DIRECTOR'S ORDER #50B: OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM

Approved:  /s/ Mary A. Bomar

                       Director

Effective Date:  September 3, 2008

Duration:  This order will remain in effect until amended or rescinded

This order supplements section 1.9.1.4 of NPS Management Policies 2006 and supersedes the December 22, 1999, edition of this order.

Contents

1.      Background and Purpose
2.      Authority
3.      Program Administration
         3.1.   Policy
         3.2.   Requirements
         3.3.   Responsibilities
         3.4.   Accident/Incident Reporting and Investigations
         3.5.   Employee Reports of Unsafe Work Practices and Unsafe Conditions; Employee Allegations of                   Reprisal Reports
______________________________________________________________________

1.  BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

The National Park Service has a continuing concern about the occupational safety and health of our employees and others who work in the parks as volunteers, contractors, concession employees, or in any other capacity. Controlling hazard exposures that affect employees can also positively affect the visitor experience and enhance the accomplishment of the NPS mission. In recognizing this, the NPS is committed to reducing workplace accidents, injuries and illnesses, and the associated pain, suffering, and losses associated with these incidents.

The purpose of Director's Order #50B: Occupational Safety and Health, is to provide NPS managers, supervisors and employees with direction for the implementation of a comprehensive risk management program throughout the NPS. Specific program objectives are to establish and implement a continuously improving and measurable risk management process that: (1) provides for the occupational safety and health of NPS employees; (2) establishes effective site specific occupational safety and health programs at all NPS units; (3) requires other employers operating in NPS units to provide for the occupational safety and health of their employees; and 4) identifies strategies to minimize the loss of NPS human, physical, and fiscal resources due to preventable accidents, and (5) coordinates risk management and workers' compensation program management to achieve these objectives.

Other related directives that have been or will be issued are Director's Order #50A: Worker's Compensation Case Management, which focuses on care, treatment and return to work of employees who have been injured on the job; Director's Order #50C: Public Risk Management Program, with a focus on the safety of park visitors; Director's Order #83: Public Health, and Reference Manual 83, focusing on health and sanitation issues in public facilities provided by the NPS; Director's Order #48: Concession Management, which describes risk management program requirements for NPS concessioners; and Director's Order #58, Structural Fire Management, addressing measures and codes to prevent structural fires.

Any conflicting provisions of the December 22, 1999, edition of NPS-50, Loss Control Management Guideline, are superseded by this Director's Order and by Reference Manual 50B, which provides more detailed guidance on how the NPS will implement occupational safety and health management policies and procedures.

2.  AUTHORITY

The authority to issue this Director's Order and the associated Reference Manual is contained in 16 USC 1 through 4 (the National Park Service Organic Act) and the delegations of authority contained in Part 245 of the Department of the Interior (DOI) Manual.

Other important legal, regulatory, and policy requirements are contained in 29 USC 651-678, (the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970); Executive Order 12196 (Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees); Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1960 (Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs); Departmental Manual, Part 485 (DM 485 Occupational Safety and Health Programs); and the 2006 NPS Management Policies.

3.  POLICY, REQUIREMENTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES

This Director's Order sets forth the policy, requirements, and responsibilities for managing an effective Occupational Safety and Health Program within the NPS.

   3.1 POLICY

We hold the safety and health of our employees, concessioner employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction to be a core value of the NPS. Therefore it is our policy to provide for a safe and healthful place of employment, and to protect Federal and private property from accidental damage or loss associated with NPS operations. To implement this policy, NPS employees, volunteers and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction will comply with Director's Order #50B.

   3.2 REQUIREMENTS

The NPS will:

A. Promote and enforce safe work practices and integrate occupational safety and health into every operation and activity.

B. Require that managers, supervisors, employees, and volunteers comply with applicable procedures in Reference Manual 50B: Occupational Safety and Health.

C. Meet or exceed all current applicable statutory, regulatory, and policy requirements relating to occupational safety and health. Where conflicts arise between statutory, regulatory, and policy requirements, and codes and standards, the more stringent requirement(s) will be used. If codes, standards, procedures, and guidelines do not exist, or those that exist are not adequate, appropriate policies or programs will be developed.

D. Coordinate NPS Risk Management efforts and Workers' Compensation (OWCP) case management efforts to effectively identify hazards and reduce OWCP lost work hours due to injury or occupational illness, to the lowest level possible, as required in Director's Order #50A: Workers' Compensation Case Management.

