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Relevant California Educational Standards



Science Content Standards
Life Sciences
2. Different types of plants and animals inhabit the earth. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:
2a. How to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).
2b. Stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.
2c. How to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, legs).
Investigation and Experimentation
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
4a. Observe common objects by using the five senses.
4b. Describe the properties of common objects.
4c. Describe the relative position of objects by using one reference (e.g., above or below).
4d. Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
4e. Communicate observations orally and through drawings.

History-Social Science Content Standards
1.0 Students understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.
1.1 Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the consequences of breaking them.

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English-Language Arts Content Standards
1.6 Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
1.10 Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt.
1.18 Describe common objects and events in both general and specific language.
Listening and Speaking
1.0. Students listen and respond to oral communication. They speak in clear and coherent sentences.
1.1 Understand and follow one-and two-step oral directions.
1.2 Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent sentences.
2.1 Describe people, places, things (e.g., size, color, shape), locations, and actions.
2.2 Recite short poems, rhymes, and songs.

Mathematics Content Standards
Number Sense
1.2 Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).
Algebra and Functions
1.1 Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).
Measurement and Geometry
1.1 Compare the length, weight, and capacity of objects by making direct comparisons with reference objects (e.g., note which object is shorter, longer, taller, lighter, heavier, or holds more).
Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
1.0 Students collect information about objects and events in their environment.
1.1 Pose information questions; collect data; and record the results using objects, pictures, and picture graphs.

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Science Content Standards
Life Sciences
2. Plants and animals meet their needs in different ways. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know different plants and animals inhabit different kinds of environments and have external features that help them thrive in different kinds of places.
b. Students know both plants and animals need water, animals need food, and plants need light.
c. Students know animals eat plants or other animals for food and may also use plants or even other animals for shelter and nesting.
d. Students know how to infer what animals eat from the shapes of their teeth (e.g., sharp teeth: eats meat; flat teeth: eats plants).
Investigation and Experimentation
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
a. Draw pictures that portray some features of the thing being described.
b. Record observations and data with pictures, numbers, or written statements.
c. Record observations on a bar graph.
d. Describe the relative position of objects by using two references (e. g., above and next to, below and left of).

History-Social Science Content Standards
1.1 Students describe the rights and individual responsibilities of citizenship.
2. Understand the elements of fair play and good sportsmanship, respect for the rights and opinions of others, and respect for rules by which we live, including the meaning of the "Golden Rule."

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English-Language Arts
Concepts About Print
1.1 Match oral words to printed words.
Phonemic Awareness
1.6 Create and state a series of rhyming words, including consonant blends.
1.1 Listen attentively.
1.2 Ask questions for clarification and understanding.
1.3 Give, restate, and follow simple two-step directions.
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.4 Stay on the topic when speaking.
1.5 Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places, things, and events.
Speaking Applications
2.1 Recite poems, rhymes, songs, and stories.
2.2 Retell stories using basic story grammar and relating the sequence of story events by answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.
2.3 Relate an important life event or personal experience in a simple sequence.
2.4 Provide descriptions with careful attention to sensory detail.

Number Sense
1.0 Students understand and use numbers up to 100.
2.5 Show the meaning of addition (putting together, increasing) and subtraction (taking away, comparing, finding the difference).
3.1 Make reasonable estimates when comparing larger or smaller numbers.
Measurement and Geometry
1.0 Students use direct comparison and nonstandard units to describe the measurements of objects.
2.0 Students identify common geometric figures, classify them by common attributes, and describe their relative position or their location in space.
2.2 Classify familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes, such as color, position, shape, size, roundness, or number of corners, and explain which attributes are being used for classification.
2.3 Give and follow directions about location.
2.4 Arrange and describe objects in space by proximity, position, and direction (e.g., near, far, below, above, up, down, behind, in front of, next to, left or right of).

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Life Sciences
2. Plants and animals have predictable life cycles. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Organisms reproduce offspring of their own kind and that the offspring resemble their parents and one another.
b. Sequential stages of life cycles are different for different animals, such as butterflies, frogs, and mice.
c. Many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents. Some characteristics are caused or influenced by the environment.
Investigation and Experimentation
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
a. Make predictions based on observed patterns and not random guessing.
b. Measure length, weight, temperature, and liquid volume with appropriate tools and express those measurements in standard metric system units.
c. Compare and sort common objects according to two or more physical attributes (e. g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
d. Write or draw descriptions of a sequence of steps, events, and observations.
f. Use magnifiers or microscopes to observe and draw descriptions of small objects or small features of objects.
g. Follow oral instructions for a scientific investigation.

