Back: Table of Contents | How do genetic questions enter into restoration?
A vast literature exists on genetic diversity, its distribution in space and time, and its adaptive and ecological significance. A number of excellent texts on population genetics provide greater depth on a number of topics addressed briefly in this paper. Several of the growing numbers of papers on the topic of restoration genetics are listed in the literature cited section of this paper.
Conservation genetics is still is relatively small field, and restoration genetics is in its infancy. Restoration practitioners and scientists can contribute to the accumulation of knowledge in this area by treating your restoration projects as experiments, and publishing your results.
The Society for Ecological Restoration maintains an on-line Directory of Restoration Expertise at www.ser.org. The IUCN also has published a list of reintroduction practitioners (Soorae and Seddon 1998). Individuals listed in each of these resources may be helpful with restoration genetic issues.
4a. Web sites and organizations.
Society for Ecological Restoration
1955 W. Grant Road, Suite 150
Tucson, AZ 85745 USA
Tel. (520) 622-5485
Fax. (520) 622-5491
Plant Conservation Alliance
Bureau of Land Management
1849 C Street NW, LSB-204
Washington, DC 20240 USA
Tel. (202) 912-7232
Species Survival Commission Plants Programme
c/o International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Rue Mauverny 28
Center for Plant Conservation
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166 USA
Tel. (314) 577-9450
US Forest Service
Seed collecting guidelines:
National Forest Genetic Electrophoresis Laboratory (NFGEL)
2480 Carson Road
Placerville, CA 95667 USA
Tel. (530) 622-1225
Fax (530) 622-2633
4b. Literature cited.
Allen, G. A., J. A. Antos, and R. J. Hebda. 1996. Morphological and genetic variation in disjunct populations of the avalanche lily, Erythronium montanum. Canadian Journal of Botany 74 (3):403-.
BGCI. 1994. A handbook for botanic gardens on the reintroduction of plants to the wild. Richmond, Surrey, UK. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, in association with the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Reintroduction Specialist Group. 42.
Britten, Roy J. 1986. Rates of DNA sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups. Science 231 (21 March):1393-1398.
Brown, A. H. D., and J. D. Briggs. 1991. Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex situ collections of endangered plant species. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brown, Anthony H. D., Michael T. Clegg, Alex L. Kahler, and Bruce S. Weir, eds. 1990. Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Center for Plant Conservation, CPC. 1991. Genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of endangered plants. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chai, Chen Kang. 1976. Genetic evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chesson, Peter L. 1985. Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: A look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability. Theoretical Population Biology 28:263-287.
Clegg, Michael T. 1990. Molecular diversity in plant populations. In Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources, edited by A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler and B. S. Weir. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Clewell, Andre. F. 2000. Restoring for natural authenticity. Ecological Restoration 18 (4): 216-217.
Cohen, D. 1966. Optimising reproduction in a randomly varying environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12:119-129.
Crow, James F. 1986. Basic concepts in population, quantitative, and evolutionary genetics. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Delph, Lynda F., Cynthia Weinig, and Kelly Sullivan. 1998. Why fast-growing pollen tubes give rise to vigorous progeny: the test of a new mechanism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Botany) 265:935-939.
Eckert, Christopher G., Domenica Manicacci, and Spencer C. H. Barrett. 1996. Genetic drift and founder effect in native versus introduced populations of an invading plant, Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). Evolution 50 (4):1512-1519.
Falk, Donald A. 1991. Joining biological and economic models for conserving plant diversity. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Falk, Donald A., and James Gibbs. In prep. Marginal and cumulative diversity functions: collector's curves for alleles.
Falk, Donald A., and Kent E. Holsinger, eds. 1991. Genetics and conservation of rare plants. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fowler, Norma. 1981. Competition and coexistence in a North Carolina grassland. II. The effects of the experimental removal of species. Journal of Ecology 69:843-854.
Freeman, Scott, and Jon C. Herron. 1998. Evolutionary analysis. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Gaines, Steven D., and Mark W. Denny. 1993. The largest, smallest, highest, lowest, longest, and shortest: Extremes in ecology. Ecology 74 (6):1677-1692.
Gilpin, Michael E., and Michael E. Soulé. 1986. Minimum viable populations: the processes of species extinctions. In Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity, edited by M. E. Soulé. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Glenne, G., and V. J. Tepedino. 2000. A Clark County dilemma: native bees as agents of rare plant pollination and hybridization. Paper read at Third Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference, at The Arboretum at Flagstaff, Flagstaff, AZ.