E. Identify recognizable threats to employee occupational safety and health, and to the protection of property, by applying nationally accepted codes, standards, engineering principles, and the guidance contained in this Director's Order #50B. Where practicable and not in conflict with the Organic Act and other NPS mandates and policies to preserve park resources, known hazards will be reduced or eliminated. If the hazard cannot be eliminated, efforts will be made to provide for employee occupational safety and health through other controls, including closures, guarding, signing, personal protective equipment, training or other forms of education.

F. Evaluate site-specific occupational safety and health management programs annually, and revise as appropriate.

G. Evaluate the occupational safety and health program performance of every NPS manager, supervisor and employee, making it a critical element of their job duties and responsibilities.

H. Inspect every NPS workplace, as outlined in Reference Manual 50B, section 4, and correct deficiencies in priority order to eliminate or control hazards and meet applicable statutory, regulatory, and policy requirements and codes/standards.

I. Report accidents/incidents on the DOI Safety Management Information System (SMIS), and investigate them to identify causal factors and determine appropriate corrective actions.

J. Require that no employee be subjected to restraint, interference, coercion, discrimination, or reprisal for reporting an alleged unsafe or unhealthful working condition or act, or for otherwise participating in risk management activities.

K. Maintain a cadre of trained and qualified safety and health professionals to provide technical support and advice to managers and supervisors.

L. Provide employees the supervision, training, knowledge, equipment, and skills necessary to recognize hazards and safely perform their assigned tasks.

M. Make safe behavior a condition of employment, and establish a system of accountability for safety performance for all employees. Require that employees and supervisors work together to identify and mitigate unsafe and unhealthful working conditions, activities, and behaviors.

N. Incorporate and enforce appropriate safety and health performance clauses in contracts, licenses, permits, and other agreements with Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction.

O. Establish, through Director's Order #58 and Reference Manual 58, procedures for structural fire prevention, detection, and suppression that meet the requirements of applicable Department of the Interior policies and Natioanl Fire Codes and Life Safety requirements, as appropriate to NPS resources.

P. Promote and enforce the safe operation of motor vehicles and equipment.

Q. Establish procedures for the development and implementation of risk management programs by concessioners, meeting the requirements of Reference Manual 50B, Section 10, Concession Safety and Health, and Director's Order #48: Concession Management.

R. Establish procedures for development and implementation of appropriate risk management programs by other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction.

   3.3  RESPONSIBILITIES

A. Director of the National Park Service

The Director has ultimate responsibility for the occupational safety and health of NPS employees, and:

1. Sets forth Servicewide occupational safety and health policies and goals, and establishes a system of accountability for accomplishment of those policies and goals.

2. Clearly communicates vision and a personal commitment to the goal of reducing accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses in the service.

3. Issues Director's Orders to meet occupational safety and health needs of the Service.

4. Designates an Agency Safety and Health Official (Bureau DASHO).

5. Continually evaluates and communicates the progress of the NPS Safety Program (NPSafe).

6. Causes safety to be incorporated as a critical result in all managers' performance plans.

7. Provides adequate resources to effectively implement and administer the occupational safety and health programs.

8. Provides recognition to employees, managers, volunteers, and concessioners for outstanding occupational safety and health program performance.

9. Integrates occupational safety and health into the daily operation and management of all NPS activities.

B.  Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection - Designated Agency Safety and Health Official

The Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection (AD-VRP), typically serves as the Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) for the Service, and will:

1. Understand and perform the duties listed in Title 29, CFR, Part 1960 Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health and Related Matters.

2. Represent the service at Departmental DASHO Council meetings.

3. Exercise the authority of the Director to develop and manage the Service's occupational safety and health program that results in the achievement of this policy.

4. Issue the Occupational Safety and Health Program reference manual (Reference Manual 50B) to define the components of an effective safety program and provide specific program requirements and guidance.

5. Appoint and directly supervise the Chief, NPS Risk Management Division (meeting OPM Standard GS-018). The AD-VRP shall provide adequate resources for the effective implementation and administration of the program per the requirements in 29 CFR 1960.

6. Appoint, or authorize the appointment of, a Serious Accident Investigation Team Leader for the immediate investigation of serious accidents involving the NPS, as required in the Reference Manual 50B.

7. Authorize the NPS National Safety Leadership Council for the purpose of providing advice and assistance to the NPS Risk Management Division and to the Service's DASHO on policy, programs, and risk management concerns that are national in scope.

