Plants with a Purpose

This section includes lists of plant combinations that can be used to mimic the natural communities of plants found in wetlands, meadows, forests, etc. They can be used to create, restore or enhance existing habitat for wildlife. Also included are plants that can be used in solving problems such as stabilizing soils, or for specific landscaping uses. No matter what the purpose, it is imperative that species are chosen to suit planting site conditions and the physiographic location of the site. None of these lists are complete – there are additional suitable plants in this guide (and even more native species not included in this publication) that would suit these purposes. This document is intended to give project planners guidance in choosing appropriate plants for various projects, and additional learning is encouraged. For the most ecologically “correct” habitat restoration projects, consultation with professionals is recommended, as there are other factors to consider that are not addressed here.


Plants For Coastal Dunes

Note: the shrubs and trees listed would occur on the inner or secondary dunes and/or on interdunal swales.

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Ammophila breviligulata
Panicum amarum (and var. amarulum)
Spartina patens
Panicum virgatum

Herbaceous Plants
Baptisia tinctoria
Liatris pilosa v. pilosa (graminifolia)
Nuttallanthus canadensis (Linaria canadensis)
Opuntia humifusa (compressa)
Oenothera biennis
Solidago sempervirens
Yucca filamentosa (flaccida)

Shrubs
Baccharis halimifolia
Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica
Prunus maritima
Rhus copallina
Rosa carolina

Trees
Acer rubrum
Amelanchier arborea
Diospyros virginiana
Juniperus virginiana
Pinus rigida
Prunus pensylvanica, serotina

Vines
Celastrus scandens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia


Plants For Saltwater or Brackish Water Marshes

Plants in this list can be used for marsh plantings or to stabilize tidal fresh, brackish or saltwater shorelines based on salinity and wetness tolerances. Check the salinity and moisture requirements given in this publication for each plant, so they will be planted in the appropriate conditions. Those species for use in salinity greater than 15 ppt are marked (*).

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Ammophila breviligulata *
Distichlis spicata *
Juncus canadensis
Juncus roemerianus *
Panicum amarum (and var. amarulum) *
Panicum virgatum
Schoenoplectus pungens v. pungens (Scirpus pungens, americanus)
Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) validus
Spartina alterniflora *
Spartina cynosuroides
Spartina patens *
Spartina pectinata

Note: Although grasslike, Distichlis, Juncus, Schoenoplectus, and Spartina species information can be found in the Herbaceous Emergents section of the guide.

Herbaceous Plants
Agalinus purpurea
Limonium carolinianum
Solidago sempervirens *

Herbaceous Emergents
Hibiscus moscheutos (palustris)
Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica
Kosteletzkya virginica
Peltandra virginica
Pontederia cordata

Shrubs
Baccharis halimifolia *
Iva frutescens *
Morella (Myrica) cerifera *, pensylvanica *


Plants for Freshwater Wetlands and Other Wet Sites

The following plants may be used to create or enhance freshwater marshes or swamps or to stabilize and enhance streambanks, riverbanks or pond edges.

Remember to match the plants’ growth requirements with the site conditions. Wetness tolerated by these plants is provided in this guide in terms of frequency and duration of soil saturation or inundation (flooding), and depth of standing water.

Ferns
Athyrium filix-femina
Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulosa), cristata, intermedia
Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea, regalis
Pteridium aquilinum
Thelypteris noveboracensis, palustris
Woodwardia areolata, virginica

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Agrostis perennans
Andropogon gerardii, glomeratus, virginicus
Calamagrostis canadensis
Carex crinita var. crinita, lurida, stricta, vulpinoidea
Dichanthelium clandestinum
Elymus riparius
Festuca rubra
Leersia oryzoides
Panicum virgatum
Saccharum giganteum (Erianthus giganteus)
Tripsacum dactyloides

