As noted, in addition
to meeting significance, suitability and feasibility criteria, a study area
must also be found to require direct management by NPS, instead of alternative
protection by other public agencies or the private sector, in order to receive
a favorable recommendation for inclusion into the national park system. Unless
direct NPS management of a study area is identified as the clearly superior
alternative, the Service will recommend that some other entity assume a lead
management role, and that the area not be included in the national park system.
This reconnaissance survey finds that the cultural and natural resources identified and evaluated within the study area--the southwest coast of Maui from La Perouse Bay east to Kanaloa Point--do not meet the test of national significance. However, the Hawaiian archeological and coral reef resources within the study area do appear to be of statewide significance. Other resource values identified and evaluated in the study area appear to be of less than statewide significance.
With regard to suitability for inclusion in the national park system, study area resources were evaluated using National Park Service Natural History and History and Prehistory thematic frameworks. Based on this evaluation, the cultural (Hawaiian archeological) and natural resources within the study area were found to be already adequately represented within existing units of the national park system in Hawaii. Consequently, these resources do not meet the test of suitability.
The study area meets only some tests of feasibility. It is feasible in terms of being of sufficient size and appropriate configuration to allow management for resource protection and public use. Notwithstanding the damage to archeological resources, the study area appears to have retained much of its integrity as a true, accurate and unspoiled example of a resource type. However, direct management by the National Park Service is judged not feasible at this time since the great majority of the study area is already in public ownership (the State of Hawaii). Further, these State-owned lands are ceded lands. The ownership of ceded lands remains controversial among advocates of Hawaiian sovereignty throughout Hawaii.
Although the study area does not meet criteria for inclusion in the national park system, this reconnaissance survey of the coastal area of southwest Maui from La Perouse Bay to Kanaloa Point finds that additional protection and management of the Hawaiian archeological and coral reef resources found here are needed. Due to the extent, the nature and the statewide significance of the Hawaiian archeological resources, public use of the area needs to be more actively managed. The present level of management on public lands appears to be inadequate. Establishment of the lands of the study area as a component of the Hawaii state park system would provide a higher level of protection for all resources and provide increased opportunities for interpretation of these resources for visitors. Designation by the State of Hawaii of study area offshore waters as a marine protected area would help protect coral reef resources.
This reconnaissance survey
finds that the local public support for the protection and management of study
area resources appears to outweigh concerns expressed by some over restrictions
on access and permitted outdoor recreation activities--if the area were to
be directly managed by a public park agency. The study area remains in open
space and is not presently being threatened by development. The primary threat
appears to be unregulated and unstructured outdoor recreation use by ever-increasing
numbers of visitors--both island residents and off-island tourists. Due to
the absence of a managing entity, several of the more significant and accessible
Hawaiian archeological resources have been and continue to be damaged by four-wheel
drive vehicles and overnight camping and other activities.
In February 2001, the late Hawaii Congresswoman Patsy T. Mink introduced H.R. 591, directing the "Secretary of the Interior to study the suitability and feasibility of including certain lands along the southwestern coast of Maui, Hawaii, in the National Park System." The bill described the study area as extending "generally from Keone`o`io to Kanaloa Point." (As of the date of this reconnaissance survey, H.R.591 has not been enacted). In April 2001, Congresswoman Mink wrote to the Regional Director Pacific West Region to request National Park Service (NPS) support in conducting a feasibility study to fully document the assets of and threats to the Keone`o`io to Kanaloa Point area.
In response to Congresswoman
Mink's letter, in May 2001, the Regional Director directed the Pacific Islands
Support Office in Honolulu, Hawaii to carry out a reconnaissance survey of
the Keone`o`io to Kanaloa Point shoreline area of southwestern Maui and its
offshore waters. Reconnaissance surveys conducted by NPS usually consist of
a thorough review of existing information from various sources, consultation
with interested parties and site visits. NPS conducts reconnaissance surveys
to determine if the resources present possess national significance. Reconnaissance
surveys also include a preliminary evaluation of suitability and feasibility
of the study area as a potential unit of the national park system. Established
NPS criteria for significance, suitability and feasibility are applied to
determine eligibility of an area as a unit of the national park system.
To receive a favorable recommendation from NPS for inclusion into the national park system, a study area must (1) possess nationally significant natural or cultural resources; (2) be a suitable addition to the system; (3) be a feasible addition to the system; and (4) require direct NPS management, instead of alternative protection by other public agencies or the private sector.
· is an outstanding example of a particular type of resource;
· possesses exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the natural or cultural themes of our nation's heritage;
· offers superlative opportunities for public enjoyment, or for scientific study; and
· retains a high degree of integrity as a true, accurate, and relatively unspoiled example of a resource.
for cultural resources are evaluated by applying the National Historic Landmarks
process contained in 36 CFR Part 65.