The museum collection at Salem Maritime NHS contains approximately 4,500 objects, including many of national significance, which are original to the contributing buildings within the district. The U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Customs, transferred many objects directly to the National Park Service when the site was established in 1937. Various individuals and organizations donated other components of the museum collection. Notable compilations of objects include furnishings and housewares associated with the Derby House, plaques and regalia from the St. Joseph Society, and more than 1,000 specimens of architectural fragments retained from extant buildings and structures on site. Maritime-related objects, Colonial Revival-era commemorative materials, and objects associated with the original, 18th-century vessel Friendship round out the museum collection.

Salem Maritime NHS currently has 10 archeological collections totally approximately 189,000 artifacts. Significant archeological collections maintained by the NPS include an assemblage of 150,000 artifacts recovered during excavations at the Narbonne House, information regarding the physical evolution of the wharves, and 13,906 artifacts collected at Front Street during the relocation of the Central Wharf Warehouse. Archival material at Salem consists of 90 shelf feet of organizational records, personal papers, historic books, and more than 3,500 photographs.

The Salem Maritime NHS collections contribute to the site's national significance because they enhance the understanding of Salem's evolution and function as one of the country's most important maritime ports. In contrast with other, older institutions in Salem, whose collections focus on the American luxury products of the maritime trade and the belongings of the wealthy merchant class, Salem Maritime NHS preserves the material culture of the city's most important wharf and its dependencies (from 2012 National Register update).
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Inventory Is the scope of museum collections understood? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Park collections are fully catalogued; the next step in improving catalog data would be to evaluate the collection, particularly older accessions, to determine if all materials fit within the stated Scope of Collections.
Percentage of objects accessioned and catalogued. Resource is in good condition; condition is deteriorating; high confidence in the assessment. 100%. New donated collections, park resource management records, and archeology will be steadily added each year. Without curatorial staff, the park will begin to show a backlog of work to be done.
Documentation Are furnishings in historic structures documented via furnishings report? Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is deteriorating; medium confidence in the assessment. Decisions need to be made with respect to Secretary of the Interior standards.

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