• Giant Sequoia Trees

    Sequoia & Kings Canyon

    National Parks California

There are park alerts in effect.
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  • Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Institute Stage 2 Fire Restrictions

    Effective July 28, 2014, the parks are in Stage 2 fire restrictions. See link below for more information. These restrictions will remain in place until further notice. More »

  • Road Construction Delays on Park Roads for 2014 Season

    Expect occasional 15-min. to 1-hour delays in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks beginning Monday, June 2, weekdays only, between 5:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., including delays to/from the General Sherman Tree, Crystal Cave, and Grant Grove. More »

  • Vehicle Length Limits in Sequoia National Park (if Entering/Exiting Hwy 198)

    Planning to see the "Big Trees" in Sequoia National Park? If you enter/exit via Hwy. 198, please pay close attention to vehicle length advisories for your safety and the safety of others. More »

  • You May Have Trouble Calling Us

    We are experiencing technical problems receiving incoming phone calls. We apologize for the inconvenience. Please send us an email to SEKI_Interpretation@nps.gov or check the "More" link for trip-planning information. More »

Other Fire Related Sites

NOTE: These pages are not part of the Sequoia and Kings Canyon Web Site and most will take you off the NPS web site. You may want to bookmark or add this page to your favorites to find your way back.

DISCLAIMER: Links on this page do not constitute an endorsement of the content of any website not managed by Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. We provide these links solely as an information resource.


National Fire News

NPS FireNet website - On the NPS Fire Management web site "FireNet" visitors to the site can easily access fire information related to the Park Service including fire jobs.

National Fire Plan

Link to information about the McNally Fire in Sequoia National Forest south of the Parks

Fire Weather Information - San Joaquin Valley, Hanford, CA.


Glossary of Fire Terms
sequoia tree
Links to Page Topics

National Park Service
  • National Park Service Reference Manual 18 - Wildland Fire Management
    Wildland fire management within National Park Service units is conducted to support resource management objectives. The full range of strategic options is available to managers provided selected options do not compromise firefighter and public safety, cost-effectiveness, benefits, and values to be protected. Suppression of unwanted, potentially environmentally damaging wildland fires is guided by fire management plan direction. Fire use activities may include using fire as either a natural process or as a management tool. Fire use objectives include, but are not limited to: restoring, mimicking, or replacing the ecological influences of natural fire, maintaining historic scenes, reducing hazardous fuels, eliminating exotic/alien species, disposal of vegetative waste and debris, and preserving endangered species.
  • Fire Ecology in National Parks
  • Fire Effects Monitoring
    Link to information about long-term monitoring in fire-maintained ecosystems within the national park system. The U.S. National Park Service has developed the Fire Monitoring Handbook, which contains a standardized protocol for monitoring and documenting prescribed fire behavior and effects. The handbook provides a system to document burning conditions and fire behavior, insure fires remain within certain conditions, verify completion of burn objectives, and follow long-term trends. This information can help managers in burn prescription refinement when objectives are not met or long-term undesirable trends occur, and to identify research needs. In support of the implementation of the handbook, data forms, software, and training courses have been developed. As the program begins its tenth year, nearly 50 parks with fire management programs have incorporated these protocols into their programs.
  • Fire Ecology of Crater Lake National Park
    Fire is as much a part of the forests in Crater Lake as are avalanches, windstorms, native insect and disease outbreaks, and volcanoes. All of these naturally occurring forces play an important role in shaping the forest landscape.
  • Fire History Of The Northeastern Portion of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon
    A fire history chronology extending for 480 years (1501-1981) was developed from tree ring studies of fire-scarred ponderosa and lodgepole pines growing in a 640 ha (1600 ac) study area in the northeastern portion of Crater Lake National Park.
  • Prescribed Fire in Yellowstone
    In Yellowstone prescribed fire not only means fires ignited by resource managers to attain specific management objectives but also allowing naturally occurring wildfires which do not threaten people, property or resource values to burn within "prescription".
  • Fire Management - Everglades National Park
    Fire has always been an integral part of the Everglades. It was one of the critical influences in the evolution of south Florida habitats. Everglades National Park was established to protect the biological diversity of the area. Regular fires are needed to guarantee that protection. Without those fires much of the diversity would be lost forever and several species would face extinction. As a result, our park managers consider fire an important ally rather than a foe.
  • Cerro Grande Prescribed Fire Investigation Report - Bandelier National Monument
    Link to the Cerro Grande Prescribed Fire Investigation Report that was delivered to the Secretary of Interior, Bruce Babbitt on May 18, 2000.
  • Current News and Fire Situation Update Links
    From the Fire Management Program Center (NIFC), Boise, ID.
  • The history, intensity, and vegetational effects of fire on the Indiana Dunes
    Many habitats in the Indiana Dunes are dependent upon fire for their preservation, especially oak savanna and prairie. Research is being conducted to examine the costs and benefits of various fire treatments in these natural habitats. Ongoing research using prescribed burns is producing information on many subjects including:
  • Fire History - Bryce Canyon National Park
    Photos taken over several decades of the same spot show the effects from excluding fire over time.

