• Sitka National Historical Park Visitor Center Mountains

    Sitka

    National Historical Park Alaska

Stream Ecology - Aquatic Insect List

AQUATIC INSECTS AND OTHER MACROINVERTEBRATES OF THE INDIAN RIVER, BARANOF ISLAND, NEAR SITKA, ALASKA WITH NOTES ON FUNCTIONAL FEEDING GROUP AND OTHER ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION


Mayflies (Ephemeroptera): Have gills laterally along or on back of abdomen, usually has three cerci (tails). Dolphin-like motion of body. Mostly scraper-grazers (feed on rock algae and attached diatoms) or collector-gatherers (feed on detritus (FPOM) and associated attached diatoms).


Clingers--Dorsal-ventrally flattened bodies


Heptageniidae (Cinygma, Cinygmula†, Epeorus† (3), Rhithrogena†): Generally scraper-grazers of biofilm or collector-gatherers (detritus, diatoms). Gills of Epeorus longimanus, E. grandis, and Rhithrogena futilis modified to form a sucker-like structure to hold on to rocks in fast current. A third Epeorus is present (probably E. deceptivus) where the first set of gills are extended under the abdomen but do not meet to form a sucker-like structure. Cinygma lyriforme lives on wood substrate usually in quieter water. Possible species of Cinygmula include C. par and C. subaequalis.


Swimmers--Cylindrical body shape, tails may have interlocking hairs


Baetidae (Baetis, Diphetor?, Callibaetis): B. bicaudatus†, B. tricaudatus, Callibaetis have been found in and around the Indian River. Baetis generally collector-gatherers (detritus, diatoms) and scraper-grazers. One of the first EPT taxa to colonize rivers that emerge from deglaciation (Milner et al. 2000). Callibaetis (probably C. ferrugineus) widely distributed over all North America; C. f. hageni occurring in the west and the north. Typically inhabits cold ponds and lakes. Swimmers and clingers in vascular hydrophytes. Collector-gatherers (filamentous algae).

Leptophlebiidae (Paraleptophlebia): Paraleptophlebia† debilis are collector-gatherers (coarse detritus, diatoms). May be a facultative shredder. Found in erosional habitats (sediments and detritus).

Ameletidae (Ameletus): Ameletus validus are strong swimmers but found in slower parts of the river. Collector-gatherers (detritus, diatoms), or scraper-grazers.


Sprawlers, Clingers--Stout bodied


Ephemerellidae (Drunella (3), Serratella): D. grandis† is a scraper-grazer and/or a collector-gatherer of FPOM (detritivores), and possibly a predator (observed predatory behavior 4/30/2005). It is found in slower current or in protected areas in faster current (e.g., underside of rocks and interstitial space). D. doddsi† has hairs that form a sucker-like disk on the underside of the abdomen for a holdfast and is found in fast current. They and D. coloradensis are scrappers and facultative predators (engulfers) on midge larvae. Serratella tibialis is a collector-gatherer of detritus. They live in depositional or protected areas. Early instars were found in moss 7/18/03 and 6/30/04; mature nymphs found in moss 8/17/03 and on rocks 7/14/2004 in SITK. Emerge in August/September.


Stoneflies (Plecoptera): No lateral gills on abdomen, two cerci (tails). Snake-like motion of body. Generally sprawlers-clingers. Stoneflies in Indian River are shredders of leaf material etc., or predators of other macroinvertebrates. Some may also be scavengers.


Shredders-detritivores--Feeds on leaf litter and other coarse detritus


Capniidae (Capnia*†, Mesocapnia): C. nana, C. excavata, C. melia found by Ellis (1975). Winter stoneflies. Early emergers (March-June). Nymphs may consume about 30% of their body weight daily, even at low winter temperatures, reflecting their importance in conversion of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) to finer particles. Capnia confusa adults (♂♀) collected in the park (4/20/2004, 5/28/2010) identified by Richard Baumann. This widely distributed species has a tolerance for a wide range of habitat types. C. confusa is often the last capniid of the season to be caught in a given stream. Richard Baumann identified Capnia excavata ♂♀ adults collected on 2/7, 12/2010; 4/14, 15, and 30/2010; 5/28/2010; C. nana collected on 2/7 and 12/2010, and C. melia collected 2/12/2010 in the park and along the Indian River. Also there was one specimen of Mesocapnia sp. (♀) collected 2/7/2010.