Herbaceous Plants
Arisaema triphyllum
Asclepias incarnata
Caltha palustris
Chelone glabra
Conoclinium (Eupatorium) coelestinum
Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (Aster umbellatus)
Eupatorium dubium, perfoliatum
Gentiana clausa
Helianthus angustifolius
Heracleum maximum (lanatum)
Impatiens capensis (biflora)
Lobelia cardinalis, siphilitica
Mertensia virginica
Mimulus ringens
Monarda didyma
Packera aurea (Senecio aureus)
Phlox maculata
Rudbeckia laciniata
Saxifraga pensylvanica
Scutellaria integrifolia
Sisyrinchium atlanticum
Spiranthes cernua
Stachys tenuifolia (hispida)
Symphyotrichum (Aster) novae-angliae, novi-belgii
Symplocarpus foetidus
Thalictrum pubescens (polygamum)
Veratrum viride
Verbena hastata
Vernonia noveboracensis
Veronicastrum virginicum (Veronica virginica)
Viola conspersa, cucullata, striata

Herbaceous Emergents
Dulichium arundinaceum
Hibiscus moscheutos (palustris)
Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica
Juncus effusus
Justicia americana
Nuphar lutea (advena)
Nymphaea odorata
Orontium aquaticum
Peltandra virginica
Pontederia cordata
Sagittaria latifolia
Saururus cernuus
Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) validus
Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus
Sparganium americanum
Spartina pectinata
Zizania aquatica

Shrubs
Alnus serrulata
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus amomum
Gaylussacia baccata, frondosa
Hypericum densiflorum
Ilex verticillata
Itea virginica
Kalmia angustifolia, latifolia
Leucothoe racemosa
Lindera benzoin
Lyonia ligustrina
Morella (Myrica ) caroliniensis (heterophylla), cerifera, pensylvanica
Photinia (Aronia) melanocarpa, pyrifolia (arbutifolia)
Physocarpus opulifolius
Rhododendron maximum, periclymenoides, viscosum
Rosa palustris
Rubus allegheniensis
Salix humilis
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (S. canadensis)
Spiraea alba v. latifolia (latifolia), tomentosa
Vaccinium corymbosum, macrocarpon
Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), nudum, nudum v. cassinoides (cassinoides), prunifolium

Trees
Acer negundo, rubrum, saccharinum
Amelanchier canadensis
Betula alleghaniensis, nigra
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya cordiformis, glabra
Celtis occidentalis
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Crataegus viridis
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Liquidambar styraciflua
Magnolia virginiana
Nyssa sylvatica
Pinus serotina, strobus, taeda
Platanus occidentalis
Populus deltoides, heterophylla
Quercus bicolor, michauxii (montana), nigra, palustris, phellos
Salix nigra, sericea
Taxodium distichum
Thuja occidentalis
Tsuga canadensis
Ulmus americana

Vines
Bignonia capreolata
Mikania scandens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Wisteria frutescens


Plants Appropriate for Bogs or Bog Gardens

Ferns
Athyrium filix-femina
Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea
Thelypteris noveboracensis , palustris
Woodwardia areolata

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Calamagrostis canadensis
Carex stricta
Leersia oryzoides

Herbaceous Plants
Arisaema triphyllum
Caltha palustris
Chelone glabra
Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellate (Aster umbellatus)
Eupatorium dubium, perfoliatum
Gentiana clausa
Saxifraga pensylvanica
Scutellaria integrifolia
Spiranthes cernua
Symplocarpus foetidus
Veratrum viride
Viola cucullata

Herbaceous Emergents
Dulichium arundinaceum
Juncus effusus
Orontium aquaticum
Sagittaria latifolia
Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus
Sparganium americanum

Shrubs
Clethra alnifolia
Gaultheria procumbens
Hypericum densiflorum
Kalmia angustifolia
Morella caroliniensis (Myrica heterophylla)
Photinia (Aronia) melanocarpa, pyrifolia (arbutifolia)
Rhododendron viscosum
Salix humilis
Spiraea alba, alba v. latifolia (latifolia)
Spiraea tomentosa
Vaccinium corymbosum, macrocarpon
Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), nudum, nudum v. cassinoides (cassinoides)

Trees
Acer rubrum
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Nyssa sylvatica

Vines
Bignonia capreolata


Plants for Dry Meadows

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Andropogon gerardii
Danthonia spicata
Elymus canadensis, riparius, virginicus
Schizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon scoparius)
Sorghastrum nutans
Tridens flavus