Interagency

  • National Fire Plan website. a cooperative, long-term effort of the USDA Forest Service, Department of the Interior, and the National Association of State Foresters. As you visit this site, you will see how the federal government and state partners are managing impacts of wildland fire to our Nation's communities.
  • 1996 Federal Wildland Fire Management - Policy & Program Review
    The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review was chartered by the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture to ensure that Federal policies are uniform and programs are cooperative and cohesive. This report addresses five major topic areas, presents nine guiding principles that are fundamental to wildland fire management, and recommends a set of thirteen Federal wildland fire policies. While unique agency missions may result in minor operational differences, having, for the first time, one set of "umbrella" Federal fire policies will enhance effective and efficient operations across administrative boundaries and improve our capability to meet the challenges posed by current wildland fire conditions. (VIEW or DOWNLOAD ENTIRE REPORT in HTML format [155 kb file])
  • National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) NIFC Logo
    The National Interagency Fire Center, in Boise, Idaho, includes the nation's primary logistical support center for wildland fire suppression. The center is home to federal wildland fire experts in fields as diverse as fire ecology, fire behavior, technology, aviation and weather.
  • Joint Fire Science Program
    The Joint Fire Science Program was designed to provide a scientific basis and rationale for implementing fuels management activities, with a focus on activities that will lead to development and application of tools for managers.
    • The Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop: Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management. Boise, Idaho. June 15-17, 1999. Kevin C. Ryan L.F. Neuenschwander and K.C. Ryan (tech. ed.). 2000. Univ. Idaho Press
    • Fire and Fire Surrogates
      There has been a growing recognition over the last several years of the need for a study to compare the use of fire to non-fire treatments designed to achieve stand structure objectives. A 'Critical Finding' of the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) (1996, Executive Summary, pages 4-5) states: "Fire Surrogates: Although silvicultural treatments can mimic the effects of fire on structural patterns of woody vegetation, virtually no data exist on the ability to mimic ecological functions of natural fires. Silvicultural treatments can create patterns of woody vegetation that appear similar to those that fire would create, but the consequences for nutrient cycling, hydrology, seed scarification, nonwoody vegetation response, plant diversity, disease and insect infestation, and genetic diversity are mostly unknown. Similarly, although combining managed fire with silvicultural treatments adds the critical effects of combustion, the ecological effects and fire hazard reduction of the approach are largely unknown."The proposed long-term study described here, funded by the Joint Fire Science Program, is in response to this virtual void in our knowledge.
  • Interior Fire Coordination Committee (IFCC)
    The Interior Fire Coordination Committee (IFCC) operates under the direction of the Directors of Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, and the Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Committee provides the leadership and technical expertise for development of policy, programmatic and operational direction, and resolution of issues as they affect Department of the Interior bureau fire programs. One IFCC responsibility is Wildland Fire Research Initiative management.
  • GEOMAC - Wildland Fire Support
    Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group - GeoMAC is an internet based mapping application, originally designed for firefighting coordination centers and incident command teams to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters using standard web browsers such as Netscape Communicator™ or Microsoft Internet Explorer™. However, with the growing concern of the western wildland fires, we are offering the application to the general public. We hope that you find this important information both timely and helpful.
  • National Fire Danger Rating System. The National Fire danger Rating System is a set of computer programs and algorithms that allow land management agencies to estimate today's or tomorrow's fire danger for a given rating area.

