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A Sampling: Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Sites
Preserved by State and Local Governments, and Public and Private Entities

Alabama
Fort Mims: Built in July 1813, as a wooden stockade, enclosing nearly an acre, with a protected blockhouse on the Southwest corner, with two large gates-one on the west wall and the other on the east wall. The Fort was stormed and taken by the Creeks on August 30, 1813.

Fort Sinquefield: Forty settlers had crowded into the one-acre stockade in August 1813 because of the threat of hostilities with the Creek Indians. The Creeks attacked this fort on Sept. 2, 1813 but were unable to take it. Ninety feet distant from the stockade ground, in a northwest direction, are some graves.

Connecticut
Fort Griswold Battlefield State Park: This is the historic site where, on September 6, 1781, British Forces, commanded by Benedict Arnold, captured the Fort and massacred 88 of the 165 defenders stationed there. The Ebenezer Avery House which sheltered the wounded after the battle has been restored on the grounds. A Revolutionary War museum also depicts the era.

Florida
Fort George: Built by the British in 1778. British troops based here encountered Spanish forces in the Battle of Pensacola in 1781. After the Spanish victory the fort was renamed to Fort San Miguel. The Spanish let it deteriorate and during the 19th century, prominent citizens built their homes on much of the fort and in 1974 the City of Pensacola bought the only undeveloped parcel to preserve it.

Georgia
Fort Morris Historic Site: When the Continental Congress convened in 1776, the delegates recognized the importance of a fort to protect their growing seaport from the British. When the British demanded the fort's surrender on November 25, 1778, the defiant Col. John McIntosh replied, "Come and take it!" The British refused and withdrew back to Florida. Forty-five days later, they returned with a superior force, and on January 9, 1779, Fort Morris fell after a short but heavy bombardment. Under the name of Fort Defiance, the Fort was once again used against the British during the War of 1812.

Kettle Creek Battlefield: The Patriot victory at Kettle Creek on February 14, 1778 helped prevent total British control of Georgia for at least a year and was the only significant check of the British invasion of Georgia. The battle was the only major Patriot victory in Georgia during the Revolutionary War. War Hill, the traditional site of the Battle of Kettle Creek, is a 12.5 acre tract of land located eight miles from Washington, Georgia, in Wilkes County. A monument, a historical marker, and several marked graves are at the site.

British musket

Indiana
Tippecanoe Battlefield Park: The Tippecanoe Battlefield Park preserves the location of the Battle of Tippecanoe fought on November 11, 1811. The sixteen acre site of the battle was deeded to the State of Indiana by John Tipton, a veteran of the fight, on November 7, 1836, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the battle.

Mississinewa Battlefield: On Dec. 17, 1812, Lt. Colonel John B. Campbell with 600 mounted troops arrived at this site under orders to destroy the Miami Indian Villages along the Mississinewa River. The destruction of the village on this site resulted in the loss of the lives of two soldiers and eight Indians. Following the attack here, Campbell's force proceeded two miles down the river and destroyed two more villages before returning here to camp for the night. Shortly before dawn on December 18, a force of Miami Indians attacked Campbell's camp. The two hour battle resulted in 10 soldiers being killed and 48 wounded. Approximately 40 Miami and Delaware Indians gave their lives in the defense of their lands. Having over 100 of his horses killed and fearing a second attack, Campbell ordered his troops to return to Fort Greenville late in the afternoon of the 18th. This action was one of the first ordered by General William Henry Harrison during the War of 1812.

Fort Harrison: The Battle of Fort Harrison on September 14 & 15, 1812 was a decisive victory and is considered the first land victory of the United States during the War of 1812. Shortly afterwards, U.S. forces followed up by lifting the Siege of Fort Wayne, which eliminated the last Indian threat to Indiana for the remainder of the war. For his services at Fort Harrison, Zachary Taylor received a brevet promotion to major.

Kentucky
Blue Licks Battlefield State Park: Blue Licks is known as the site of the last Revolutionary War battle in Kentucky. On August 19, 1782, Kentuckians engaged Indians and British soldiers near the Licking River. Outnumbered, Kentucky suffered great losses, including one of Daniel Boone's sons. Boone's words, "Enough of honour cannot be paid," are inscribed on the monument dedicated to the fallen soldiers in the Battle of Blue Licks.

