Ambassadors for Alaska
Acquired from Russia in 1867, the vast territory some referred to as "Seward's Folly" was actually rich with resources and far from the frozen wasteland some imagined. Alaska was long on acreage but short on population. How to generate interest in Alaska and attract the settlers who could help shape it into a state?
That question was on the mind of Alaska's Governor, John Green Brady, when he was asked to create an exhibit publicizing Alaska for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition to be held in St Louis in 1904. His answer involved one of Alaska's most recognizable features: the towering totem poles carved by the Native peoples of southeast Alaska. In Brady's mind, a display of totem poles would draw people to the Alaska exhibit. Once there, they would learn about the "real" Alaska through displays of Alaska's raw materials, agricultural products and unique curiosities. Brady hoped visitors would form a new impression of Alaska: that of a place ready for tourism, settlement and development.
An Era of Change
Between 1903 and 1904, Brady toured southern southeast Alaska's Tlingit and Haida villages by ship, asking leaders to donate poles and other objects for the exposition. After several voyages, he was promised poles from the villages of Old Kasaan, Howkan, Koianglas, Sukkwan, Tuxekan, Tongass, Klinkwan, and Klawock. It was especially remarkable that Brady was given the poles as gifts because more than one professional collector had tried to purchase poles from these same villages and been refused. Trusting in Brady and looking to the future, these leaders chose to share their cultural heritage with the world, even if it meant parting with it.
Meet Me at the Fair
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition was a truly spectacular cultural event. Massive "palaces" were devoted to amazing technological advances like the electric lighting, the wireless telegraph and the automobile. Although exploitive by today's standards, anthropological exhibits of indigenous peoples drew huge crowds. The elaborate fairgrounds covered more than 1,200 acres. An astonishing 18 to 19 million people visited the fair between April and December of 1904. For most of them, it was an experience they would never forget.
Brady's totem poles were displayed at either end of the white colonial building that housed the rest of the Alaska exhibit, arranged around the reconstructed houses and canoe. One pole that was too damaged for the exhibit was loaned to an Alaska-themed activity known as the "Esquimaux Village" on "The Pike," the variety section of the fair.
At the close of the exposition, the remaining poles were transported on to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland for another exhibit there in 1905. Portland was a much smaller exposition. Between June and October, 1,588,000 visitors toured the 400 acre fairgrounds along the Willamette River. Accompanying a reduced exhibit in the Government building, the totem poles and canoe were placed in a linear arrangement on the shores of a man-made lake on the fairgrounds.
The Poles Return
100 Years Later
Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the poles is that they continue to fulfill their purpose. Just as the original donors intended, the preservation and display of these objects has provided a lasting memorial to their cultural heritage. And, just as Governor Brady intended when he began his efforts to preserve and display Alaska's totem poles more than 100 years ago, the totem poles of Sitka National Historical Park remain powerful symbols that draw people to Alaska and provide a tangible link to the past.
For more information about the totem poles at Sitka National Historical Park, refer to the Alaska Geographic publication, Carved History, by Marilyn Knapp, and The Most Striking of Objects by Andrew Patrick.
For more pictures of Sitka's totem poles, view the photo gallery below.
Did You Know?
The transfer of Alaska from Russia took place in Sitka. On October 18, 1867, the Russian flag was lowered on Castle Hill, home of Alaska's Russian governors, the American flag was raised, and a brief exchange of statements completed the transfer of Alaska to the United States.