History-Social Science
People Who Make a Difference
2.2 Students demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of people, places, and environments.
4. Compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural environments in California.

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English-Language Arts
2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences:
2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.
1.4 Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions.
Speaking Applications
2.1 Recount experiences or present stories.
2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information

Number Sense
6.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).
Algebra and Functions
1.2 Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
Measurement and Geometry
1.3 Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/ or centimeter.
2.0 Identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of common objects in space:
Mathematical Reasoning
1.0 Make decisions about how to set up a problem:
1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
2.0 Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:
3.0 Note connections between one problem and another.

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Life Sciences
3. Adaptations in physical structure or behavior may improve an organism's chance for survival. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know plants and animals have structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction.
b. Students know examples of diverse life forms in different environments, such as oceans, deserts, tundra, forests, grasslands, and wetlands.
c. Students know living things cause changes in the environment in which they live: some of these changes are detrimental to the organism or other organisms, and some are beneficial.
d. Students know when the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.
e. Students know that some kinds of organisms that once lived on Earth have completely disappeared and that some of those resembled others that are alive today.
Investigation and Experimentation
5. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
a. Repeat observations to improve accuracy and know that the results of similar scientific investigations seldom turn out exactly the same because of differences in the things being investigated, methods being used, or uncertainty in the observation.
b. Differentiate evidence from opinion and know that scientists do not rely on claims or conclusions unless they are backed by observations that can be confirmed.
c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects, events, and measurements.
d. Predict the outcome of a simple investigation and compare the result with the prediction.
e. Collect data in an investigation and analyze those data to develop a logical conclusion.

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History-Social Science
3.1 Students describe the physical and human geography and use maps, tables, graphs, photographs, and charts to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
1. Identify geographical features in their local region (e.g., deserts, mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes).
2. Trace the ways in which people have used the resources of the local region and modified the physical environment (e.g., a dam constructed upstream changed a river or coastline).
3.2 Students describe the American Indian nations in their local region long ago and in the recent past.
1. Describe national identities, religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore traditions.
2. Discuss the ways in which physical geography, including climate, influenced how the local Indian nations adapted to their natural environment (e.g., how they obtained food, clothing, tools).
3. Describe the economy and systems of government, particularly those with tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state governments.
4. Discuss the interaction of new settlers with the already established Indians of the region.
3.4 Students understand the role of rules and laws in our daily lives and the basic structure of the U.S. government.
2. Discuss the importance of public virtue and the role of citizens, including how to participate in a classroom, in the community, and in civic life.
5. Describe the ways in which California, the other states, and sovereign American Indian tribes contribute to the making of our nation and participate in the federal system of government.

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English-Language Arts
1.5 Demonstrate knowledge of levels of specificity among grade-appropriate words and explain the importance of these relations (e.g., dog/ mammal/ animal/ living things).
1.6 Use sentence and word context to find the meaning of unknown words.
1.7 Use a dictionary to learn the meaning and other features of unknown words.
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.7 Follow simple multiple-step written instructions (e.g., how to assemble a product or play a board game).
2.0 Write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences.
2.3 Write personal and formal letters, thank-you notes, and invitations:
a. Show awareness of the knowledge and interests of the audience and establish a purpose and context.
b. Include the date, proper salutation, body, closing, and signature.

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Number Sense
2.0 Calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
3.0 Students understand the relationship between whole numbers, simple fractions, and decimals.
Algebra and Functions
1.0 Select appropriate symbols, operations, and properties to represent, describe, simplify, and solve simple number relationships.
1.4 Express simple unit conversions in symbolic form (e.g., __ inches = __ feet x 12).
Measurement and Geometry
1.0 Choose and use appropriate units and measurement tools to quantify the properties of objects.
1.4 Carry out simple unit conversions within a system of measurement (e.g., centimeters and meters, hours and minutes).
Mathematical Reasoning
1.0 Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
1.2 Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
2.3 Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
3.3 Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other circumstances.