8. Authorize an evaluation of regional and service centers' risk management programs, at least once every 3 years.

C.  Chief, NPS Risk Management Division

The Chief of the Risk Management Division serves as the program lead and as the advisor/technical consultant to the AD-VRP and the National Leadership Council in the development of Servicewide risk management policy, program direction, and goals. The Chief of Risk Management will:

1. Provide professional occupational safety and health program assistance and manage Risk Management Division resources in support of Servicewide policy and programs.

2. Develop and implement a system to conduct periodic risk management program reviews of NPS regions and centers at least once every 3 years.

3. Provide data and trend analysis to managers relating to occupational injuries and illnesses.

4. Participate in the NPS Safety Leadership Council and the DOI Safety and Health Council, and coordinate risk management strategy and implementation with other DOI bureaus.

5. Coordinate with the NPS training community for effective occupational safety and health training development and delivery.

6. Assist regional directors/park superintendents as a subject matter expert when reviewing applicants for full-time bureau safety and health positions.

7. Serve as a liaison (or designate another to serve as a liaison) between the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the NPS.

8. Serve as the DASHO if assigned by the Director.

D.  Regional Directors; Center Directors; Chief, U.S. Park Police

The regional directors, center directors, and Chief, U.S. Park Police, are responsible for providing field leadership and guidance to implement NPS occupational safety and health policies and accomplish program goals, and will:

1. Demonstrate personal commitment for the safety and health of employees, volunteers, contractors, and concessioners.

2. Hold operating unit managers accountable for implementing effective site-specific occupational safety and health management systems that meet or exceed requirements listed in Reference Manual 50B. Include safety performance as a critical element in superintendent and senior management annual performance appraisals.

3. Appoint the following senior subordinate to serve as the Designated Safety and Health Official (DSHO):
     Regions - Associate Regional Director or Deputy Regional Director;
     DSC - Deputy Assistant Director;
     HFC - Deputy Manager; and
     U.S. Park Police - Deputy Chief.

4. Appoint a qualified regional risk manager (meeting OPM standard GM-018/803).

5. Establish an Executive Safety Committee, with responsibility for preparing and implementing a risk management action plan containing measurable goals, responsibilities, action items, and due dates.

6. Provide adequate personnel and fiscal resources for effective implementation and administration of the occupational safety and health program within the region, center, or U.S. Park Police.

7. Require compliance with NPS program requirements (Director's Order #50B), as issued by the Director.

8. Supplement the Servicewide program with special programs, criteria and training to meet the unique safety and health needs of the region or functional area of responsibility.

9. Recognize and reward safety achievement.

10. Conduct periodic program review of Park Service units least once every 3 years to determine effectiveness of the site specific occupational safety and health programs using the Risk Management Program Elements as defined in Reference Manual 50B and the NPSafe Action Plan.

11. Appoint regional representatives to the NPS Safety Leadership Council when requested by the agency DASHO, as described in the current Risk Management Council Charter.

12. Require that no employee be subjected to restraint, interference, coercion, discrimination, or reprisal for filing a report of an alleged unsafe or unhealthful working condition, or otherwise participating in the occupational safety and health program.

E.  Regional Designated Safety and Health Official

The Regional Designated Safety and Health Official (RDSHO) is a senior management official (associate regional director or deputy regional director) who is responsible to the regional director for providing field leadership and guidance for the Regional Risk Management Program. The RDSHO will:

1. Understand and perform applicable duties as listed in Title 29, CFR, Part 1960, this Directors Order, and Reference Manual 50B.

2. Supervise the regional risk manager.

3. Communicate safety program requirements to the regional director and ensure adequate resources are available for the effective implementation and administration of the program.

4. Chair the regional executive safety committee (or equivalent).

5. Provide regular and repeated assistance and counsel to individual field unit managers with sustained high accident rates to effectuate improvements in their Risk Management Program.

6. In consultation with the regional risk manager and the regional executive safety committee (or equivalent), prepare a risk management action plan, with measurable goals, responsibilities, action items, and due dates.

7. Apprise the regional director of the effectiveness of individual park unit safety programs, noteworthy accomplishments, and/or park units that require additional assistance or counsel.

