• Visitors bask in a golden sunset at Dickey Ridge Visitor Center in Shenandoah National Park

    Shenandoah

    National Park Virginia

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Water Quality

Nature and Science

Mountain stream in winter.

Shenandoah contains portions of the headwaters for three major watersheds in Virginia: the Rappahannock, the Shenandoah, and the James Rivers. Each of these rivers eventually flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The streams are formed from numerous springs, some of which are located near the ridge tops. The water from these springs is very cool and, on its downhill journey, forms the numerous high gradient and highly oxygenated streams found in the park. Due to the protection of the surrounding forests, the water in these streams is of high quality and low in sediment load.

As a result of high air pollution levels, atmospheric deposition in Shenandoah National Park is the greatest threat to the protected mountain streams. Acid precipitation, a type of atmospheric deposition that is primarily linked to fossil fuel combustion, is lowering water pH in some extremely sensitive streams both chronically and episodically. The low buffering capacity of a large percentage of soils in the park provides limited protection from acid depositions. Because of the sensitivity of the streams in the park to acidification, long-term monitoring of stream water chemistry and hydrogeochemical processes is a major component of the Inventory and Monitoring Program in the park.

Related Information

One useful reference that deals with water quality at Shenandoah is:

Lynch, D.D. 1987. Hydrologic Conditions and Trends in Shenandoah National Park Virginia, 1983-1984. Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4131. U.S. Geological Survey, Richmond, Virginia.

Websites that provide helpful information about water quality are:

Listing of these websites does not and is not intended to imply endorsement by the National Park Service of commercial services or products associated with the sites

Did You Know?

The early post card view of the Marys Rock Tunnel is typical of the iconic use of images of the engineering structure

The 600' long Marys Rock Tunnel was completed in 1932 and the public considered it a scenic wonder. It became iconic and tunnel images were used on everything from post cards to jewelry.