Leuctridae (Paraleuctra†, Despaxia): Paraleuctra occidentalis* inhabits coarse sediments, debris jams, and leaf packs. Paraleuctra forcipata (adult ♂, 4/28/2005, 4/30/2010, 5/28 and 31/2010) collected in the park identified by Richard Baumann. Baumann also identified adult ♂♀ P. occidentalis (collected 4/14-15/2010). They were found near the water plant and in SITK. Despaxia augusta*! is found in small creeks and spring outflows. Recorded at Sashin Creek, SE Baranof Island (Ellis 1975). It is an autumnal species with adults found from July to October. Adults (♂♀) collected around the Indian River on 9/14/2009, 7/28/2010, 8/13/2010, 9/13/2010 (identified by Baumann).


Nemouridae (Zapada, Visoka, Podmosta): Zapada cinctipes*†, Z. hays/oregonensis*, and Podmosta decepta (<6 mm)* identified by Stewart. Detritivores of leaf litter. Zapada spp. scavenge on dead salmon or feed on what is growing on carcasses (e.g., mold-like growth). Life histories may be geared to leaf input and salmon return. For Zapada and Capnia nymphs, consumption of detritus may be greatest in midwinter when water temperature is near 0OC. Richard Baumann identified an adult ♀ Zapada frigida collected 5/12/2010 along Starrigaven Creek. Adult Z. cinctipes ♀ collected 4/15/2010 by the Indian River in SITK. Visoka cataractae ♂ adult was collected on 4/15/2010 near the City water plant. Some Podmosta may be able to live in temporary ponds. Spring emergence likely. Eggs probably laid in spring. Diapause occurs through the summer and eggs hatch in late fall or winter. Growth continues through the winter.


Taeniopterygidae (Doddsia): Doddsia occidentalis* nymphs grow steadily from July through the winter. Scrapers? Emerge from February to May, depending on elevation and/or latitude.


Predators--Feeds on other macroinvertebrates


Chloroperlidae (Sweltsa*†! (7 species in AK), Kathroperla*, Suwallia, Neaviperla!): Engulfers of midge, blackfly larvae. Sweltsa borealis, S. oregonensis, S. exquisita, others found by Ellis (1975). Sweltsa occidens (adults ♀, 6/5/2005, 5/29/2006, 5/28/2010), S. oregonensis (adults ♂♀, 5/29/2006, 5/20/2008, 7/14/2008, 5/12, 28, 31/2010), S. borealis (adult ♂♀, 5/23/2010), S. exquisita, (adult ♂♀, 5/28, 31/2010), and Neaviperla (Suwallia) forcipata (adult ♂♀, 9/14/2009, 7/28/2010, 8/13/2010, 9/13/2010) collected by the Indian River identified by Richard Baumann. Sweltsa less prone to be subterranean than other Chloroperlids, however, may survive summer drought and flood events in the hyporheic zone. May be scavengers of dead salmon eggs and alevins in that zone. Neaviperla (Suwallia) forcipata! are englufers of midge and blackfly larvae. Nymphs occur deep in stream sediments until just prior to emergence. May be herbivore-detritivores in fall after summer recruitment and then shift to omnivory and carnivory respectively. Kathroperla perdita* (to 25 mm (1")) primarily hyporheic. Emerges in late May and early June. Little is known about nymph biology. Collected a large specimen in leaf litter in the fall of 2004. Adult ♂ collected on 5/31/2010 near the City water plant.

Perlodidae (Kogotus†, Megarcys†): Kogotus nonus* are engulfers of midge, blackfly, mayfly, and stonefly larvae. Feeds primarily at night (on Chironomids) but not exclusively. Feeds on Baetis mayflies during the day. Probably univoltine. Final instars present through August. Large nymphs collected 7/18/03, 7/14/04; small nymphs collected 4/9/02. Megarcys signata* nymphs are omnivorous, feeding on diatoms as well as engulfers of midge, blackfly, caddisfly, stonefly, and mayfly larvae Fastest growth occurs in summer when carnivory is greatest. Emerge from April to July. Large (over 25 mm). (According to Huntzinger (2003), M. signata indentified in SE Alaska may be M. irregularis).