F.  Regional Risk Manager

The regional risk manager is the occupational safety and health professional (GM-018/803) who serves as an advisor/consultant on occupational safety and health issues for the regional director, RDSHO, operating unit managers, and safety personnel. The regional risk manager will:

1. Assist the RDSHO in development and implementation of the Regional NPSafe Action Plan and formation and operation of the executive safety committee.

2. Promote established occupational safety and health procedures, including those contained within Reference Manual 50B.

3. Evaluate the effectiveness of park occupational safety and health programs at least once every 3 years, based on the Risk Management Program Elements, regional and national NPSafe Action Plans, NPS policies and applicable regulatory requirements.

4. Provide technical assistance for corrective actions identified in occupational safety and health audits, and through other means. Assistance includes the following:

  •  Developing policy and rules.
  •  Identifying training requirements.
  •  Interpreting occupational safety and health regulations.
  •  Conducting surveys and evaluations.
  •  Investigating and analyzing accidents.
  •  Identifying corrective actions.
  •  Developing region or site specific safety standards.
  •  Preparing job hazard analyses.
  •  Developing safety promotion/awareness campaigns.
  •  Reviews accident/incident information that is recorded in SMIS to determine its accuracy and completeness. Takes appropriate action to correct deficiencies.

5. Advise the regional director on the status of park occupational safety and health programs.

6. When directed by higher authority, represent the region as a member of the Service Risk Management Council and participate in Servicewide safety and health working groups and local field Federal safety and health councils.

G.  Operating Unit Manager (Superintendent/Center/Unit/Office Manager)

The operating unit retains responsibility for the implementation of the unit site-specific safety and health program, and will:

1. Comply with Director's Orders #50B and, using national and regional NPSafe Action Plans, implement an effective site-specific occupational safety and health program that adheres to the requirements contained in Reference Manual 50B, with the goal of providing a safe workplace for employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction.

2. Continuously and clearly communicate a personal commitment to the goal of reducing accidents, injuries, and occupational illnesses in the park unit.

3. Hire a professional full-time safety manager to manage the safety program of a park or cluster of park units. For parks not having a full-time safety professional, appoint a collateral duty safety officer (CDSO) to serve as a point-of-contact for occupational safety and health issues. CDSO's will consult with the full-time professional supporting that unit in the administration of the safety and health program. The full-time safety manager or CDSO will report directly to the operating unit manager/ superintendent for all safety-related issues.

4. Provide necessary resources (funding, staffing and equipment) to operate an effective site-specific occupational safety and health program, and ensure that the services of safety and industrial hygiene professionals are available when the operating unit needs technical support to address complex hazards or situations that are beyond the capability of the safety manager or safety officer.

5. Encourage employee participation and involvement in the development, promotion, and implementation of operating unit safety committees and the occupational safety and health program.

6. Integrate safety into all daily operations, activities, and training.

7. Provide continuous feedback to managers, employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction. Hold supervisors accountable for overall occupational safety and health performance, and recognize occupational safety and health program management achievement.

8. Conduct self-audits of work sites throughout the park annually, or for high hazard areas or operations, more frequently. The manager/superintendent also implements policy and procedures that identify, prioritize and correct or control hazards, and continuously improves occupational safety and health programs.

9. Ensure that a process is in place to allow employees to report unsafe/unhealthful working conditions to management confidentially, with mandatory response from management as required in Title 29, CFR, Part 1960, and require that no employee be subjected to restraint, interference, coercion, discrimination or reprisal for filing a report of an alleged unsafe or unhealthful working condition, or otherwise participating in the occupational safety and health program.

10. Investigate all accidents of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction per Reference Manual 50B and identify root causes that result in or have the potential to cause injury, illness, or property damage. The manager/superintendent ensures implementation of corrective actions to prevent recurrence.

11. Identify hazard trends and provide effective occupational safety and health training so employees can recognize and control hazards.

12. Ensure that first line supervisors and employees jointly develop and use Job Hazard Analyses (also known as Job Safety Analyses), operational risk management or other similar techniques to systematically identify and communicate task or job hazards, resources, capabilities, and required communications.

13. Require that all injuries and illnesses of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction are recorded in the DOI maintained Safety Management Information System (SMIS) or the NPS equivalent and reviewed by the first and second level reviewers (second level reviewer is the superintendent or deputy).

14. Ensure the required OSHA Employee Rights poster is placed at locations employees frequent, and the OSHA 300 Injury/Illness log or equivalent is signed by the unit manager/superintendent and posted annually per current OSHA requirements.