US Forest Service

  • Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
    A great site, the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information on the effects of fire on plants and animals. The searchable database has been developed as a cooperative interagency resource, and is always being improved and updated as more research and monitoring becomes available.
  • Pacific Southwest Research Station
    This US Forest Service research station includes the Riverside Fire Lab. The Articles and Publications section of the Station's Web site features on-line versions of many technical publications relating to forest management, including some on fire management. Most documents can be viewed using Acrobat Reader.
  • Riverside Fire Lab
  • FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - a Program for Fire Danger Rating Analysis
    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be plotted and compared. Methods for defining critical levels of fire danger are provided. The paper includes a review of NFDRS philosophy and application, a description of input and output, and a summary of fire danger rating programs and data bases and their relationship to FIRES.
  • Rocky Mountain Research Station
    The Rocky Mountain Research Station of the USDA Forest Service (formerly the Intermountain Research Station and the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station) conducts research throughout the nation with emphasis on the Rocky Mountains, Great Basin, Great Plains, and the Southwest. This site includes listings of recent publications by Station authors and major cooperators, including reports relating to fire.
  • FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - a Program for Fire Danger Rating Analysis
    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be plotted and compared. Methods for defining critical levels of fire danger are provided. The paper includes a review of NFDRS philosophy and application, a description of input and output, and a summary of fire danger rating programs and data bases and their relationship to FIRES.
  • Wildland Fire Assessment System
    The Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS-MAPS) generates national maps of selected fire weather and fire danger components of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). These maps are usually updated daily during the spring, summer and fall seasons, and weekly during the winter. WFAS is part of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory Fire Behavior Research Work Unit in Missoula, Montana.
  • Mann Gulch Fire - A Race That Couldn't Be Won
    On August 5, 1949, the Mann Gulch Fire overran a crew of elite smoke jumpers on the Helena National Forest in Montana, killing 16 firefighters. This tragic event later became the subject of Norman Maclean's book Young Men and Fire. This paper is an analysis of the probable behavior of the fire and the movements of the crew during their last 20 minutes, by a Forest Service fire behavior expert.
  • Fire - USDA Forest Service
    with fire information linkshttp://www.nps.gov/fire/fireinfo/current.htm from the US Forest Service National Headquarters.
  • Fire Behavior Associated with the 1994 South Canyon Fire on Storm King Mountain, Colorado.
    Three major factors were identified that contributed to the blowup on the afternoon of July 6, 1994. The first was the presence of fire in the bottom of a steep narrow canyon. Second, strong upcanyon winds pushing the fire up the canyon and upslope. Third, the fire burning into the green (not previously underburned) Gambel oak canopy.
  • Final Report of the Interagency Management Review Team - South Canyon Fire
    On July 6, 1994, the South Canyon Fire swept up Storm King Mountain, resulting in the deaths of 14 firefighters. A joint Bureau of Land Management/U.S. Forest Service investigation team was chartered to examine the accident. Following submission of the South Canyon Accident Investigation Team report in August of 1994, the Interagency Management Review Team (IMRT) was established to study the findings and conclusions of the Team, to review and refine that team's recommendations, and to propose a plan for corrective action.
  • Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit - Fire Research
    The USFS desires to establish baseline information on natural fire history and vegetation conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin. This work complements and will be accomplished together with the watershed assessment. The Forest Service will use established research and study prioritization processes to expand on recent research from the east shore of Lake Tahoe. This research will provide reference variability information to support both the watershed assessment and mechanical treatment commitments.
  • Great Lakes Assessment Fire Project - Great Lakes Ecological Assessment, Natural Disturbance
    In 1995, the Landscape Ecology Research Unit of USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station (NCFES), initiated a study of Modern Lake States fire patterns initiated a study of modern Lake States fire patterns and the factors that might influence their occurrence and frequency. The study was conducted primarily at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, through a cooperative agreement between the University and NCFES, as part of the Great Lakes Ecological Assessment.
  • Sierra Nevada Framework for Conservation and Collaboration - USDA Forest Service
    The Sierra Nevada Framework for Conservation and Collaboration, integrating science into natural resource management through improved cooperation among tribes, local governments, state and federal agencies. Look here for more information about the Design Paper, bighorn sheep, Cal Fed, Giant Sequoia, adaptive management & monitoring, science, team members and forest contacts

BLM, USGS & US Fish and Wildlife Service

  • Fire Ecology Research - USGS Western Ecological Research Center
    Wildland fires are an important ecosystem process throughout the western United States. Coniferous forests have long been subject to a frequent fire regime of low-intensity fires, which played an important role in reducing hazardous fuels and in rejuvenating the forests. In chaparral shrublands of California, high-intensity crown fires have been a strong force guiding the evolution of plant life, and regulator of ecological communities. In many desert habitats, fires have been far less frequent, and often are a more severe disturbance. Today the natural role of fire in these ecosystems is complicated by the fact that fire potentially favors plant invasions and these aliens in turn may alter fire regimes.
  • Fire and Fuel in a Sierra Nevada Ecosystem - USGS
    Early travelers and photographers in the mid-1800's recorded the forests of the Sierra Nevada as parklike, with little undergrowth and wide expanses of meadows. Nearly a century of fire control in the Sierra Nevada has led to conditions that now threaten the very forests they were designed to protect. Suppression of naturally occurring surface fires has allowed the forest floor to become a tangle of understory vegetation and accumulated debris. As undergrowth has increased, fuel volumes have expanded, and a continuous ladder of fuel extends from the ground to the forest canopy. Today, millions of hectares of forest and grasslands in the Sierra Nevada face abnormally high risks of wildfire because of these altered conditions.
  • BLM National Office of Fire and Aviation
    The BLM’s National Office of Fire and Aviation is headquartered at the National Interagency Fire Center, in Boise, Idaho, where the fire experts develop policy, conduct wildland fire research, and coordinate with fire managers from other firefighting organizations
  • BLM - The Great Basin: Healing the Land
    In 1999, the Great Basin, which encompasses most of Nevada and portions of Idaho, Utah, Oregon and California, suffered through its worst wildland fire season in more than four decades. Nearly two million acres of public land burned destroying critical wildlife habitat, forage for wild horses and livestock, and private property.

    However, long before the devastating fires in 1999, the ecological health of the Great Basin was in jeopardy. Exotic annual grasses and noxious weeds, multiplying at alarming rates for decades, have crept across the Great Basin until roughly one-third of its 75 million acres are infested. The results are alarming. For one, a wildland fire/annual grass cycle has begun that accelerates with increased weed and annual grass invasions. Additionally, native shrubs and perennial grasses and forbs are weakened or completely lost, affecting the diverse plants and animals for which the Great Basin is known and appreciated.