Caddisflies (Trichoptera): Most build cases made of small stones or vegetation. Exhibit great diversity in food capturing adaptations. Indian River caddis are predators, algae grazers, shredders, scavengers, filter-collectors.


Predators--Feeds on other macroinvertebrates


Rhyacophilidae (Rhyacophila†): Rhyacophila spp. are free living and do not build cases, but can spin a silk anchor line that enables the larvae to move without being swept away by the current. Most are predators of macroinvertebrates (engulfers), but species in the Verrula Group are phytophagous with hypognathous heads (oriented downwards) and they feed on algae, diatoms, and bryophytes. Several species present. R. verrula† and R. grandis confirmed in the Indian River drainage. Species in the Brunnea Group (R. vao?), Vofixa Group (small finger-like gills on abdomen--R. vofixa and R. vobara known from area), and the Sibirica Group† (R. valuma, others?) have also been identified from the Indian River system (Neal et al. 2004, Smith 2006). R. alberta, R. grandis, R. narvae, R. rickeri, R. verrula, R. vao, and R. vaccua recorded at Sashin Creek, SE Baranof Island by Ellis (1978a).

Phryganeidae (Ptilostomis): Ptilostomis ocellifera specimens found in muskeg ponds within the Indian River Basin and on nearby Krusof Island. Can also live in cool streams and temporary pools. Case is ring-like sections of leaf pieces joined end to end, up to 60 mm (2.4"). Larvae are omnivorous, feeding on algae, flocculent detritus, particulate organic matter, and animal material. Late instars are primarily predacious, including some cannibalism. Less depended on their cases than other tube case-makers and will readily abandon them when disturbed. They bury their cases in the sediment for pupation. P. ocellifera appears to follow the a life history similar to other species inhabiting temporary pools and small ponds, including spring emergence, adult diapause, the appearance of larvae shortly after pools refill in the fall, and rapid larval growth.

Polycentropodidae (Polycentropus): Polycentropus sp. found in Swan Lake. Larvae construct silken tube retreats where they rest and dart out to seize small prey that move across a maze of silken threads. Polycentropus are the most successful members of the family in exploiting warm, lentic habitats. Can also live in temporary pools. P. halidus collected by Ellis (1978a). Scraper-grazers-Feeds primarily on biofilms on exposed surfaces

Glossosomatidae (Glossosoma): Glossosoma penitum has a tortoise shell-case (mineral). Lives in swift water and feeds mostly on periphytic algae (diatoms) on upper rock surfaces.

Limnephilidae (Ecclisomyia†, Ecclisocosmoecus):

Ecclisomyia conspersa: Slender, long case, sometimes with slight curve, little taper, made with coarse stones often with some long vegetation material (e.g., spruce needles) included. Found in all types of running water. Very abundant in southeastern Alaska. Shifts from a diet of diatoms in early instars (scrapers) to plant detritus (collector-gatherers and shredders) in later instars when leaf material is abundant. Also commonly found on dead salmon (scavengers).

Ecclisocosmoecus scylla: Curved, tapered case made of small stones. Scrappers and shredders. Food includes diatoms, plant material, and FPOM. Found in cold, swift-moving mountain streams. Often concealed in sand and gravel.

Brachycentridae (Micrasema): Micrasema† gelidum/bactro confined to small, cold streams. Found on rocks in clumps of aquatic moss, on logs, and other protected places. Case is silk and ribbon-like pieces of plant material. They are grazers on periphytic algae during the first instar. In later instars, also known to be herbivore-chewers (shredders) on moss etc. and as collector-gatherers.