15. Remain responsible for communication and achievement of occupational safety and health program goals (pertinent DOI and NPS Goals for Employee Safety) and regional or unit safety program objectives.

16. Where applicable, specify requirements for and implement the risk management programs for concessioners in the operating unit per Reference Manual 50B and Director's Order #48.

17. Where applicable, specify requirements for the occupational safety and health programs for other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction.

18. Where appropriate and with regional solicitor's concurrence, encourage participation of concessioners and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction in the operating unit safety committee and operating unit occupational safety and health program areas that may overlap, such as training, hazard identification and communication, etc.

H.  Operating Unit Safety Manager (Career)

The Operating Unit Safety Manager serves as a professional and technical advisor/consultant to the Unit Manager/Superintendent's office of the operating unit on occupational safety and health issues, and:

1. Develops and promotes required occupational safety and health procedures, including those contained within Reference Manual 50B.

2. Assists supervisors in the conduct of investigations of safety/occupational health accidents/incidents of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction, and reviews them for accuracy and completeness in SMIS or other approved NPS data collection system.

3. Advises the site manager of all accidents/incidents of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction that result in "days away, restriction or transfer from regular duties (DARTs)" per OSHA 29 CFR 1904, and is a member of the unit's accident review committee (ARC) for those accidents. (See Reference Manual 50B section on Investigative Responsibilities.)

4. Maintains the OSHA 300 Log for the unit. Ensures the OSHA 300 summary is signed by the superintendent and posted annually.

5. Provides or assists line management in providing effective supervisor, employee, and volunteer training for hazard recognition and control, including training on: managing employee safety and health; OSHA standards relating to facilities/working environments, and inspections of those environments; preparation and use of job hazard analyses; and unsafe work practices in the workplace.

6. Assists supervisors and line management in conducting analyses of work-site safety; advises the site manager where improvements should be made and where successes are being experienced.

7. Works collaboratively with human resources/personnel office to assist in hazard identification and promote effective management of OWCP cases.

8. Assists the operating unit manager and works collaboratively with the Concession Management Office to promote effective concessioner safety and health programs.

9. Assists supervisors and line managers in the promotion of effective occupational safety and health programs for other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction in the operating unit.

10. Reports directly to the operating unit manager/superintendent on all safety-related issues.

11. Provides operating unit manager with data and reports on overall site occupational safety and health program progress.

I.  Operating Unit Safety Officer (Collateral Duty)

The Collateral Duty Safety Officer (CDSO) serves as the point-of-contact for occupational safety and health, and other matters relating to employee safety and health management for the operating unit, and:

1. Adheres to established occupational safety and health procedures, including those contained within Reference Manual 50B.

2. Serves as first level reviewer for SMIS entries and ensures that all data on accidents of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction is accurately entered into SMIS.

3. Maintains an OSHA 300 Log for the operating unit.

4. Reports directly to the operating unit manager/superintendent on all safety-related issues.

5. Provides operating unit manager with recommendations for the services of an occupational safety and health professional when the site needs technical information and support.

6. Uses SMIS data to identify accident, injury and illness trends to the unit manager/supervisor and Safety Committee so that corrective actions (including management, supervisory, and employee training) can be implemented.

7. Where applicable, works collaboratively with the Concession Management Office to promote effective safety and health programs for concessioners and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction in the operating unit.

J.  Supervisors

Supervisors have responsibility for the safety performance for their operations per Title 29, CFR, Part 1960.9. Supervisors are directly responsible for employee work practices, and, to the extent of their authority, shall provide employees employment and a place of employment free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm. To accomplish this, supervisors will adhere to established occupational safety and health procedures, including those contained within Reference Manual 50B, and:

1. Coordinate the development of occupational safety and health procedures that relate to activities within the scope of the supervisor's control.

2. Accurately complete an SMIS report for all subordinate injuries and illnesses. Submit appropriate workers' compensation forms via SMIS.

3. Implement and enforce occupational safety and health standards within the supervisor's scope of authority to prevent injuries and property losses, and to reduce exposure to legal liability.

4. Inspect facilities under his/her control to ensure compliance with all applicable occupational safety and health standards.

5. Ensure every employee, volunteer, and all persons doing work for the NPS within the supervisor's scope of responsibility are trained to recognize hazards and to perform their assigned work safely. Supervisors will conduct safety orientation for all new staff members within their operation; will conduct or coordinate frequent and periodic safety training for permanent and seasonal employees and volunteers within their operation; and will be aware of the OSHA standards that apply to their assigned activities.