    In a report, "Out of Ashes, An Opportunity" (1161 kb Acrobat PDF file) released in November 1999, the BLM addressed the Great Basin crisis and identified the need for long-term restoration that goes beyond rehabilitation and treatment of invasive species on a piece-meal basis. In April 2000, the BLM released a second report, or restoration strategy, entitled "The Great Basin: Healing the Land." (10 MB Acrobat PDF file) This document reviews the background and challenges of restoration, identifies guiding principles and strategies to help the work move forward.

  • USGS Wildland Fire Research
    Wildland fire is a serious and growing hazard over much of the United States, posing a great threat to life and property, particularly when it moves from forest or rangeland into developed areas. However, wildland fire is also a natural process, and its suppression is now recognized to have created a larger fire hazard, as live and dead vegetation accumulates in areas where fire has been excluded. In addition, the absence of fire has altered or disrupted the cycle of natural plant succession and wildlife habitat in many areas. Consequently, U.S. land management agencies are committed to finding ways, such as prescribed burning to reintroduce fire into natural ecosystems, while recognizing that fire fighting and suppression are still important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts fire-related research to meet the varied needs of the fire management community and to understand the role of fire in the landscape; this research includes fire management support, studies of postfire effects, and a wide range of studies on fire history and ecology.
  • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Fire Management
    The Fish and Wildlife Service Fire Management Branch is responsible for overall staff direction for the Service's fire management program. The program includes preparedness, fire use, suppression and emergency fire rehabilitation, which functions to support the Service missions. The Branch is located at the National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Idaho.
  • Fire Ecology - USGS Cascadia Field Station
    Although there is considerable literature on fire effects, most of it was collected at a small scale. CFS biologists have identified the problems associated with "scaling up" ecological data (e.g., from a forest stand to a larger landscape) for predicting fire effects on vegetation, especially in the context of large- scale models. An approach was developed for modeling transitions between vegetation types for increased fire frequencies at large spatial scales. This technique is providing an important component for state-of-the-art simulation models (e.g., MAPSS) that predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation at the continental scale. Techniques are also being developed to predict vegetation transitions over time in the context of an operational planning model and GIS database for applications in resource management.
  • Landscape and Fire Ecology Studies - Bandelier National Monument and the Jemez Mountains
    This project involves reconstruction of environmental histories and determination of the landscape-level ecological effects of fire in the Jemez and other southwestern mountains.
  • Fire Ecology and Management - Kennedy Space Center
    Fires are an important component of the natural environment of Florida. The climate of Florida promotes fires though seasonal dry periods and frequent thunderstorms that produce lightning. Central Florida has some of the highest incidences of lightning strikes anywhere in the world. The vegetation and fauna of Florida have evolved in relation to fire. Many plant communities including scrub, pine flatwoods, coastal strand, and marshes depend on fire for their continued existence. The habitat of many threatened and endangered animals and plants depends on periodic burning. Fire suppression and landscape fragmentation mean that wildfires can no longer burn across the Florida landscape. Land management agencies use prescribed burning to maintain the benefits of fire to natural communities, plants, and animals but reduce conflicts with transportation, industry, and the general public.
  • What is a Wild Fire?
  • National Fire Danger Rating System
    The National Fire danger Rating System is a set of computer programs and algorithms that allow land management agencies to estimate today's or tomorrow's fire danger for a given rating area.
  • NOAA's Fire Weather Information Center
    The site provides a roundup of various NOAA Web sites and information on the latest fire weather forecasts, including satellite images and graphics. Includes some external links.
  • NOAA Fire Weather Program
    The objective of the Fire Weather Program is to provide meteorological support to wildland fire management agencies for the protection of life and property. This support includes warnings, forecasts, on-site services during wildfires, and meteorological training for fire fighters.
  • An Ozark Fire History - by Richard Guyette, Mavis Dey and Dan Dey
    Fire scars on trees reveal the history of human use of fire in the Ozarks.