Uenoidae (Neophylax): Neophylax rickeri confined to flowing water. Grazes on diatoms and FPOM. Cases are relatively short and thick; constructed with coarse rock fragments with larger ballast stones along each side. Larva grow mostly in autumn and winter, pupate in spring and early summer, but remain in diapause for a period ranging from a few weeks to six months. They pupate in large aggregations on the underside of rocks. Adults emerge in late summer and autumn. Larvae grow to 15 mm. Collected in a small high gradient creek on the slope of Gavin Hill. Bottom substrate was gravel and cobble.


Filter-Collectors--Uses some kind of filter to capture food particles


Philopotamidae (Dolophilodes): Dolophilodes pallidipes are filterer-collectors of FPOM and diatoms. Found in headwater streams in this area. Requires cool, clear water flowing steadily over clean rubble. Larvae spin and live in tubular silk capture nets with extremely fine meshes. Nets up to 60 mm long; larvae grow to 16.5 mm. Collected in a small high gradient creek on the slope of Gavin Hill. Bottom substrate was gravel and cobble.

Hydropsychidae (Parapsyche): Parapsyche† elsis builds a retreat of small stones and detritus pieces. Spins a silken capture net (mesh size larger than most Hydropsychidae). Food is mainly fine detritus and animal material (predator). P. elsis has a two-year lifecycle. Young or almost mature larvae will overwinter and will pupate in June to July.


Shredders--Feeds primarily on coarse leave and other organic material


Limnephilidae (Dicosmoecus, Psychoglypha, Onocosmoecus, Chyranda, Lenarchus, Limnephilus, Glyphopsyche):

Dicosmoecus atripes: Generalized predator-grazer-shredder. Larva to 28 mm (1"+). Has robust mandibles. D. atripes changes its food preference and switches from organic to mineral cases with age. During first year of life cycle, feeds primarily as a scrapper on periphyton (diatoms and filamentous algae). Middle and late instars are shredders and occasionally predators. Second year larvae overwinter as diapausing fifth instars attached in large aggregations under large boulders and then become active again in the spring (Lessard et al. 2003). May be opportunistic scavengers (found on dead salmon 8/17/2003), particularly between first and second year of development. Emerge late in the season (October). Abundant in the Indian River.

Psychoglypha subborealis: Mixed mineral and vegetation cases (needles, wood pieces, bark, etc.). P. subborealis is primarily a shredder but may feed on biofilm and as a collector-gatherer depending on food availability and life stage. Larva to 26 mm. Grows best on quality food such as stream-conditioned leaves. Often observed on dead salmon. May feed on salmon flesh as scavengers or on what is growing on dead salmon. May emerge in the fall and overwinter as adults while gonads mature (Ellis 1978b). Deposition of eggs may begin in early March. Abundant in the Indian River.

Psychoglypha alascensis: An adult P. alascensis ♂ collected in Sitka by a small creek on 8/28/2010 was identified by Geoffrey Smith using Denning (1970). P. alascensis is found from California to Alaska (Several records from SE Alaska, Vineyard 1981). Appears to be confined to plant debris accumulations in quiet stream edges, pools, or slow current. Large shredder that presumable feeds on dead wood, leaves, and bark in which it is found. Cases constructed of bulky pieces of wood and leaves, sometimes with mineral elements. Uncertain whether this species has the same propensity for dead salmon carcasses as P. subborealis.

Onocosmoecus unicolor: Large shredder (to 25 mm) with case constructed of wood, bark, and leaves. Eats a variety of food including CPOM, FPOM, moss, and other aquatic insects. Larvae hatch in the fall and grow quickly to fifth instars and then remain at that stage over the winter and spring, pupating and emerging in the summer. Most of the larval growth occurs in winter. Commonly associated with salmon carcasses in Pacific Northwest. Life history is keyed to take advantage of returning salmon and/or fall leaf litter inputs.

Chyranda centralis: Lives in small spring streams and is usually found in accumulations of leaves. Case unique; made of bark or stout leaves with a prominent flange-like seam along each edge. Presumably feeds on leaves, bark, and possibly moss. Found case and pupa while sampling the east fork of the Indian River in tributaries and just below the falls 7/8/2005. They were located in leaf, bark, and wood accumulations.