Maine
Fort Edgecomb State Historic Site: War was declared on June 18, 1812, and soldiers hoisted the colors and fired the guns at Fort Edgecomb signaling readiness. Significant action did not begin until 1814. On June 22, 1814, English troops attacked on land, but as one observer wrote: “They approached to within a few miles of the fort, with the avowed intention of coming to the wharves and burning the shipping; but hearing our alarm guns and ringing of the bells, judged that we were prepared for them and retreated to their ships at the mouth of the river, after robbing a few houses.

Fort O’Brien State Historic Site: Fort O'Brien (Fort Machias) was built in 1775 and destroyed by the British in the same year. This state historic site is one of few Maine forts active during three wars – the American Revolution, War of 1812 and the Civil War. It was refortified in 1777 and destroyed once again by the British in 1814. The first naval engagement of the Revolution was fought off-shore in 1775, five days before the Battle at Bunker Hill.

Maryland
Battle of Slippery Hill: On August 13, 1813, American Videttes skirmished with approximately 300 British troops under the command of Col. Sir Thomas Sidney Beckwith as they advanced on Queenstown along this road. Two British soldiers and Beckwith’s horse were killed. Fearful of being cut off by a second British amphibious force, Maj. William H. Nicholson, commander of the Queen Anne’s County militia, withdrew to Centreville.

North Point Battlefield: On September 12, 1814 the defenders of Baltimore under General John Stricker met the advancing British Army of 7000 under General Robert Rose, who was killed early in the engagement.

St. Leonard Creek: Scene of naval battles during War of 1812. In June, 1814, Maryland's Commodore Joshua Barney commanded American flotilla of barges, gunboats and a sloop in attacks on superior British forces in Patuxent River and its tributary, St. Leonard Creek. After flotilla moved up Patuxent and was blockaded, British destroyed town of St. Leonard, then located here at head of creek, before proceeding to Washington, which they burned August 24.

Caulk’s Field Monument: The British commanded by Sir Peter Parker, and the Americans commanded by Col. Philip Reed met in engagement on this field Aug. 31st 1814. The British were defeated and Sir Peter Parker was killed. Erected A.D. 1902 by Marylanders to commemorate the patriotism and fortitude of the victor and vanquished.

Massachusetts
Fort Phoenix: On May 13-14, 1775, the first naval battle of the American Revolution took place off shore when the local militia, under the command of Nathaniel Pope and Daniel Egery, captured two British sloops in Buzzard's Bay. Shortly afterward, the town petitioned for the construction of a fort at Nolscot Point for the protection of the harbor. The original fort was built by Capt. Benjamin Dillingham and Eleazer Hathaway between 1775 and 1777. The fort was attacked and destroyed when the British raided the harbor on September 5-6, 1778, landing 4,000 troops in New Bedford. The British drove a small militia from the fort, burned the barracks, broke up the gun platforms and smashed all but one of the cannons. When the fort was rebuilt following the 1778 attack, it was named Fort Phoenix. Shortly before the War of 1812, Fort Phoenix was enlarged under the supervision of Sylvanus Thayer, who later became the "Father of the Military Academy" at West Point. In June of 1814, the fort helped repel an early morning attack by British in landing boats from the HMS Nimrod. In 1973, Fort Phoenix was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Michigan
Mackinac Island State Park: Fort Mackinac was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in 1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to the United States after the war.

New Hampshire
Fort Constitution Historic Site: In 1791 the state of New Hampshire gave the United States the neck of land on which Fort William and Mary and a lighthouse were situated. The fort was repaired, renamed Fort Constitution and garrisoned with a company of United States artillery. Renovations which included a wall twice as high as that of the colonial fort and new brick buildings were completed in 1808. It is the ruins of this fort that are seen today. The fort was used during the War of 1812.

New Jersey
Monmouth Battlefield State Park: For several long, hot, and exhausting hours during the afternoon of June 28, 1778, the largest land artillery battle of the American Revolution raged.  The Continental artillery won the battle forcing the British artillery to withdraw.  General Washington moved fresh troops forward to resume the battle at dawn, but during the night, British forces slipped away, ending the last major battle of the north.
The Battle of Monmouth was a political triumph for the Continental Army and General George Washington. The Continental Army had met the British in open field and forced them to retreat.  British casualties were two to three times greater than those of the American troops.

