• Giant Sequoia Trees

    Sequoia & Kings Canyon

    National Parks California

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  • The Generals Highway "Road Between the Parks" is OPEN

    The section of road between Lodgepole (Sequoia) and Grant Grove (Kings Canyon) is open. Call 559-565-3341 (press 1, 1) for 24-hour road updates.

  • Be Prepared! Tire Chains or Cables May Be Required in the Parks at Any Time

    All vehicles must carry chains or cables when entering a chain-restricted area. It's the law (CA Vehicle Code, Section 605, Sections 27450-27503). Road conditions may change often. For road conditions, call 559-565-3341 (press 1, 1). More »

  • You May Have Trouble Calling Us

    We are experiencing technical problems receiving incoming phone calls. We apologize for the inconvenience. Please send us an email to SEKI_Interpretation@nps.gov or check the "More" link for trip-planning information. More »

  • Vehicle Length Limits in Sequoia National Park (if Entering/Exiting Hwy 198)

    Planning to see the "Big Trees" in Sequoia National Park? If you enter/exit via Hwy. 198, please pay close attention to vehicle length advisories for your safety and the safety of others. More »

Fire Bibliography-Technical Literature from the 1960s


  • Changes in Vegetation, Structure, and Growth of Southwestern Pine Forest Since White Settlement. Cooper, C.F. 1960. Ecological Monographs 30:129:164.
  • Ecological Effects of Forest Fires. I.F. Ahlgren and C.E. Ahlgren. 1960. The Botanical Review. 26:483-533.
  • Danger of Wildfire Reduced by Prescribed Burning in Ponderosa Pine. H.H. Biswell. 1960. Calif. Agr. 14:5-6.
  • The Influence of Fire on California's Pristine Vegetation: A Consideration in Controlled Burning. L.T. Burcham. 1960. Extension Forestry Office, Agricultural Extension Service, U.C. Berkeley, 16 pp.
  • The Ecology of Fire. C.F. Cooper. 1961. Scientific American. April
  • Past Fire Incidence in Sierra Nevada Forests. W.W. Wagner. 1961. Journal of Forestry 59:739-748.
  • The Influence of Giant Sequoia on Soil Properties. P.J. Zinke and R.L. Crocker. 1962. Forest Science 8:2-11.
  • Some Aspects of the Influence of Fire and Sodium-Calcium Borate on Chaparral Vegetation. S.K. Stocking. 1962. M.A. Thesis, San Francisco State College. 112 pp.
  • Litter Production by Big Trees and Associated Species. H.H. Biswell, H. Buchanan, and R.P. Gibbens. 1966. California Agriculture 20:5-7.
  • Ecology of Vertebrate Animals in Relation to Chaparral Fire in the Sierra Nevada Foothills. G.E. Lawrence. 1966. Ecology 47:278-291.
  • Influence of fire and sodium-calcium borate on chaparral vegegation. S.K. Stocking. 1966. Madroño 18:193-203.
  • The Use of Fire in Wildland Management in California. H.H. Biswell. 1967. pp. 71-87. In: Natural Resources: Quality and Quantity. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley.
  • Forest Fire in Perspective. H.H. Biswell. 1967. pp. 43-63. Proceedings from the California Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Nov. 9-10, 1967. #7
  • The Fire Ecology of Sequoia Regeneration (Acrobat PDF file - 377KB) Hartesveldt, R.J. and H.T. Harvey. 1967. pp. 64-78. Proceedings from the California Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Nov. 9-10, 1967. #7
  • Vegetation Transects on the Camp conifer Fire Area. H.A. Jensen. 1967. Report for NPS Sequoia & Kings canyon National Parks by Hamman, Jensen, and Wallen, Inc. Mapping and Forestry Services, report on purchase order 102-1009.
  • Experimental Burning in Park Management. R.W. Murphy. 1967. pp. 207-216. Proceedings from the California Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Nov. 9-10, 1967. #7
  • The Influence of Man and Fire on the Vegetation of the Calaveras Groves of Sequoiadendron giganteum. P.W. Rundel. 1967. M.S. Thesis, Duke University. 81 pp.
  • Fuel Conditions in a Giant Sequoia Grove and Surrounding Plant Communities. J.K. Agee. 1968. MS Thesis, Univ. of Calif. 55pp.
  • The Properties of Heated Soils and Their Relationships to Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) Germination and Seedling Growth. J.I. Donaghey. 1968. MS Thesis, San Jose State University. 162 pp.
  • Sequoias' Dependence on Fire. R.J. Hartesveldt, H.T. Harvey, H.S. Shellhammer, R.E. Stecker. 1969. Science 166: 552-553
  • Ecological Study of Meadows in Lower Rock Creek, Sequoia National Park. R. Leonard, C.M. Johnson, P.J. Zinke, and A. Schultz. 1969. Annual Report for 1968 to NPS Sequoia & Kings Canyon NP.
  • Natural Reforestation in the Northern Sierra Nevada-Donner Ridge Burn. J.H. Bock and C.E. Bock. 1969. In: Proceedings Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, Apr. 10-11, 1969, Tallahassee, Florida. 9:119-126.
  • The Properties of Heated Soils and Their Relationships to Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) Germination and Seedling Growth. J.L. Donaghey. 1969. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State College, 173 pp.
  • Seedling Survival in a Giant Sequoia Forest. J.K. Agee and H.H. Biswell. 1969. Calif. Agr. 32(4):18-19.
  • Some quantitative aspects of the grass-oak woodland in Sequoia National Park, California. W.H. Brooks. 1969. Paper presented at Northwest Scientific Association annual meeting, Eastern washington State College, March 21, 1969, 19 pp.

Did You Know?

Low fire burns through a grove during a prescribed burn.

Fire is an essential part of Sierra forest ecology. Plants and animals have adapted to the periodic, low-intensity fires that naturally occur here. In fact, sequoias need fire to open their cones and release the seeds, and to leave cleared beds of ash where they sprout and grow best.