Herbaceous Plants
Ageratina altissima v. altissima (Eupatorium rugosum)
Antennaria neglecta
Asclepias syriaca, tuberosa
Chamaecrista (Cassia) fasciculata
Conoclinum (Eupatorium) coelestinum
Coreopsis tripteris, verticillata
Desmodium paniculatum
Dodecatheon meadia
Erigeron pulchellus
Eupatorium hyssopifolium, purpureum
Heliopsis helianthoides
Ionactis (Aster) linariifolius
Lespedeza capitata
Liatris spicata, squarrosa
Lupinus perennis
Monarda bradburiana (fistulosa), punctata
Nuttallanthus (Linaria)canadensis
Oenothera biennis, fruticosa, perennis
Penstemon digitalis
Pycnanthemum incanum
Rudbeckia fulgida, hirta, triloba
Solidago canadensis, canadensis v. scabra (altissima), juncea, nemoralis, speciosa
Symphyotrichum (Aster) cordifolius, ericoides var. ericoides, laeve var. laeve (laevis), novae-angliae

Shrubs
Note: Listed are a few of the shorter shrubs that may appear in or at the edges of meadows. Using shrubs in a planting that is to remain as a meadow is not recommended, as they provide perching spots for birds, whose droppings will seed in unwanted plants, including trees. If the meadow is to be allowed to succeed eventually to forest, then adding shrubs is one prescribed method.

Ceanothus americanus
Comptonia peregrina
Rhus glabra
Rosa carolina
Rubus allegheniensis


Plants for Wet Meadows

Ferns
Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea
Thelypteris palustris

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Andropogon gerardii, virginicus
Calamagrostis canadensis
Carex glaucodea, stricta
Elymus riparius
Leersia oryzoides
Panicum virgatum
Tripsacum dactyloides

Herbaceous Plants
Agalinis purpurea
Asclepias incarnata
Caltha palustris
Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (Aster umbellatus)
Gentiana clausa
Eupatorium fistulosum, maculatum, perfoliatum
Helenium autumnale
Impatiens capensis (I. biflora)
Lilium canadense, superbum
Lobelia cardinalis, siphilitica
Mimulus ringens
Packera aurea (Senecio aureus)
Phlox maculata
Rudbeckia laciniata
Sabatia angularis
Scutellaria integrifolia
Silphium perfoliatum
Sisyrinchium atlanticum
Solidago rugosa
Spiranthes cernua
Stachys tenuifolia (hispida)
Symphyotrichum (Aster) novi-belgii
Thalictrum pubescens (polygamum)
Verbena hastata
Viola conspersa
Viola striata

Herbaceous Emergents
Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica
Juncus effusus
Scirpus atrovirens, cyperinus
Spartina pectinata

Shrubs
Note: Listed are a few of the shorter shrubs that may appear in or at the edges of meadows. Using shrubs in a planting that is to remain as a meadow is not recommended, as they provide perching spots for birds, whose droppings will seed in unwanted plants, including trees. If the meadow is to be allowed to succeed eventually to forest, then adding shrubs is one prescribed method.

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Ilex verticillata
Rhododendron viscosum
Rosa palustris
Spiraea tomentosa


Plants for Forest or Woodland Plantings

Forests contain a diversity of plant types arranged in vertical layers, from the tallest (canopy or overstory) trees, through the understory of shorter trees and shrubs, to the forest floor or ground layer of low shrubs and herbaceous plants. Forest types are classified by the dominant trees present (e.g., oak-hickory-pine forest). Plant species occurring together in these different forest types are a function of the climate, altitude, geology and physiographic location, soil type, moisture, sunlight, and other conditions. So many combinations of plants occur in these different forests that space limitations prevent listing them all. Instead, the following represent plants found in a few of the more common forest types in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. These lists provide the basis for a viable forest or woodland project. Common ferns, grasses and herbaceous plants for the ground layer are listed separately, as they may occur in many of the forest types in various combinations. Remember to match the plants’ growth requirements with the site conditions.

For new projects at open sites, it may take years for young trees to provide adequate shade. Consult other restoration resources and/or professionals for alternative methods of developing the ground layer, and for more comprehensive forest community information.