Princeton Battlefield State Park: Site of the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777. American victories here helped raise spirits for the cause of independence, and General George Washington proved his leadership abilities to the fledgling nation. The Mercer Oak, which gave Princeton Township its symbol and was where General Hugh Mercer rested while mortally wounded, stood here for nearly 300 years until it fell in 2000. Also on the site are the Clarke House (where Mercer died), soldier graves, and a stone colonnade designed by the architect of the national Capitol.

Washington Crossing State Park: From this site, General George Washington and men of the Continental Army and militia crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776 and marched to Trenton, New Jersey. There they attacked and defeated Hessian troops quartered in and around the village. This surprise attack and victory set the stage for Washington's subsequent victories at the Second Battle of Trenton and Princeton. The Crossing and the Trenton/Princeton campaign have become known as the Ten Crucial Days — a campaign that saved Washington's army from defeat, allowing them to fight another day and achieve ultimate victory.

New York
Newtown Battlefield State Park: On August 29, 1779, the peace and tranquility of this forested hill was broken by the boom of cannons, the crack of musket fire, and the yells of Iroquois warriors. The Continental Army was engaged in battle with the British regulars, Loyalist rangers and 1000 Iroquois Indian warriors. The battle of Newtown was the decisive clash in one of the largest offensive campaigns of the American Revolution. This expedition, known as the Sullivan-Clinton Campaign, had been regarded as punishment to several tribes among the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy who had sided with the British in the war and had attacked frontier settlements.

Oriskany Battlefield State Historic Site: Considered to be a significant turning point in the War of Independence, the Battle of Oriskany, fought on August 6, 1777, has been described as one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Oriskany Battlefied was designated a New York State historic site in 1927. In recognition of the site's exceptional historic value, the battlefield was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963.

Old Fort Niagara State Historic Site: The French established the first post in 1679 and built the impressive "French Castle" in 1726. Britain gained control of the fort in 1759 during the French and Indian War and maintained control throughout the American Revolution, yielding it to the United States in 1796. The fort was captured by the British during the War of 1812 until being ceded again to the United States in 1815 after which time it served as a peaceful border post.

Bennington Battlefield

Bennington Battlefield State Historic Site: The Revolutionary War battle between the British forces of General John Burgoyne and Colonel Friedrich Baum against the American forces under Brigadier General John Stark and Colonel Seth Warner was fought here. On August 16 & 17, 1777 a British effort to capture American storehouses in Bennington to restock their depleting provisions resulted in the battle. The British forces had underestimated the strength of their enemy and most of their men were killed or taken prisoner while the Americans sustained smaller losses.

North Carolina
Fort Johnston: Erected in the 1740s. During the Revolutionary War Capt. John Collet was commander of Fort Johnston when royal governor Josiah Martin fled there for protection from rebellious colonials in May 1775.  He called Fort Johnston "a contemptible thing." In July 1775 Martin was forced to flee to a British ship patrolling the coast when the North Carolina militia stormed the fort and burned it down.

Ohio
Fort Laurens: Fort Laurens was built in late November, 1778, on the banks of the Tuscarawas River near what is now Bolivar, Ohio. General McIntosh named the fort in honor of the President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. Fort Laurens was an active American military post from November of 1778 through August of 1779. During that time, the fort was clearly perceived by the British and their Indian allies in the northwest as a very serious threat. This was evident from the numerous attacks on the fort by Indians, Loyalists and British soldiers. These attacks resulted in the death of more than 20 American soldiers, who were later buried a short distance from the fort, near the fort hospital.

Fort Meigs

Fort Meigs: When British troops laid siege to Fort Meigs on May 1, 1813, they found General William Henry Harrison ready with a strong fort, 1,200 troops, and twenty to thirty pieces of artillery. The garrison dug in with the knowledge that reinforcements were on the way and after a bombardment of four days, a troop of Kentucky militia arrived to reinforce Fort Meigs. On May 9, the enemy lifted the siege and returned to Canada. The Indians who had accompanied the British during the siege were bitterly disappointed by their failure to take the fort.

Pennsylvania
Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site: The Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site brings to life the largest engagement of the Revolutionary War, fought on September 11, 1777, between the Continental Army led by General George Washington and the British forces headed by General William Howe.