Lenarchus vastus: Found in temporary ponds in the Indian River flood plain and in muskeg ponds within the Indian River Basin. Can also live in marshes and at the edge of small lakes. Cases variable but usually of irregular leaf and bark fragments and sometimes with lengths of sedge arranged longitudinally. Feeds on and creates trails through loose organic bottom sediments in muskeg ponds and on CPOM in forested habitats. A highly adaptable lentic species. Actively feeds throughout fall and winter months. Grows to 30 mm. May have similar adaptations for living in transient pools and temporary ponds as Limnephilus.

Limnephilus spp.: Collected in temporary ponds in or near the Indian River flood plain and in Swan Lake (Swan Lake species constructs a "hedge-hog" type case). The genus has a broad ecological tolerance and a strong affinity for lentic habitats. Adaptations to temporary pools, include diapause that delays sexual maturity in adults until the shorter days of late summer triggers egg development during the season when rains become more frequent, eggs deposited in damp substrates or on the underside of damp logs, eggs and larvae that remain within a thick gelatinous matrix (mucopolysaccharide matrix) that can resist dissociation for several months until ponds refill, rapid larval development, and wide dispersal of adults (Wiggins 2004). Species collected from the Sashin Creek area S.E. Baranof Island and verified by Dr. D.G. Denning include L. harrimani, L. nogus, and L. sitchensis (Ellis 1978a). L. sitchensis was initially described from Sitka as Goniotaulius (1859) by Kolenati (Nimmo 1986); L. harrimani was first described from Sitka by Banks 1900 in Harriman Alaska Expedition papers, Volume 8 (Vineyard 1981). L. externus and L. sericeus also known from the area (Chicagof and Admiralty Islands) (Vineyard 1981). Limnephilus feed mainly on detritus. Cases variable, usually made of leaves, hemlock needles, and wood in this area.

Glyphopsyche irrorata: Found in Swan Lake. G. irrorata is a species of marshes and the edges of slow streams. Larvae associated with an abundance of decaying vegetation. Cases made of rock and plant pieces to larger wood pieces arranged longitudinally, mostly irregular in this area. Final instars develop in late summer. Case length up to 34 mm.; larva to 21 mm. May emerge in the fall and overwinter as adults while gonads mature (Ellis 1978b). Deposition of eggs may begin in early March.

Lepidostomatidae (Lepidostoma): Lepidostoma roafi (others?) has four-sided case of bark and leaves. Food primarily detritus (detritivore-chewers). Attracted to dead fish and may scavenge on dead salmon or microorganisms growing on dead salmon.


True flies (Diptera)


Midges (Chironomidae): A very diverse group. Found in all aquatic habitats, including marine. All functional feeding groups represented. Many sprawler/collector-gatherers, but also predators (e.g., Macropelopia†), shredders, wood burrower-shredders (e.g., Brillia†), scrapers, filter-collectors, and scavengers on dead salmon. Large numbers may indicate degrading aquatic conditions. Chironomidae midge taxa present in the Indian River (Neal 2004, Smith 2007-2010): Brillia†+ (burrowers in rotten wood, shredders-detritivores, or collector-gatherers), Corynoneura†+ (collector-gatherers), Cricotopus+(shredders, collector-gatherers [detritus and algae]), Eukiefferiella†+ (collector-gatherers, scrapers, predators of chironomid eggs and larva), Krenosmittia, Micropsectra† (collector-gatherers), Pagastia+, Paracricotopus+ (collector-gatherers), Parakiefferiella+(collector-gatherers), Paramerina+ (predators?), Parametriocnemus†+ (collector-gatherers), Paraphaenocladius+ (collector-gatherers), Polypedilum+ (shredder-miners, collector-gatherers, predators), Rheocricotopus† + (collector-gatherers, shredders of living plant tissue, predators), Stempellinella +, Stilocladius†, Thienemanniella† + (collector-gatherers), Tvetenia+ (collector-gatherers). (Also Orthcladiinae+, Micropsectra/Tanytarus sp.† + and Cricotopus/Orthocladius sp.† +)

Blackflies (Simuliidae: Prosimulium sp.†): Fine filter-collectors of bacteria etc. (particle size: < 1 mm to >350 mm). Can also be scrappers of biofilm and Fine Particulate Organic Matter (FPOM) and they occasionally ingest animal prey. May absorb or ingest Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) directly by an unknown mechanism (e.g., possibly feeding on colloidal particles (< 0.1 mm) of DOM). Much of the intake of FPOM and DOM becomes fecal pellets which can be produced by each larvae at the rate of >100/day. High densities of blackflies can indicate moderately degraded water quality.