Forest Types, Basic Structure

Oak-Mixed Forest (Coastal Plain)
Canopy trees for well-drained sites
Carya cordiformis, tomentosa
Quercus alba, falcata, marilandica, phellos, prinus, stellata, velutina
Pinus species, occasional intermixed with the above

Canopy trees for moist sites
Acer rubrum
Fagus grandifolia
Quercus bicolor, michauxii, nigra, palustris, phellos
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Nyssa sylvatica

Understory trees
Asimina triloba
Cercis canadensis
Cornus florida
Ilex opaca
Magnolia virginiana

Understory shrubs
Comptonia peregrina
Gaylussacia frondosa
Ilex glabra
Kalmia angustifolia, latifolia
Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica
Vaccinium pallidum (vacillans), stamineum
Viburnum dentatum (recognitum), prunifolium

Pine Forest (Coastal Plain)
Overstory trees
Pinus taeda, virginiana, rigida (occasional)

Understory trees
Ilex opaca
Sassafras albidum

Understory shrubs
Clethra alnifolia
Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica
Rhus copallina

Oak-Hickory Forest (Piedmont and Mountain, occasional on Coastal Plain)
Dominant overstory trees
Carya cordiformis, ovata
Quercus alba, prinus, rubra, velutina

Other trees
Amelanchier arborea, canadensis
Carya alba, glabra, tomentosa
Celtis occidentalis
Cercis canadensis
Cornus florida
Crataegus viridis
Fraxinus Americana
Juglans nigra
Prunus serotina
Quercus coccinea, falcata, lyrata, marilandica, muhlenbergii, stellata
Sassafras albidum
Tilia americana
Ulmus Americana

Additional trees for more moist sites
Acer rubrum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Ulmus americana

Shrubs
Kalmia latifolia
Vaccinium angustifolium, corymbosum, pallidum (vacillans), stamineum
Viburnum acerifolium

Red Oak - Mixed Hardwood Forest (Piedmont)
Dominant overstory trees
Acer rubrum
Carya ovata, tomentosa
Betula alleghaniensis (lutea), lenta
Fraxinus americana
Fagus grandifolia
Liriodendron tulipifera
Quercus alba, rubra, velutina
Pinus strobus*
Tsuga canadensis*

* These would be in the Hemlock-White Pine-Red Oak-Mixed Hardwood Forest (Piedmont and Mountain regions).

Understory trees and shrubs
Amelanchier species
Carpinus caroliniana
Hamamelis virginiana
Lindera benzoin
Viburnum acerifolium, dentatum (recognitum)

Hemlock-White Pine Forest (Mountain)
Dominant overstory trees
Acer saccharum
Betula alleghaniensis (lutea)
Fagus grandifolia
Pinus strobus
Tilia americana
Tsuga canadensis
also Picea rubens (red spruce, not included in this guide, but native in the Bay watershed in mountain region)

Other trees
Acer rubrum
Betula lenta
Liriodendron tulipifera
Quercus rubra, velutina

Shrubs
Hamamelis virginiana
Rhododendron maximum
Viburnum acerifolium

Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Mountain)
These forests are relicts of ancient mesic (moist) broadleaf deciduous forests. They can be very diverse.
Dominant overstory trees
Acer saccharum
Betula lenta
Carya ovata
Carpinus caroliniana
Fagus grandifolia
Fraxinus americana
Juglans nigra
Liriodendron tulipifera
Magnolia acuminata
Prunus serotina
Quercus rubra
Tilia americana

Understory trees and shrubs
Cercis canadensis
Hamamelis virginiana
Hydrangea arborescens
Lindera benzoin
Rhododendron maximum
Staphylea trifolia

Woodland Floor or Ground Layer Plants
These plants can also be used for gardens in or adjacent to wooded areas. Refer to specific habitat and growing conditions to match plants in appropriate groupings.

Ferns
All species included in this guide occur in woodlands.