Fort Mifflin: During the Revolutionary War the garrison at Fort Mifflin was ordered by General George Washington to hold off the British Navy so the Continental Army could make its way to their winter encampment at Valley Forge. Washington wrote that the defense of the Delaware River was “of the utmost importance to America.” Located just a few minutes from downtown Philadelphia, Fort Mifflin is the only Revolutionary War battlefield completely intact..

Rhode Island
Butts Hill Fort: The site was a key position during Rhode Island's only major Revolutionary War land battle, August 29, 1778. Old redoubts still discernible and marker tells of the battle in which Generals Lafayette, Hancock, Greene and Sullivan participated.

Fort Barton: Revolutionary War redoubt. It was the troop staging area for the invasion of Aquidneck Island and Newport and the eventual Battle of Rhode Island.

South Carolina
The Battle of Eutaw Springs: Eutaw Springs is the site of the last major battle of the Revolution in South Carolina which took place on September 8, 1781, when the armies of General Nathanael Greene and Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart met near these limestone springs. Technically a British victory, the American forces decimated the British ranks forcing them to retreat once again to Charleston. One month later Lord Charles Cornwallis, commander of the British forces in America, surrender at Yorktown, Virginia. The springs are under the waters of Lake Marion today, but most of the battleground is still above water. Part of the site is maintained as a park. Major John Marjoribanks, British hero of the battle, is buried on the park grounds.

Fort Watson and Santee Indian Mound: This outpost was built by the British on a Santee Indian mound at least 30 feet high. Gen. Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, and Light Horse Harry Lee laid siege to the post April 15-23, 1781, by erecting a tower of logs under the cover of night enabling them to fire into the British stockade. This brought about the surrender of the fort cutting off the main British supply line to Camden, forcing Lord Rawdon to withdraw from that position.

Fishing Creek: Learning of the disaster at Camden, Patriot Gen. Thomas Sumter pulled his troops northward and camped at Fishing Creek near Great Falls. Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton's mounted troops riding double caught up with Sumter's men on August 18, 1780 and overran the camp. Sumter barely escaped. Any organized force in SC was lost.

Tennessee
(Fort Watauga) Sycamore Shoals State Historic Park: Fort Watauga became a refuge for the settlers in the summer of 1776. A band of warriors under Old Abram of Chilhowee struck against Fort Watauga and besieged the Fort for approximately two weeks, but when the garrison there failed to surrender, the Indians departed. A reconstruction of Fort Watauga, based on archeological and historical research, stands near the Sycamore Shoals river crossing. The original location was approximately 1,500 yards to the southwest.

Vermont
Mount Independence State Historic Site: In 1776, the military complex at Mount Independence was one of the largest communities in North America. During that historic summer, 12,000 soldiers built a massive fort to defend against an anticipated British attack from the north. By spring of 1777 new troops arrived but not enough to properly garrison the forts. On July 5th they evacuated the site when British General John Burgoyne’s forces overwhelmed the area. British and German forces remained at Mount Independence until November when they burned and destroyed the site after learning of Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga. Today, several trails at Mount Independence connect well-preserved remains of the Revolutionary War fortification.

West Virginia
Fort Randolph: Built in November 1774 and named initially named Fort Blair, after John Blair, by Captain William Russell who was both the designer and builder. Captain Russell evacuated the fort June, 1775 and it was destroyed. Captain Mathew Arbuckle was ordered to rebuild the fort in May of 1776 and he named it Fort Randolph in honor of Peyton Randolph. It was in this fort that the murder of Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief, occurred. The fort was evacuated in 1779 and was burned by the Indians. Probably in 1785, another fort was erected for the protection of the inhabitants during the Indian Wars.

Fort Henry: Built in the spring of 1774, at site of present-day Wheeling, WV. Lord Dunmore arrived at the fort September 30 the same year with 1,200 men. Originally named Fort Fincastle. Lord Dunmore was a tory, and following the outbreak of the Revolution the name was changed to Fort Henry, in honor of Patrick Henry, who become the first the firt Commonwealth Governor of Virginia in 1776. The first siege of the fort occured in September, 1777. On September 10, 1782, Fort Henry was again attacked, this time by about 200-250 Wyandot and Delaware Indians and 40 British Rangers under Captain Bradt who laid siege to the fort. This was the last time the British flag was flown during an engagement in the Revolution, and it is said to have been the last battle of that war.

 

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