National Park Service

State of the Park Reports

State of the Park Report for
Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park

Natural Resources

Rain drops on a fern along the Chilkoot Trail
Rain drops on a fern along the Chilkoot Trail

View list of natural resource information sources

The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Climate Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Temperature Mean annual temperature Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Annual average high and low temperatures in Skagway have increased during the 110-year period of record from 1898 to 2010. Lows are increasing at a rate of 1.9 ± 0.4 °F/century, and highs are increasing at a rate of 1.2 ± 0.7 °F/century. After accounting for the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (which affects temperatures in coastal Alaska), nighttime annual average temperatures since 1898 show an increase in temperature of about 3 °F in winter and summer and 1 °F in spring and fall (Denny 2013).
Precipitation Mean annual precipitation (inches) Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Skagway's annual average precipitation is 26 inches. The highest precipitation usually occurs in September and October, while the lowest occurs April through August.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Air Quality Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.
Air quality in Southeast Alaska is very good, but localized air pollution from sources such as marine vessels and cruise ships, wood-burning stoves, vehicle exhaust, and unpaved roads can contribute to the deterioration of air quality that can affect park resources. Additionally, trans-Pacific pollutants such as nitrogen are a growing concern for all of western North America. Lichens are well-known sensitive receptors for air pollution and are used as biomonitors of air quality worldwide. The thresholds established in a study by scientists with the Tongass National Forest for Southeast Alaska (Dillman et al. 2007) represent the upper-most limits for element concentrations expected in target lichen species from background (clean) sites. Concentrations above threshold can be considered elevated due to enhancement from natural or human caused sources.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Nitrogen Deposition N concentration in Chilkoot Unit lichens Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Percent dry weight nitrogen in tissues from three lichen species across all sampling years (1998/1999 and 2008/2009) ranged from 0.49% to 0.69%, which is well below the threshold (0.88%) established by researchers at the Tongass National Forest to represent the uppermost limits for element concentrations expected in target lichen species from background (clean) sites (Dillman et al. 2007, Schirokauer et al. 2013, NPS ARD 2013).
N concentration in Skagway Unit lichens Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Percent dry weight nitrogen in tissues from three lichen species across all sampling years ranged from 0.59% to 0.74%. Nitrates recorded in summer in Skagway using passive sampler units were relatively high (Schirokauer et al. 2013). The park will continue to monitor nitrate levels as part of the regular monitoring program (NPS ARD 2013).
Sulfur Deposition S concentration in Chilkoot Unit lichens Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Percent dry weight sulfur in tissues from three lichen species across all sampling years ranged from 0.07% to 0.09% (Schirokauer et al. 2013), which is similar to the threshold level of 0.08% (Dillman et al. 2007, NPS ARD 2013).
S concentration in Skagway Unit lichens Condition of resource warrants significant concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Percent dry weight sulfur in tissues from three lichen species across all sampling years ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. For all samples taken from the Lower Dewey site, median sulfur concentrations exceeded the 97.5th percentile for lichen tissue values collected from the Tongass National Forest (Dillman et al. 2007, Schirokauer et al. 2013, NPS ARD 2013).
Lead Deposition Lead concentrations in Chilkoot Unit lichens Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Parts per million lead in tissues from three lichen species decreased from 10 ppm in 1998/1999 to 5 ppm in 2008/2009 (Schirokauer et al. 2013).
Lead concentrations in Skagway Unit lichens Condition of resource warrants significant concern; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Parts per million lead in tissues from three lichen species were extremely high at the Lower Dewey site, but decreased from 177 ppm in 1998/1999 to 108 ppm in 2008/2009. These values are approximately 10 times higher than the 97.5th percentile for lichen tissue values collected from the Tongass National Forest. Lead from the Sturgills site dropped from 32 to 15 ppm (Dillman et al. 2007, Schirokauer et al. 2013). High concentrations of lead in park ecosystems can be attributed to the historic load from poorly managed fugitive dust from lead ore trucking practices. Although current trucking practices reduce fugitive dust significantly, increased ore processing could pose a threat in the future (2004 Alaska Community Action on Toxics (ACAT) report).