State of California

University

  • Small-Scale Fires Key To Understanding Forest Structure
    For 94 years, forest caretakers have restricted Mother Nature by suppressing forest fires. Now a Penn State geographer wants to know what the forests would have been like if we'd let them burn. What Beaty and Dr. Alan H. Taylor, associate professor of geography, are finding is that variation on a fairly local scale is important and that the environment, especially the topography, is key.
  • Information Center for the Environment
    While not specifically fire related, this site, hosted by UC Davis, contains large amounts of environmental data on California ecosystems and natural resources. Links to the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) can be found here.
  • The Western Forest Fire Research Center
    The Western Forest Fire Research Center (WESTFIRE) is an interdisciplinary research facility based at Colorado State University (data and maps presented in this home page are from a variety of sources and may not be complete or current).
  • Pyrogeography Research Laboratory
    The University of Arizona PRL conducts basic and applied research in fire mapping science. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technologies are used to support fire fuels mapping and modeling projects, chiefly in the Southwestern U.S.
  • UC Santa Barbara Biodiversity Forum
    The Biodiversity Forum hosted by UC Santa Barbara is a place on the World Wide Web for people like you to express and exchange views related to biodiversity and conservation. The Biodiversity Forum draws upon case studies taken from a number of areas. Giant sequoia management (including the role of fire) is one of the featured case studies.
  • Climate, Weather and Fire
    This site provides products and information related to climate, weather and fire applied research activities at the Desert Research Institute/Western Regional Climate Center in collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management State of Nevada Office and the Reno National Weather Service Forecast Office.
  • Fire Ecology of Torrey Pine
    Only two natural stands of Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) exist. The stand on Santa Rosa Island, California, was previously studied using fossil pollen from a sediment core in an estuary. This study also reconstructed the settlement impacts on the island caused mainly by the introduction of large grazing animals to the island for the first time.
  • Fire Ecology of Exotic Grasses in the California Desert
  • Fire Ecology Center
    Texas Tech University. The mission of the Fire Ecology Center is to train resource managers to properly apply fire, serve the natural resource community through prescribed fire application, and scientifically evaluate the role of fire in grassland ecosystems.
  • Testimony to Committee on Resources, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health - Dr. Thomas W. Swetnam, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona
    Testimony for oversight hearing on preventing wildfires through proper management of the National Forests, Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 14, 2000.
  • Fire Regime of a Coastal Temperate Rain Forest - Dan Gavin, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington
    Old-growth forests dominated the presettlement vegetation on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Given that past climate variability has caused forest fire disturbance regimes to vary over time, to what extent have old-growth forests dominated in the past?
  • Fire History in Sagebrush Communities
    This study was designed to: (1) document the chronology of western juniper age distribution; (2) document pre- and postsettlement mean fire intervals in a mountain big sagebrush steppe community; and (3) determine the proportion of large to small fires, and evaluate their relationship to growing conditions in years preceding and concurrent with fire events. The work is being conducted throughout central and southeast Oregon, and northeast California.
  • Fire History of Ponderosa Pine Forests

International

  • Fire in Canada's National Parks
    Waterton's ecosystems have evolved with and have been shaped by fire. This ecological process is as important as water, sun and wind
  • FROSTFIRE: The Role of Fire in Permafrost Terrain in the Boreal Forest
    Given the importance of fire in the boreal forest, the fire-research community has planned a series of three large-scale experimental burns to study fire behavior and the ecological impacts of fire. These are crucial to management objectives (manipulating fire regimes and controlling undesirable fires) and to scientific objectives of understanding the ecological and climatic consequences of boreal fires.
  • Science and Research: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
    Information about science and research in the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Good information is a necessary ingredient of efforts to implement ecologically sustainable development. It is essential to have good information on the components of biological diversity and human impacts on them to make informed decisions on heritage management and conservation. However, scientific knowledge is far from complete and there are many important questions that need to be answered.
  • Canadian Fire Management Network, Natural Resources Canada
    Canadian fire management policies state that suppression should be proportional to values at risk and that fire should assume a more natural role in managing the landscape. In comparison to fire control, fire management requires more knowledge about fire as a physical, biological, and sociological phenomenon as well as more sophisticated decision-making and application skill. The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) Fire Research Network (FRN) will develop decision support systems and foster implementation of technology to support Canadian fire management agencies. (Also in French) Programs include:
    • Fire Environment - To conduct fundamental and applied research in order to improve the understanding and ability to predict the behavior of free-burning vegetation fires in Canada and other wildland areas.
    • Fire Ecology - Research carried out within the Fire Ecology Program provides the scientific basis for the use of fire in sustainable management of Canada's forest resource. This is accomplished by elucidating the natural role of fire in Canada's forest ecosystems, simulating its effects in various forest regions under differing fire regimes, and providing the ecological underpinnings required for the operational application of fire in natural resource management.
    • Fire Management Systems - To conduct research to develop information and decision-support systems to monitor and predict wildland fire activity in Canada and to enhance fire management efficiency and effectiveness.
    • Fire and Global Change - To conduct research to investigate the relationship between projected climate change and wildland fire in the boreal forest.
    • Publications and Bibliography List of the Fire Management Network
  • Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (CIFFC)
    The Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (CIFFC) provides operational fire-control services, as well as management and information services to its Member Agencies. The web site gives detailed information on the Canadian fire management activities. Fire Statistics are provided along with fire events, fire news etc.
  • Bibliography of Fire Ecology in Australia - NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
    Searchable online bibliography.
  • The International Fire Information Network
    FireNet is a Special Interest Network (a SIN) dedicated to all aspects of fire science and management.
  • Satellite Earth Observation for Wildland Fire Management
    The purpose of this document is to review potential requirements for space-based observations in fire management. This report was developed under the auspices of the Disaster Management Support Project (DMSP) as part of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). This document was prepared by an international working group, which has experience in the field of remote sensing as applied to wildland fire management.
  • The Biomass Burning Experiment: Impact of Fire on the Atmosphere and Biosphere
    Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Perturbations of Tropical Atmospheric Chemistry. One of the core projects of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) is the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project. The overall objectives of IGAC Focus 2 are to understand the chemical processing and transport of gases in the tropical atmosphere, and the role of terrestrial biosphere- atmosphere trace gas exchanges in regulating atmospheric> composition. Much of the research in this Focus is directed toward understanding the effects of human activities, especially land-use change and land-use intensification, on trace gas fluxes and atmospheric chemistry. Several interrelated Activities are addressing these major objectives.
  • Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
    The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) monitors, forecasts and archives information on vegetation fires (forest fires, land-use fires, smoke pollution) at global level. With this information decision makers at national and international levels are supported in evaluating fire situations or precursors of fire which potentially endanger humans or may negatively affect the environment
  • FireBeaters - Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, The University of Edinburgh
    Home page of the FireBeaters, a small group of ecologists, land managers, foresters and conservationists interested in the history, ecology, control, and behaviour of vegetation fires in the British Isles and North-West Europe.
  • FIRE HISTORY, FIRE RESEARCH AND FIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK
    The objective of this work was to examine the options for fire management in the Kruger National Park, based on available data on the fire history and known effects of fire, and to devise "thresholds of potential concern" (TPC’s) for fire management.