No-see-um biting midges (Ceratopogonidae): Predators or collector-gatherers

Crane Flies (Tipulidae: Antocha sp., Hesperoconopa sp.†, Dicranota sp.†): Many Tipulids are classic shredder-detritivores. Antocha larvae inhabit silken tubes on the upper surfaces of submerged large rocks in moderate to fast flowing situations, feeding on detritus and algae. Hesperoconopa are burrowers. Dicranota are engulfing predators.

Dance Flies (Empididae: Clinocera, Chelifera/Metachela†, Oreogeton†): Generally predators. Clinocera are clingers. Oreogeton may be associated with moss and are sprawlers-burrowers. They are engulfing predators on blackflies and caddisflies.

Moth Flies (Psychodidae): Collector-gatherers. Found in lentic (still water) habitats and margins of streams. Very tolerant of organic pollution.


OTHER STREAM ORGANISMS


Aquatic Beetles, (Coleoperta) Trout-stream Beetles (Amphizoidae): Amphizoa sp. found on driftwood and trash floating in frothy eddies, along undercut banks among roots, or among accumulations of submerged coniferous needles. Larvae are predacious and seem restricted to feeding on stonefly larvae.

Predaceous Diving Beetles (Dytiscidae): Predators (piercers). In lakes and ponds (permanent and temporary). Also in slow or ponded parts of creeks and rivers.

Predaceous Ground Beetles (Carabidae†): Predators (engulfers). Rock crevice dwellers; found on marine rocky coasts.

Springtails (Collembola) †: Collector-gatherers.

Aquatic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae†, Naididae†, Enchytraeidae†): Collector-gatherers of Fine Particulate Organic Matter (FPOM).

Planarian flat worms (Class Turbellaria†): Predators, scavengers (on dead salmon).

Aquatic mites (Subclass Acari†, Subcohort Hydrachnidia): Larvae are parasites and adults are predators on macroinvertebrates, e.g., stoneflies and caddisflies. Larval Chironomids are particularly important as hosts, Larval mites suck the body fluids from adult midges. Adult mites are predators of Chironomid eggs and larvae.

Clams, Bivalvia (Sphaeriidae): Pisidium sp.†

Roundworms (Nematoda)†:

Microfauna and Meiofauna (< 0.5 mm): Found in benthic bioflims and the hyporheic zone. Harpactocoid copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, oligochaetes, nematodes, protozoans (e.g., ciliates), chironomids (Tanypodinae) have been observed in Indian River biofilms. Harpactocoid copepods consume microalgae, including phytoflagellates, cyanobacteria, and diatoms, fungi, protozoa, bacteria, detritus and associated microbial communities. Also appears to be able to use DOM as a food source. Tanypodinae are engulfing predators of meiofauna.

