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4. Resources.

A vast literature exists on genetic diversity, its distribution in space and time, and its adaptive and ecological significance. A number of excellent texts on population genetics provide greater depth on a number of topics addressed briefly in this paper. Several of the growing numbers of papers on the topic of restoration genetics are listed in the literature cited section of this paper.

Conservation genetics is still is relatively small field, and restoration genetics is in its infancy. Restoration practitioners and scientists can contribute to the accumulation of knowledge in this area by treating your restoration projects as experiments, and publishing your results.

The Society for Ecological Restoration maintains an on-line Directory of Restoration Expertise at www.ser.org. The IUCN also has published a list of reintroduction practitioners (Soorae and Seddon 1998). Individuals listed in each of these resources may be helpful with restoration genetic issues.

4a. Web sites and organizations.

Society for Ecological Restoration
1955 W. Grant Road, Suite 150
Tucson, AZ 85745 USA
Tel. (520) 622-5485
Fax. (520) 622-5491
Email: info@ser.org
http://www.ser.org

Plant Conservation Alliance
Bureau of Land Management
1849 C Street NW, LSB-204
Washington, DC 20240 USA
Tel. (202) 912-7232
http://www.nps.gov/plants/

Species Survival Commission Plants Programme
c/o International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Rue Mauverny 28
CH-1196
Gland, Switzerland
Tel. 41/22/9990152
Fax 41/22/999015
http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/index.htm

Center for Plant Conservation
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166 USA
Tel. (314) 577-9450
http://www.mobot.org/CPC/

US Forest Service
Seed collecting guidelines:
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/rngr/pubs/np97/consider.htm

National Forest Genetic Electrophoresis Laboratory (NFGEL)
2480 Carson Road
Placerville, CA 95667 USA
Tel. (530) 622-1225
Fax (530) 622-2633
http://www.dendrome.ucdavis.edu/NFGEL/

4b. Literature cited.

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BGCI. 1994. A handbook for botanic gardens on the reintroduction of plants to the wild. Richmond, Surrey, UK. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, in association with the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Reintroduction Specialist Group. 42.

Britten, Roy J. 1986. Rates of DNA sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups. Science 231 (21 March):1393-1398.

Brown, A. H. D., and J. D. Briggs. 1991. Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex situ collections of endangered plant species. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Anthony H. D., Michael T. Clegg, Alex L. Kahler, and Bruce S. Weir, eds. 1990. Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Center for Plant Conservation, CPC. 1991. Genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of endangered plants. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, edited by D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chai, Chen Kang. 1976. Genetic evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chesson, Peter L. 1985. Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: A look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability. Theoretical Population Biology 28:263-287.

Clegg, Michael T. 1990. Molecular diversity in plant populations. In Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources, edited by A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler and B. S. Weir. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Clewell, Andre. F. 2000. Restoring for natural authenticity. Ecological Restoration 18 (4): 216-217.

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Some other relevant work in restoration genetics:

Fenster, C. B. and M. R. Dudash. 1994. Genetic considerations for plant population restoration and conservation. In Restoration of Endangered Species, edited by M. L. Bowles and C. J. Whelan. Cambridge University Press.

Govindaraju, D. R. 1990. Gene flow, spatial patterns and seed collection zones. Forest Ecology and Management 291-302.

Handel, S. N., G. R. Robinson, and A. J. Beattie. 1994. Biodiversity resources for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 2:230-241.

Knapp, E. E., and K. J. Rice. 1994. Starting from seed: genetic issues in using native grasses for restoration. Restoration and Management Notes 12:40-45.

Knapp, E. E., and K. J. Rice. 1996. Genetic structure and gene flow in Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye): implications for native grassland restoration. Restoration Ecology 4:1-10.

Knapp, E. E., and P. G. Connors. 1999. Genetic consequences of a single-founder population bottleneck in Trifolium amoenum (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(1):124-130.

Millar, C. I., and W. J. Libby. 1989. Disneyland or native ecosystem: genetics and the restorationist. Restoration and Management Notes 7:18-24.