Journals or Periodicals

  • High Country News
    High Country News is a bi-weekly newspaper that reports on natural resources, public lands, and changing communities from the Great Plains to the Northwest, and from the Northern Rockies to the desert Southwest. Among the articles in their on-line archives are a number relating to fire.
  • Fires Illuminate our Illusions in the Southwest. By Roger Kennedy. Essay in High Country News.
    A former Park Service director says the Los Alamos fire was due partly to "our refusal to live within the rules ordained by ... a high, dry, windy, rocky, sandy region." Roger Kennedy, former director of the Smithsonian's Museum of American History, served as director of the National Park Service from 1993 to 1997. He now lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
  • Los Alamos fire offers a lesson in humility By William deBuys. Essay in High Country News.
    The writer believes that much can be learned from the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos, N.M., if we will acknowledge our ignorance and learn how to live in the West.
  • Fire and Cheatgrass Conspire to Create a Weedy Wasteland. by Jon Christensen. Essay in High Country News.
    The fire-loving weed cheatgrass is taking over the Great Basin's overgrazed sagebrush steppes, and BLM scientists are struggling to find a way to eradicate the non-native weeds and restore the land before it all goes up in flames.
  • Save Our Sagebrush. by Jon Christensen. Essay in High Country News.
    In the wake of the huge fires that swept across the Great Basin in August 1999, the BLM is seeking ways to restore the sagebrush landscape and to control the fire-prone cheatgrass that now infests it.
  • The West's Hottest Question: How to Burn What's Bound to Burn. by Tony Davis. Essay in High Country News.
    The forest fire that ravaged Los Alamos, N.M., stemming from a Park Service prescribed burn that swept out of control, has everyone debating the whole concept of prescribed burning in the West.
  • Check with Reality by Sherry Devlin of the Missoulian
    The intense blazes of 2000 may be wake-up call to return fire to forests.
  • Now is the Time to Make a Plan - Missoulian Editorial
    This week, Missoulian reporter Sherry Devlin produced a three-day series on the fires of 1910, which burned 3 million acres in Montana and Idaho. Read the series, if you haven't already. It is an excellent primer for a national debate that is already heating up. The two arguing camps are familiar by now: In one, people who basically oppose logging on public forests and man's interference in nature; in the other are those who argue man's work ­ thinning, logging of forests ­ promotes healthier environments. The coolest spot in the argument is somewhere in between.

    Mountains of Fire - 90 Years Ago, Wind-Driven Flames Scarred a Generation. By Sherry Devlin of the Missoulian

  • The View from Lick Creek By Sherry Devlin of the Missoulian
    Nearly a century of change has created a more flammable forest. A series of photographs from the same location beginning in 1909 show dramatic changes in forest structure and composition in an experimental forest in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana.
  • 'Menace' in Waiting by Sherry Devlin of the Missoulian
    After the historic fires of 1910, policies designed to protect forests produced thicker timber stands that burn bigger and hotter when wildfire strikes.
  • Taming 'the Dragon' by Sherry Devlin of the Missoulian
    The 'big blowup' of 1910 burned 3 million acres of forest in western Montana and northern Idaho, and shaped much of the modern fire suppression effort
  • Fire Ecology of Crater Lake National Park - Outdoors Network
    Fire is as much a part of the forests in Crater Lake as are avalanches, windstorms, native insect and disease outbreaks, and volcanoes. All of these naturally occurring forces play an important role in shaping the forest landscape.
  • Yellowstone Fires and their Legacy - Idaho Post Register
    Online guide to the Yellowstone fires of 1988.