6. Integrate occupational safety and health practices into all activities and functions within the supervisor's scope of control and responsibility.

7. Ensure that employees participate in the development and use of Job Hazard Analyses (also known as Job Safety Analyses), operational risk management or other similar techniques to systematically identify and communicate task or job hazards, resources, capabilities, and required communications necessary to control occupational hazards.

8. Provide all required personal protective equipment when engineering or administrative controls are infeasible.

9. Eliminate or mitigate potential causes of accidents, injuries, and illnesses, with the goal of providing a safe workplace and fully complying with all applicable occupational safety and health standards.

10. Establish a working culture that encourages employees and volunteers to recognize and discuss unsafe behavior of co-workers, and to practice safe work procedures, even when working alone.

11. Personally investigate all accidents and near misses of employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction. Identify and implement corrective actions to prevent recurrence. Enter accident information accurately into SMIS.

12. Whenever possible and as allowed by policy, promote physical fitness and wellness among subordinates.

13. Observe and evaluate employee work performance to ensure that safe work procedures are practiced. Utilize a system of accountability that includes rewards for safe work practices and escalating disciplinary measures for unsafe work practices.

K.  Every NPS Employee

Employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction are responsible for their personal safety and will:

1. Adhere to established occupational safety and health procedures, including those contained within Reference Manual 50B.

2. Work collaboratively with supervisors to develop and use Job Hazard Analyses or equivalent for all routine tasks, and help develop and uses site-specific safety plans for non-routine, complex, multi-phase jobs.

3. Properly use and maintain required clothing and/or personal protective equipment.

4. Maintain a level of personal wellness and fitness as needed for assigned work tasks.

5. Identify and, where appropriate, correct unsafe conditions and work practices.

6. Report unsafe/unhealthful conditions and/or operations to his or her immediate supervisor or the appropriate chain of command.

7. Report mishaps, including minor accidents and "near-hits," to a supervisor as soon as possible, but in no case later than the end of the work shift.

8. Participate in establishing a safe working culture, and practice safe work procedures, even when working alone.

3.4  ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATIONS

A.  Requirements

1. There are compelling reasons for the NPS to place emphasis on the immediate reporting and thorough investigation of accidents or incidents. First and foremost, immediately reporting and investigating these events facilitates the identification of the root cause. When the root causes and "lessons learned" are shared, recurrences throughout the Service can be prevented, ultimately providing for a safer work environment for NPS employees.

2. Secondary reasons include the requirement to notify the DOI when serious accidents occur, and the regulatory requirement to notify the nearest office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration within 8 hours of the occurrence of an occupational fatality or overnight hospitalization of three or more employees, volunteers, and other Federal, state, and local stakeholders working on lands under NPS jurisdiction from a single event.

3. The AD-VRP (NPS DASHO) is responsible for the investigation of all serious accidents, and may delegate that responsibility to the Chief, Risk Management Division, NPS.

4. Regional directors, superintendents, managers and supervisors must ensure that all accident reporting and investigation requirements contained in Reference Manual 50B are met.

5. NPS employees are required to report to their supervisor (orally or in writing), as soon as possible, all job-related accidents or near-miss incidents they witness, or in which they are involved.

3.5  EMPLOYEE REPORTS OF UNSAFE WORK PRACTICES AND UNSAFE CONDITIONS; EMPLOYEE ALLEGATIONS OF REPRISAL REPORTS

A.  Requirements

1. Employees are frequently the first to encounter and identify occupational hazards. Consequently, a work unit program or procedure to capture these observations is critical to reducing hazards and providing safe work sites. Additionally, OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1960.28 requires the implementation of formal and informal processes for employees, or their representatives, to report "unsafe and unhealthful conditions and work practices" in the workplace, and to request an inspection of the condition(s) and/or action(s).

2. All NPS units will follow requirements in Reference Manual 50B and 29 CFR 1960.28 for implementation of an effective system that employees can use to reports unsafe or unhealthful condition.

3. Reprisals against employees as a result of reporting "unsafe or unhealthful work conditions" will not be tolerated at any level in the NPS, and reports of reprisal activities shall be cause for immediate investigation and possible disciplinary action if allegations are substantiated by competent authority.

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