Goldberg, Deborah E. 1987. Neighborhood competition in an old-field plant community. Ecology 68 (5):1211-1223.
Grace, J. B., and D. Tilman, eds. 1990. Perspectives on plant competition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Guerrant, Edward O., Jr. 1992. Genetic and demographic considerations in the sampling and reintroduction of rare plants. In Conservation biology: The theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management, edited by P. L. Fiedler and S. K. Jain. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Guerrant, Edward O. 1996. Designing populations: Demographic, genetic, and horticultural dimensions. In Restoring diversity: strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants, edited by D. A. Falk, C. I. Millar and M. Olwell. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Gurevitch, Jessica. 1986. Competition and the local distribution of the grass Stipa neomexicana. Ecology 67 (1):46-57.
Hamrick, James L., and M. J. Godt. 1990. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources, edited by A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler and B. S. Weir. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Hamrick, James L., M. J. W. Godt, D. A. Murawski, and M. D. Loveless. 1991. Correlations between species traits and allozyme diversity: implications for conservation biology. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hamrick, James L., Y. B. Linhart, and J. B. Mitton. 1979. Relationships between life history characteristics and electrophoretically detectable variation in plants. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 10:173-200.
Hartl, Daniel L., and Andrew G. Clark. 1997. Principles of population genetics. Third ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Hedrick, P. 1985. Genetics of populations. Portola Valley, CA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Huenneke, Laura F. 1991. Ecological implications of genetic variation in plant populations. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Husband, Brian C., and Douglas W. Schemske. 1996. Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution 50 (1):54-70.
IUCN/SSC. 1998. IUCN guidelines for re-introductions. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group.
Karp, Angela, Peter G. Isaac, and David S. Ingram, eds. 1998. Molecular tools for screening biodiversity. Chapman & Hall.
Knapp, E. E., and A. R. Dyer. 1997. When do genetic considerations require special approaches to ecological restoration? In Conservation Biology for the coming decade, edited by P. L. Fiedler and P. Kareiva. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Knapp, E. E., M. A. Goedde, and K. J. Rice. 2001. Pollen limited reproduction in blue oak: implications for wind-pollination in fragmented populations. Oecologia 128:48-55.
Knapp, Eric E., and Kevin J. Rice. 1998. Comparison of isozymes and quantitative traits for evaluating patterns of genetic variation in purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra). Conservation Biology 12 (5):1031-1041.
Koyama, H., and T. Kira. 1956. Intraspecific competition among higher plants. VIII. Frequency distribution of individual plant weight as affected by the interaction between plants. J. Inst, Polytech. Osaka City University D7:73-94.
Landis, Thomas, and J.R. Thompson, eds. 1997. National proceedings, Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations. Vol. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-419. Portland, OR: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Lesica, P., and F. W. Allendorf. 1999. Ecological genetics and the restoration of plant communities: mix or match? Restoration Ecology 7:42-50.
Levin, Donald A. 1981. Dispersal versus gene flow in plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68:232-253.
Manning, S. J., and M. G. Barbour. 1988. Root systems, spatial patterns, and competition for soil moisture between two desert subshrubs. American Journal of Botany 75:885-893.
McArdle, B. H. 1996. Levels of evidence in studies of competition, predation, and disease. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20:7-15.
Meffe, Gary K., and C. Ronald Carroll. 1994. Principles of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Menges, Eric S. 1991. The application of minimum viable population theory to plants. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Montalvo, A. M., S. L. Williams, K. J. Rice, S. L. Buchmann, C. Cory, S. N. Handel, G. P. Nabhan, R. Primack, and R. H. Robichaux. 1997. Restoration biology: a population biology perspective. Restoration Ecology 5 (4):277-290.
Nei, Masatoshi. 1975. Molecular population genetics and evolution. Edited by A. Neuberger and E. Tatum. Vol. 40, Frontiers of Biology. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Nekola, J. C., and P. S. White. 1999. The distance decay of similarity in biogeography. Journal of Biogeography 26:867-878.
ONPS. 2001. Guidelines on use of native plants for gardening. Portland, OR. Native Plant Society of Oregon. 3 pp.
Pantastico-Caldas, M., and D. L. Venable. 1993. Competition in two species of desert annuals along a topographic gradient. Ecology 74 (8):2192-2203.