Private Organizations

  • Giant Sequoia Ecology Cooperative
    "The purpose of this web site is to foster communication between members of the Giant Sequoia Ecology Cooperative and to share information regarding giant sequoia with all interested parties".
  • Tall Timbers Research Station
    Tall Timbers Research Station was established in 1958 as a non-profit scientific and educational organization dedicated to ecological research, conservation and management of wildlands in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The Station is recognized as a leader in land management, conservation activities, ecological research, and particularly fire ecology. (See Fire Ecology Database below)
  • E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database
    This database is a unique resource for locating a broad range of fire-related information. Literature on control of wildfires as well as applications of prescribed burning is included. The database is international in scope with emphasis on North America and in particular, the southeastern United States. Citations include references to books, chapters within books, journal articles, conferences and conference papers, state and federal documents. Abstracts are often included as part of the citations. The database is updated on a continuous basis, with information both current and historical. At present there are over 10,800 citations are in the database. There is no cost for accessing the database.
  • The Nature Conservancy's - National Fire Management Program
    The goal of The Nature Conservancy is to preserve biodiversity, and fire plays a role in maintaining populations of rare species and natural communities. Over 190 G1 and G2* species are found on properties identified for prescribed fire management.
  • The International Association of Wildland Fire
  • The Fire Research Institute
    The Fire Research Institute (FRI) is a not-for-profit wildland fire library holding 65,000 books, journal articles, videos, training manuals, dissertations, news reports, and other material on wildland fire. The web site allows users to search the entire collection online.
  • From the Ashes: Reducing the Harmful Effects & Rising Costs of Western Wildfires
    Report by "Taxpayers for Common Sense".
  • ESRI - Fire Ecology
    ESRI Conservation Program Resources
  • Columbia Breaks Fire Interpretive Center

Fire Research

  • Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
    A great site, the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information on the effects of fire on plants and animals. The searchable database has been developed as a cooperative interagency resource, and is always being improved and updated as more research and monitoring becomes available.
  • Pacific Southwest Research Station
    This US Forest Service research station includes the Riverside Fire Lab. The Articles and Publications section of the Station's Web site features on-line versions of many technical publications relating to forest management, including some on fire management. Most documents can be viewed using Acrobat Reader.
  • Rocky Mountain Research Station
    The Rocky Mountain Research Station of the USDA Forest Service (formerly the Intermountain Research Station and the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station) conducts research throughout the nation with emphasis on the Rocky Mountains, Great Basin, Great Plains, and the Southwest. This site includes listings of recent publications by Station authors and major cooperators, including reports relating to fire.
  • Tall Timbers Research Station
    Tall Timbers Research Station was established in 1958 as a non-profit scientific and educational organization dedicated to ecological research, conservation and management of wildlands in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The Station is recognized as a leader in land management, conservation activities, ecological research, and particularly fire ecology.
  • Joint Fire Science Program
    The Joint Fire Science Program was designed to provide a scientific basis and rationale for implementing fuels management activities, with a focus on activities that will lead to development and application of tools for managers.
  • Fire and Fire Surrogates
    There has been a growing recognition over the last several years of the need for a study to compare the use of fire to non-fire treatments designed to achieve stand structure objectives. A 'Critical Finding' of the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) (1996, Executive Summary, pages 4-5) states: "Fire Surrogates: Although silvicultural treatments can mimic the effects of fire on structural patterns of woody vegetation, virtually no data exist on the ability to mimic ecological functions of natural fires. Silvicultural treatments can create patterns of woody vegetation that appear similar to those that fire would create, but the consequences for nutrient cycling, hydrology, seed scarification, nonwoody vegetation response, plant diversity, disease and insect infestation, and genetic diversity are mostly unknown. Similarly, although combining managed fire with silvicultural treatments adds the critical effects of combustion, the ecological effects and fire hazard reduction of the approach are largely unknown."The proposed long-term study described here, funded by the Joint Fire Science Program, is in response to this virtual void in our knowledge.
  • FROSTFIRE: The Role of Fire in Permafrost Terrain in the Boreal Forest
    Given the importance of fire in the boreal forest, the fire-research community has planned a series of three large-scale experimental burns to study fire behavior and the ecological impacts of fire. These are crucial to management objectives (manipulating fire regimes and controlling undesirable fires) and to scientific objectives of understanding the ecological and climatic consequences of boreal fires.
  • USGS Wildland Fire Research
    Wildland fire is a serious and growing hazard over much of the United States, posing a great threat to life and property, particularly when it moves from forest or rangeland into developed areas. However, wildland fire is also a natural process, and its suppression is now recognized to have created a larger fire hazard, as live and dead vegetation accumulates in areas where fire has been excluded. In addition, the absence of fire has altered or disrupted the cycle of natural plant succession and wildlife habitat in many areas. Consequently, U.S. land management agencies are committed to finding ways, such as prescribed burning to reintroduce fire into natural ecosystems, while recognizing that fire fighting and suppression are still important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts fire-related research to meet the varied needs of the fire management community and to understand the role of fire in the landscape; this research includes fire management support, studies of postfire effects, and a wide range of studies on fire history and ecology.
  • The Bor Forest Island Fire Experiment Fire Research - Fire History, Ecology, and Short-term Fire Effects
    The Bor Forest Island experimental site is typical of pine-lichen forests of Western Siberia. Generally, in the taiga zone, dominant pine stand age is dependent on the time period since the last intense fire. Pine stands on sands are represented primarily by pine-lichen forest types. Species composition of postfire woody plant regeneration is typically similar to prefire composition. The time it takes for a young stand canopy to become closed after fire depends on burned area size, seed sources available, and seed production in the years following the fire. Because of insufficient surface fuel loads, fires typically are patchy and cover relatively small areas. As a result, seed sources are generally available nearby. Only young and pole stands, and sometimes middle-aged stands, tend to burn out completely.