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Life Sciences
2. All organisms need energy and matter to live and grow. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know plants are the primary source of matter and energy entering most food chains.
b. Students know producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers) are related in food chains and food webs and may compete with each other for resources in an ecosystem.
c. Students know decomposers, including many fungi, insects, and microorganisms, recycle matter from dead plants and animals.
3. Living organisms depend on one another and on their environment for survival. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know ecosystems can be characterized by their living and nonliving components.
b. Students know that in any particular environment, some kinds of plants and animals survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
c. Students know many plants depend on animals for pollination and seed dispersal, and animals depend on plants for food and shelter.
d. Students know that most microorganisms do not cause disease and that many are beneficial.
Investigation and Experimentation
6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
a. Differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists' explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how they interpret their observations.
b. Measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects.
c. Formulate and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships.
d. Conduct multiple trials to test a prediction and draw conclusions about the relationships between predictions and results.
e. Construct and interpret graphs from measurements.
f. Follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation.

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History-Social Science
4.1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.
1. Explain and use the coordinate grid system of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute locations of places in California and on Earth.
3. Identify the state capital and describe the various regions of California, including how their characteristics and physical environments (e.g., water, landforms, vegetation, climate) affect human activity.
4. Identify the locations of the Pacific Ocean, rivers, valleys, and mountain passes and explain their effects on the growth of towns.
5. Use maps, charts, and pictures to describe how communities in California vary in land use, vegetation, wildlife, climate, population density, architecture, services, and transportation.
4.2 Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
1. Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
2. Identify the early land and sea routes to, and European settlements in, California with a focus on the exploration of the North Pacific (e.g., by Captain James Cook, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo), noting especially the importance of mountains, deserts, ocean currents, and wind patterns.
4.3 Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood.
3. Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements, daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g., using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Louise Clapp).
4. Study the lives of women who helped build early California (e.g., Biddy Mason).
4.4 Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s.
2. Explain how the Gold Rush transformed the economy of California, including the types of products produced and consumed, changes in towns (e.g., Sacramento, San Francisco), and economic conflicts between diverse groups of people.
4.5 Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
5. Describe the components of California's governance structure (e.g., cities and towns, Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts.

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English-Language Arts
2.0 Read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.
1.0 Write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea.
2.0 Write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences.
2.1 Write narratives:
a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience.
b. Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.
c. Use concrete sensory details.
d. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.
2.2 Write information reports:
a. Frame a central question about an issue or situation.
b. Include facts and details for focus.
c. Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other media sources).
Speaking Applications
2.0 Deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement.
2.1 Make narrative presentations:
2.2 Make informational presentations:
2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.

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Number Sense
3.0 Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers and understand the relationships among the operations.
Measurement and Geometry
1.0 Understand perimeter and area.
1.1 Measure the area of rectangular shapes by using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm²), square meter (m²), square kilometer (km²), square inch (in²), square yard (yd²), or square mile (mi²).
2.0 Use two-dimensional coordinate grids to represent points and graph lines and simple figures.
2.1 Draw the points corresponding to linear relationships on graph paper (e.g., draw 10 points on the graph of the equation y = 3x and connect them by using a straight line).
Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
1.0 Organize, represent, and interpret numerical and categorical data and clearly communicate findings.
1.1 Formulate survey questions; systematically collect and represent data on a number line; and coordinate graphs, tables, and charts.
1.2 Identify the mode(s) for sets of categorical data and the mode(s), median, and any apparent outliers for numerical data sets.
1.3 Interpret one-and two-variable data graphs to answer questions about a situation.