Benthic diatoms†+ collected in the Indian River within Sitka National Historical Park (2006-2010): Amphora pediculus (Kützing) Grun., Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Achnanthidium pyrenaicum (Hustedt) Kobayasi, Aulacoseira valida (Grunow) Krammer, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Craticula molestiformis (Hustedt) Lange-Bertalot, Cyclotella ocellata Pantosek, Cymbella cistula (Ehr.) Kirchn., Cymbella hebridica Grun. ex Cl., Diatoma hiemale (Roth) Heib., Diatoma mesodon (Ehr.) Kütz, Diatoma tenuis C. C. Agardh, Diatoma moniliforme Kützing, Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngb.) M. Schmidt, Encyonema minutum (Hilse in Rabenhorst) Mann, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch in Rabenhorst) Mann, Eucocconeis laevis (Ostr.) Lange-Bertalot, Eunotia spp., Eunotia bilunaris (Ehr.) Mills, Eunotia incisa W. Sm. ex Greg., Eunotia intermedia (Krass. ex Hust.) Nörpel & Lange-Bert., Eunotia minor (Kütz.) Grun., Eunotia muscicola var. tridentula Nörpel & Lange-Bert., Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Fragilaria capucina var. gracilis (Østr.) Hust, Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens (Kütz) L-Bert, Fragilaria construens var. venter (Ehr). Grun., Fragilaria vaucheriae (Kütz.) Peters., Frustulia amphipleuroides (Grunow) Cleve-Euler, Frustulia rhomboides (Ehrenberg) De Toni, Gomphonema gracile Ehr. emend. V. H., Gomphonema micropus Kütz., Gomphonema minutum (Ag.) Ag, Gomphonema olivaceoides Hust, Gomphonema olivaceum (Lyngb.) Kütz., Gomphonema parvulum (Kütz.) Grun., Gomphonema pumilum (Grun.) Reich. & Lange-Bert., Hannaea arcus (Ehr.) Patr., Hantzschia amphioxys (Erh.) Grun, Meridion circulare (Grev.) Ag., Meridion circulare var. constrictum (Ralfs) V. H, Navicula cryptotenella L.B. in Kramm. & L.-B., Navicula gregaria Donk., Nitzschia alpina Hust., Nitzschia angustata (W. Sm.) Grun., Nitzschia dissipata (Kütz.) Grun., Nitzschia palea (Kütz.) W. Sm., Nitzschia recta Hantz. ex Rabh., Planothidium dubium (Grunow) Round et Bukhtiyarova, Planothidium haynaldii (Schaarschmidt) Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brébisson ex Kützing) Lange-Bertalot, Psammothidium bioretii (Germ.) Bukht. et Round, Psammothidium grischunum (Wuthrich) Bukhtiyarova et Round, Reimeria sinuata (Greg.) Kociolek & Stoermer, Synedra ulna (Nitz.) Ehr., Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kütz.

Filamentous green algae: Ulothrix zonata is the dominant species of filamentous green algae in the Indian River. Four other species were identified by Dr. Rex Lowe in 2006. They are Ulothrix sp., Mougeotia sp., Stigeocolnium sp., and Microspora sp.

Cyanobacteria: Pseudanabaena sp. † (possibly Leptolyngbya sp.).


Verification Notes


* verified by Dr. Kenneth Stewart. Megarcys signata verified by Robert Hood (USGS).

† Families, geneses, and species found by Neal et al. 2004.

! Adult stonefly specimens identified by Dr. Richard Baumann, Brigham Young University.

+Taxa of Chironomidae and Diatoms collected by G.M. Smith in the 2006-2010 Indian River Surveys and identified by Environment and Natural Resources Institute, UAA (ENRI) staff.


References


Baumann, R.W. 2009-2010. Identification of stoneflies collected between 2004-2010 near the Indian River and Sitka, Alaska vicinity (unpublished). Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Chaloner, D.T. and M.S. Wipfli. 2002. Influence of Decomposing Pacific Salmon Carcasses and Macroinvertebrate Growth and Standing Stock in Southeastern Alaska Streams. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 21(3): 430-442.

Danks, H.V. and J.A. Downes (eds.). 1997. Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada: Terrestrial Arthropods. Ottawa. 1034 pp. Denning, D.G. 1970. The Genus Psychoglypha (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Can. Ent. 102: 15-20 (1970).

Edmunds, G.F., Jr., S.L. Jensen, and L. Berner. 1976. The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 330 pp.

Edwards, R.T. 2001. The Hyporheic Zone. In River Ecology and Management: Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion, R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby (eds.). Springer, New York. 705 pp.

Ellis, R.J. 1978a. Seasonal Abundance and Distribution of Adult Caddisflies of Sashin Creek, Baranof Island, Southeastern Alaska. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 54: 199-206

Ellis, R.J. 1978b. Over-winter Occurrence and Maturation of Gonads in Adult Psychoglypha subborealis (Banks) and Glyphopsyche irrorata (Fabricius). Pan-Pacif. Ent. 54: 178-180.

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An illustration of an adult pink salmon

Pink salmon mature in two years which means that odd-year and even-year populations are essentially unrelated. More...