Online and Searchable Fire Reference Databases

  • The Fire Research Institute
    The Fire Research Institute (FRI) is a not-for-profit wildland fire library holding 65,000 books, journal articles, videos, training manuals, dissertations, news reports, and other material on wildland fire. The web site allows users to search the entire collection online.
  • E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database
    This database is a unique resource for locating a broad range of fire-related information. Literature on control of wildfires as well as applications of prescribed burning is included. The database is international in scope with emphasis on North America and in particular, the southeastern United States. Citations include references to books, chapters within books, journal articles, conferences and conference papers, state and federal documents. Abstracts are often included as part of the citations. The database is updated on a continuous basis, with information both current and historical. At present there are over 10,800 citations are in the database. There is no cost for accessing the database.
  • Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
    A great site, the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information on the effects of fire on plants and animals. The searchable database has been developed as a cooperative interagency resource, and is always being improved and updated as more research and monitoring becomes available.

Information on Fire Prevention & Education

  • FireWise Home Page Firewise Logo
    Information on protecting homes from wildland fire by the National Wildland/Urban Interface Fire protection Program. The Firewise Home Page was created for people who live or vacation in fire prone areas of North America. The information contained here will help you to become a firewise individual, and acquaint you with the challenges of living around interface/intermix wildfire. These pages provide information that may lessen the risk of wildfire loss for you, your family and your neighbors. You will find online wildfire protection information designed to help you avoid unnecessary fire loss. You will also find a list of offline wildfire protection information as well as links to off-site fire resources
  • Protecting Your Home From Wildland Fire - NIFC Fire Prevention and Education
    Every year many families unnecessarily lose their homes and possessions to wildland fire. These losses can be minimized if homeowners take the time to become aware of safety measures to help protect their homes and complete some effective actions. At this site information is provided on fire resistant building materials and on how to maintain a survivable space around a home.
  • Protecting Your Property from Fire ... - FEMA: Reducing risk through mitigation.
  • California Fire Safe Council FireSafe Council Logo
    Utilizing the combined expertise, resources and distribution channels of its members, the Fire Safe Council fulfills its mission to preserve California's natural and manmade resources by mobilizing all Californians to make their homes, neighborhoods and communities fire safe.
  • Firesafe California FireSafe Logo
    FireSafe is the home page/resource directory for Safety Information.
  • Urban-Wildland Interface Fire: The I-Zone Series - University of California Forest Products Laboratory
    This series includes an update of portions of the I-Zone book published by the California State Fire Marshal's Office in 1996, as well as new information on fire hazard mitigation.
    • Homeowner's Survival Guide to Wildfires
    • Defensible Space Landscaping in the Urban/Wildland Interface
      A compilation of fire performance ratings of residential landscape plants. This vegetation guide was developed as part of a larger fire mitigation research project under way at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory. The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the properties of some common California landscaping plants that can be used to determine how a particular plant will behave when burned. It is a referenced database that compiles the information found in available lists and supplements information on plant characteristics that are known to affect fire performance.
    • Fire-Safe Structures
    • Fire-Safe Guide
  • Fire Safe Materials: Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology
    Objectives are to develop new, environmentally-friendly, fire-safe materials principles, fire performance prediction capability, and relevant fire test methods for U.S. industry and government agencies to assure that modifications to their products/materials will manifest the intended fire performance, and the test methods will measure materials' and end products' fire performance relevant to intended fire scenarios; the principles would be used by U.S. industry to produce new/improved end products for domestic & international markets, and to evaluate their economic impacts.
  • Fighting Fire with Fire
    "Fight Fire with Fire!" is a web site designed for Floridians to learn how to protect themselves and their homes from the threat of wildfire.

    Prescribed burning is a tool used by land managers to reduce the vegetation that can build up in forested areas. In addition to protecting neighborhoods and businesses, prescribed burning improves the health of Florida's ecosystems. Fire has always been a natural part of Florida's landscape. Fires play an important role in maintaining and regenerating forests and grasslands and the wildlife that depend on them.

  • Fire-safe Landscaping Can Save Your Home: FEMA/United States Fire Administration Factsheet on Rural Fire Safety and Prevention FEMA Fire Info Logo
    Wildland fires destroy hundreds of homes and acres of land every year across the country. Fire-safe landscaping is an effective tool that creates an area of defensible space between your home and flammable vegetation that protects against devastating fires.
  • Barricade® Fire Blocking Gel
  • For other sources of information see:
    • California Wildfire Landscaping. by Maureen Gilmer. 1994. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. 164 pp.
    • Five Hot Tips for Homeowners on the Edge. by Herbert McLean. 1993. American Forest, vol. 99, no. 5-6
    • Guide to Landscaping for Fire Safety. 1992. 2nd. Ed., University of California
    • Firescaping: Ways To Keep Your House and Garden from Going up in Smoke. by Joan Boulton. 1991. Horticulture. 1991. The Magazine of American Gardening, vol. 69, no. 8
    • Protecting Residences from Wildfires: A Guide for Homeowners, Lawmakers, and Planners. 1981. Technical Report No. 50, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Did You Know?

Trail sign.

Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks offer more than 850 miles of maintained wilderness trails. Over 723,000 of the parks' acres are officially designated as Wilderness. More...