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Life Sciences
2. Plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and transport of materials.
a. Many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to sup-port the transport of materials.
b. Blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body and how carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are exchanged in the lungs and tissues.
c. The sequential steps of digestion and the roles of teeth and the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and colon in the function of the digestive system.
d. The kidney removes cellular waste from blood and converts it into urine, which is stored in the bladder.
e. Sugar, water, and minerals are transported in a vascular plant.
f. Plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy from sunlight to build molecules of sugar and release oxygen.
g. Plant and animal cells break down sugar to obtain energy, a process resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (respiration).
Earth Sciences
3. Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation.
a. Most of Earth's water is present as salt water in the oceans, which cover most of Earth's surface.
b. When liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water.
c. Water vapor in the air moves from one place to another and can form fog or clouds, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and can fall to Earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
d. The amount of fresh water located in rivers, lakes, under-ground sources, and glaciers is limited and that its availability can be extended by recycling and decreasing the use of water.
e. The origin of the water used by their local communities.
4. Energy from the Sun heats Earth unevenly, causing air movements that result in changing weather patterns. As a basis for understanding this concept:
Investigation and Experimentation
6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
a. Classify objects (e.g., rocks, plants, leaves) in accordance with appropriate criteria.
b. Develop a testable question.
c. Plan and conduct a simple investigation based on a student-developed question and write instructions others can follow to carry out the procedure.
d. Identify the dependent and controlled variables in an investigation.
e. Identify a single independent variable in a scientific investigation and explain how this variable can be used to collect information to answer a question about the results of the experiment.
f. Select appropriate tools (e.g., thermometers, meter sticks, balances, and graduated cylinders) and make quantitative observations.
g. Record data by using appropriate graphic representations (including charts, graphs, and labeled diagrams) and make inferences based on those data.
h. Draw conclusions from scientific evidence and indicate whether further information is needed to support a specific conclusion.
i. Write a report of an investigation that includes conducting tests, collecting data or examining evidence, and drawing conclusions.

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By the end of grade five, students increase their facility with the four basic arithmetic operations applied to fractions, decimals, and positive and negative numbers. They know and use common measuring units to determine length and area and know and use formulas to determine the volume of simple geometric figures. Students know the concept of angle measurement and use a protractor and compass to solve problems. They use grids, tables, graphs, and charts to record and analyze data.
Number Sense
1.0 Compute with very large and very small numbers, positive integers, decimals, and fractions and understand the relationship between decimals, fractions, and percents. They understand the relative magnitudes of numbers:
2.0 Perform calculations and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals.
Algebra and Functions
1.0 Use variables in simple expressions, compute the value of the expression for specific values of the variable, and plot and interpret the results.
1.4 Identify and graph ordered pairs in the four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
Measurement and Geometry
1.0 Understand and compute the volumes and areas of simple objects.
1.3 Understand the concept of volume and use the appropriate units in common measuring systems (i.e., cubic centimeter [cm³], cubic meter [m³], cubic inch [in³], cubic yard [yd³]) to compute the volume of rectangular solids.
1.4 Differentiate between, and use appropriate units of measures for, two-and three-dimensional objects (i.e., find the perimeter, area, volume).
2.0 Identify, describe, and classify the properties of, and the relationships between, plane and solid geometric figures:
2.1 Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, and triangles by using appropriate tools (e.g., straightedge, ruler, compass, protractor, drawing software).
2.2 Know that the sum of the angles of any triangle is 180° and the sum of the angles of any quadrilateral is 360° and use this information to solve problems.
2.3 Visualize and draw two-dimensional views of three-dimensional objects made from rectangular solids.
Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
1.0 Display, analyze, compare, and interpret different data sets, including data sets of different sizes:
1.1 Know the concepts of mean, median, and mode; compute and compare simple examples to show that they may differ.
1.2 Organize and display single-variable data in appropriate graphs and representations (e.g., histogram, circle graphs) and explain which types of graphs are appropriate for various data sets.
1.3 Use fractions and percentages to compare data sets of different sizes.
1.4 Identify ordered pairs of data from a graph and interpret the meaning of the data in terms of the situation depicted by the graph.
Mathematical Reasoning
1.0 Make decisions about how to approach problems.
1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
1.2 Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
2.0 Use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions.
2.1 Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
2.2 Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
2.3 Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
2.4 Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
2.5 Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
2.6 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
3.0 Move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations.
3.1 Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
3.2 Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.

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English-Language Arts
1.0 Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.4 Know abstract, derived roots and affixes from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., controversial).
1.5 Understand and explain the figurative and metaphorical use of words in context.
Reading Comprehension
2.0 Read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Understand how text features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps) make information accessible and usable.
2.2 Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order.
Writing Applications
2.0 Write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre.
2.3 Write research reports about important ideas, issues, or events by using the following guidelines.
2.4 Write persuasive letters or compositions.
Speaking Applications
2.0 Deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description).
2.2 Deliver informative presentations about an important idea, issue, or event.
a. Frame questions to direct the investigation.
b. Establish a controlling idea or topic.
c. Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.

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Did You Know?

Bubblegum coral. Image courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

On the Cordell Bank, just 32 kilometers (20 miles) to the west of Point Reyes, there are deep-water corals that are 10 to 15 meters (33 to 50 feet) high and estimated to be over 1500 years old. More...