Pavlik, Bruce. 1996. Defining and measuring success. In Restoring diversity: strategies for reintroduction of endangered plants, edited by D. A. Falk, C. I. Millar and M. Olwell. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Primack, Richard B., and Hyesoon Kang. 1989. Measuring fitness and natural selection in wild populations. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 20:367-396.
Procaccini, G., and L. Piazzi. 2001. Genetic polymorphism and transplanting success in the Mediterranean Seagrass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. Restoration Ecology 9 (3):332-338.
Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn. 1986. Biology of plants. Fourth ed. New York: Worth Publishers.
Rehfeldt, G. E. 1990. Genetic differentiation among populations of Pinus ponderosa from the upper Colorado River basin. Botanical Gazette 151 (1):125-137.
Rieseberg, Loren H. 1991. Hybridization in rare plants: Insights from case studies in Cercocarpus and Helianthus. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Robichaux, Robert H., Elizabeth A. Friar, and David W. Mount. 1997. Molecular genetic consequences of a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction of the Mauna Kea Silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense [Asteraceae]). Conservation Biology 11 (5):1140-1146.
Schaal, Barbara A., Wesley J. Leverich, and Steven H. Rogstad. 1991. Comparison of methods for assessing genetic variation in plant conservation biology. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schoen, D. J., and A. H. D. Brown. 1993. Conservation of allelic richness in wild crop relatives is aided by assessment of genetic markers. Proc. National Academy of Science (US) 90:10623-10627.
Shaffer, Mark L., and Fred B. Samson. 1985. Population size and extinction: A note on determining critical population sizes. American Naturalist 125 (1).
Slatkin, M. 1987. Gene flow and population structure of natural populations. Science 236:787-792.
Soorae, P. S., and P. J. Seddon, eds. 1998. Re-introduction practitioners directory. Nairobi, Kenya and Riyahd, Saudi Arabia: IUCN Species Survival Commission, Re-introduction Specialist Group.
Templeton, Alan R. 1991. Off-site breeding of animals and implications for plant conservation strategies. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.
Thompson, James D., and R. C. Plowright. 1980. Pollen carryover, nectar rewards, and pollinator behavior with special reference to Diervilla lonicera. Oecologia 46:68-74.
Tilman, David. 1999. The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80:1455-1474.
Tilman, David, and David Wedin. 1991. Plant traits and resource reduction for five grasses growing on a nitrogen gradient. Ecology 72 (2):685-700.
Tuljapurkar, Shripad. 1989. An uncertain life: Demography in random environments. Theoretical Population Biology 35:227-294.
Welden, C. W., W. L. Slauson, and R. T. Ward. 1988. Competition and abiotic stress among trees and shrubs in northwest Colorado. Ecology 69:1566-1577.
White, Peter S., and Joan L. Walker. 1997. Approximating nature's variation: selecting and using reference information in restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 5 (4):338-349.
Wilson, Scott D., and David Tilman. 1993. Plant competition and resource availability in response to disturbance and fertilization. Ecology 74 (2):599-611.
Wright, Sewall. 1965. The interpretation of population structure by F-statistics with special regard to systems of mating. Evolution 19:395-420.
Wright, Sewall. 1969. The theory of gene frequencies. Vol. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wright, Sewall. 1978. Variability within and among natural populations. Vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Young, Andrew G., and Geoffrey M. Clarke, eds. 2000. Genetics, demography, and viability of fragmented populations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Some other relevant work in restoration genetics:
Fenster, C. B. and M. R. Dudash. 1994. Genetic considerations for plant population restoration and conservation. In Restoration of Endangered Species, edited by M. L. Bowles and C. J. Whelan. Cambridge University Press.
Govindaraju, D. R. 1990. Gene flow, spatial patterns and seed collection zones. Forest Ecology and Management 291-302.
Handel, S. N., G. R. Robinson, and A. J. Beattie. 1994. Biodiversity resources for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 2:230-241.
Knapp, E. E., and K. J. Rice. 1994. Starting from seed: genetic issues in using native grasses for restoration. Restoration and Management Notes 12:40-45.
Knapp, E. E., and K. J. Rice. 1996. Genetic structure and gene flow in Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye): implications for native grassland restoration. Restoration Ecology 4:1-10.
Knapp, E. E., and P. G. Connors. 1999. Genetic consequences of a single-founder population bottleneck in Trifolium amoenum (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(1):124-130.
Millar, C. I., and W. J. Libby. 1989. Disneyland or native ecosystem: genetics and the restorationist. Restoration and Management Notes 7:18-24.