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Geologic Resources Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Coastal Features and Processes Rate of isostatic rebound Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; low confidence in the assessment. Near the mouth of the Taiya River, isostatic rebound rates are ≈1.8 cm/year (Larsen 2005), meaning that the land is rising and causing incised rivers and over-steepened banks that are threatening the historic townsite of Dyea and park infrastructure. The Dyea and Chilkoot Unit southern boundary extends into the Taiya Inlet, but the shoreline properties are owned by the Municipality of Skagway Borough and are not federally managed. The shoreline is extending southward as the land continues to lift due to isostatic rebound. Natural processes appear to be unencumbered, but has resulted in increased deposition immediately offshore which is burying the historic wharf structure.
Fluvial Features and Processes
  • Rate of riverbank erosion
  • Rate of outflow on Nourse moraine
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Significant floods over the last decade have resulted from one lateral moraine failure and heavier than normal rains. The potential exists for moraine-dammed lake failure from the Nourse Lake. Post and Mayo (1971) and Streveler (1995) provide evidence that Nourse Lake burst catastrophically down the Taiya River valley approximately 150 and 250 years ago. These are all natural processes operating normally within the peri-glacial environment which still have the potential to cause adverse effects to the park's resources. Bank hardening in place since the mid 1940s on downstream sections has also impacted the ability of the river to function naturally and contributes to the erosion of the riverbank and the historic townsite.
Glacial Features and Processes
  • Rate of glacial retreat
  • Monitoring of moraine stability
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is deteriorating; medium confidence in the assessment. No glaciers occur in the park, but several exist in surrounding areas. Feierabrand and Schirokauer (2008 unpublished report) mapped glaciers within a 221,000 acre area encompassing the park using imagery in order to determine changes in areal extent of glaciers between 1948 and 2002. They measured a 13% loss in areal extent of glaciers from 30,138 acres in 1948 to 26,223 acres in 2002, or 72.5 acres per year. Glacial outburst floods and other natural peri-glacial processes present potential hazards to the park's downstream resources (KellerLynn 2009).

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Water Quantity and Quality Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Streamflow Taiya River annual average discharge Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Annual average discharge on the Taiya River was 1,136 cubic feet per second during 1970–1977, and 1,212 cfs during 2004–2011. Streamflow has been stable during the past few decades, but patterns and magnitude of discharge may change over time depending on glacial dynamics within the watershed (USGS website).
Water Chemistry pH, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2011, the first year of water chemistry monitoring by the Southeast Alaska I&M network at KLGO, pH ranged from 7.2 to 7.9 in the Taiya River from late April to mid-November. These values are comfortably within the healthy range for aquatic organisms and well within the most stringent State of Alaska water quality standards of 6.5 to 8.5 (Sergeant et al. 2012).
Dissolved Oxygen, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2011, dissolved oxygen ranged from 12.1 to 14.1 mg/L in the Taiya River from late April to mid-November. Anadromous and resident fish generally prefer values greater than 5 mg/L (Sergeant et al. 2012).
Specific Conductance, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2011, specific conductance ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mS/cm in the Taiya River from late April to mid-November. These values are consistent with a glacially-influenced river and of no concern to aquatic organisms. The range of values collected in 2011 are consistent with limited spot measurements taken by USGS in the same location between 1969 and 2004 (USGS website; Sergeant et al. 2012).
Water temperature, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. Water temperatures in 2011 samples ranged from 0.3 to 6.9 °C in the Taiya River from late April to mid-November. This cold temperature range is characteristic of glacially influenced rivers in Southeast Alaska. Temperatures are highly variable in the springtime due to glacial runoff, and then stable and cooling as fall approaches and glacial runoff decreases (Sergeant et al. 2012).
Turbidity, Taiya River Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; medium confidence in the assessment. In 2011, turbidity ranged from 1 to 229 NTU in the Taiya River from late April to mid-November. While most decreased water clarity events are likely caused by glacial runoff, some turbidity is also caused by bank sloughing in the vicinity of the water quality instrument. This sloughing could be affected by the amount of riprap in the river (Sergeant et al. 2012).

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Freshwater and Marine Contaminants Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Freshwater Contaminants Total mercury in age 0 coho salmon, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, age 0 coho salmon in the Taiya River contained only 1.7 ng/g total mercury, which is well below thresholds of concern for human health or aquatic organisms. (Eisler 2000, Nagorski et al. 2011).
Total mercury in streambed sediments Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, sediments in the Taiya River contained only 3 ng/g total mercury (Nagorski et al. 2011).
Total PCBs in juvenile coho salmon, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, juvenile coho salmon in the Taiya River contained only 2.9 ng/g total PCBs. These levels are well below human health concern thresholds (Nagorski et al. 2011)
Total DDTs in juvenile coho salmon, Taiya River Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, juvenile coho salmon in the Taiya River contained only 1.4 ng/g total DDTs. These levels are well below human health concern thresholds (Nagorski et al. 2011).
Marine Contaminants Total PCBs in bay mussels, Dyea Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. Contaminant levels in bay mussels demonstrate that the nearshore marine environment adjacent to the Chilkoot Unit and Taiya River delta is extremely clean. All documented contaminant levels are well below human health concern thresholds. In 2007, bay mussels collected near Dyea contained 1.6 ng/g total PCBs. This single measurement is the closest measurement to park boundaries, but additional data from Nahku Bay is available from the NOAA Mussel Watch website (Tallmon 2011; NOAA website)
Total PAH in bay mussels, Dyea Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, bay mussels collected near Dyea contained 2.7 ng/g total PAHs. This single measurement is the closest measurement to park boundaries, but additional data from Nahku Bay is available from the NOAA Mussel Watch website (Tallmon 2011; NOAA website)
Total mercury in bay mussels, Dyea Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. In 2007, bay mussels collected near Dyea contained 7.0 ng/g total mercury. This single measurement is the closest measurement to park boundaries, but additional data from Nahku Bay are available from the NOAA Mussel Watch website (Tallmon 2011; NOAA website)

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Flora Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment.
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Lichen Diversity Species richness Resource is in good condition; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; high confidence in the assessment. Klondike Gold Rush NHP is significant for having one of the highest numbers of lichenized and lichenicolous fungus species per unit area ever reported, with 766 recorded taxa within its 53 km2 area (Spribille et. al. 2010). One lichen genus, four lichen species and one species of lichenicolous fungus are described as new to science, including Coccotrema hahriae, named in tribute to a former park staff member who recently passed away. The study also added 196 taxa to the list of those known for Alaska.
Invasive Plants Number of acres infested Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is deteriorating; high confidence in the assessment. Twenty-one (21) acres of federal lands in the park were infested with invasive plant species in 2012, and 0.91 acres were treated. No new species were documented in 2012 although in recent years several new species have been detected (Goodrich 2011). Volunteers contributed more than 1,062 volunteer-hours of time to controlling exotic plants in the park, thereby protecting native flora.
Forest Pathogens Number of sites infected by forest pathogens Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Tomentoses root disease (Inonotus tomentosus fungal infection) was discovered near Dyea in 2004. A 2006 study of the disease found that 52% of plots were infected (Schultz et. al. 2007). Gall rust (Peridermium harknessii) and needle disease(s) were found to be prevalent in lodgepole pine in the old Dyea town site area (Shultz 2011). Root disease may weaken the tree's immune systems. Tomentoses infection may be a factor in bark beetle infestations.

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The Status and Trend symbols used in the summary table below and throughout this report are summarized in the following key. The background color represents the current condition status, the direction of the arrow summarizes the trend in condition, and the thickness of the outside line represents the degree of confidence in the assessment. In some cases, the arrow is omitted because data are not sufficient for calculating a trend (e.g., data from a one-time inventory or insufficient sample size).

Condition Status Trend in Condition Confidence in
Assessment
Condition of resource warrants significant concern Warrants Significant Concern Condition is improving Condition is Improving High confidence in the assessment High
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern Warrants Moderate Concern Condition is unchanging Condition is Unchanging Medium confidence in the assessment Medium
Resource is in good condition Resource is in Good Condition Condition is deteriorating Condition is Deteriorating Low confidence in the assessment Low

Examples of how the symbols should be interpreted:

Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment. Resource is in good condition; condition is improving; high confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment.
Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment. Condition of resource warrants significant concern; trend in condition is unknown or not applicable; low confidence in the assessment.
Fauna Condition of resource warrants moderate concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. Brief - Boreal Toad Research
Indicators of Condition Specific Measures Condition Status/Trend Rationale
Amphibians Occurrence of Western Toads and Columbia Spotted Frogs Condition of resource warrants significant concern; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. The number of boreal toads (Bufo borealis) found during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 monitoring seasons indicates an increase in breeding activity, but overall numbers are low compared to previous years. In 2012, 25 egg masses were recorded—the greatest number at KLGO since monitoring efforts began in 2004 (Welfelt 2012)—and the remnant KLGO population appears to be relatively stable. The occurrence of chytrid fungus disease (Batrochochytrium dendrobatitis),which is causing dramatic population declines and even extinctions in other toad populations, and human impact continue to be of significant concern. Nine Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) were observed in the White Pass unit in 2012, which is the largest number recorded in this area since the discovery of this species south of the Canadian border in 2004. Chytrid fungus disease has not yet been detected in this population and the increase in detection of Columbia spotted frogs merits the continuation of extensive surveys (Welfelt 2011, 2012). Anecdotal evidence within the community suggests that the toad populations have seriously declined over the past several decades.
Brief - Boreal toad research
Breeding Birds Species richness and diversity Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; high confidence in the assessment. A recent species list published by the Skagway Bird Club (2010) documented 201 bird species, of which 18 species are known to breed and nest in the Skagway area and another 17 species are probable breeders (Bernatz et al. 2011). Breeding birds have been monitored at KLGO since 1993 using the standardized Breeding Bird Survey counts, off-road counts, and Christmas Bird Count methods. The number of breeding bird species and bird diversity in recent years using the three monitoring methods appears to be consistent with values reported since each survey began (Bernatz et al. 2011).
Coastal Birds Species richness and diversity Resource is in good condition; condition is unchanging; medium confidence in the assessment. Surveys of coastal waterbirds have been conducted annually at the park since 1993. KLGO is an important stop-over site for migratory birds before they fly further north to their breeding grounds, with a greater number of species observed in the spring compared to summer and fall (Hahr and Trapp 2004). The number of coastal bird species observed during 2006–2009 was slightly higher than in previous years, but adjustments to survey timing and effort may explain some of the apparent increase. Diversity indices for coastal birds have been fairly consistent since 2003 (Bernatz et al. 2011).

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