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Agrostis perennans
Andropogon gerardii
Carex crinita var. crinita, glaucodea, lurida, pensylvanica, vulpinoidea
Chasmanthium latifolium
Danthonia spicata
Dichanthelium clandestinum, commutatum
Elymus hystrix (Hystrix patula)
Festuca rubra
Panicum virgatum
Saccharum giganteum (Erianthus giganteus)
Schizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon scoparius)
Sorghastrum nutans
Tridens flavus
Tripsacum dactyloides

Herbaceous Plants
Actaea pachypoda
Ageratina altissima v. altissima (Eupatorium rugosum)
Aquilegia canadensis
Aralia nudicaulis, racemosa
Arisaema triphyllum
Aruncus dioicus
Asarum canadense
Campanulastrum americanum (Campanula americana)
Cardamine concatenata (Dentaria laciniata)
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Chelone glabra
Chimaphila maculata
Chrysogonum virginianum
Cimicifuga racemosa
Claytonia virginica
Delphinium tricorne
Dicentra canadensis, cucullaria, eximia
Erythronium americanum
Eurybia divaricata (Aster divaricatus)
Geranium maculatum
Helenium autumnale
Helianthus divaricatus
Heliopsis helianthoides
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (acutiloba), var. obtusa (americana)
Heracleum maximum (lanatum)
Heuchera americana, villosa
Hydrophyllum virginianum
Impatiens capensis (biflora)
Ionactis (Aster) linariifolius
Jeffersonia diphylla
Liatris scariosa
Lilium canadense, philadelphicum
Maianthemum canadense, racemosum (Smilacina racemosa)
Medeola virginiana
Melanthium virginicum
Mertensia virginica
Mitchella repens
Mitella diphylla
Monarda didyma
Osmorhiza longistylis
Oxalis violacea
Packera aurea (Senecio aureus)
Penstemon laevigatus
Phlox carolina, divaricata, stolonifera
Podophyllum peltatum
Polemonium reptans
Polygonatum biflorum, pubescens
Sanguinaria canadensis
Saxifraga pensylvanica, virginiensis
Scutellaria integrifolia
Sedum ternatum
Silene caroliniana, stellata, virginica
Solidago caesia, flexicaulis, rugosa
Stachys tenuifolia (hispida)
Stellaria pubera
Thalictrum dioicum, pubescens (polygamum), thalictroides (Anemonella t.)
Tiarella cordifolia
Tradescantia virginiana
Trillium erectum, grandiflorum, sessile, undulatum
Uvularia grandiflora, perfoliata, sessilifolia
Veratrum viride
Viola conspersa, hastata, pubescens (pennsylvanica), sororia (papilionacea), striata
Zizia aurea

Vines
Any of the vines included in this guide may be found in woodlands, occupying various vegetative layers, from the ground up.


Solutions for Slopes

Slopes of any kind are prone to erosion from rain, runoff; wave action, stream or river currents, and foot or lawnmower traffic. Plants with deep, spreading root systems help prevent erosion by holding soil in place. Some plants that are particularly well suited to and recommended for holding or stabilizing soils on a dry upland slope or hillsides such as a sloping yard or road embankment are listed below.

However, any plant suited to the site’s sun, soil, and moisture conditions that could be planted on a flat surface could be planted on a slope, as long as the slope is accessible. Plants that naturally occur on slopes or hillsides can be found by searching the “habitat” notes provided with each plant in this guide.

For plants to use on a tidal shoreline, see the list of saltmarsh or freshwater marsh plants. For plants to use on a stream, pond or riverbank, see the list of freshwater marsh plants.

Plants That Provide Stabilization on Dry, Sunny Slopes or Hillsides

Grasses & Grasslike Plants
Ammophila breviligulata
Andropogon gerardii
Dichanthelium clandestinum
Elymus canadensis
Panicum virgatum
Panicum amarum
Schizachyrium scoparium

Herbaceous Plants
Any of the herbaceous plants that thrive in a sunny, dry site tend to be deep-rooted and would provide good slope stabilization. See the dry meadow plants list on for additional choices.

Baptisia tinctoria
Lespedeza capitata
Chamaecrista (Cassia) fasciculata

Shrubs
Comptonia peregrina
Ceanothus americanus
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus racemosa
Gaylussacia baccata, frondosa
Hypericum densiflorum
Kalmia latifolia
Morella pensylvanica
Physocarpus opulifolius
Rhus aromatica
Rhus copallina
Rhus glabra
Rosa carolina
Rubus allegheniensis
Vaccinium angustifolium
Viburnum acerifolium

Trees
The following are some of the tree species that may occur on slopes. However, for stabilization purposes, practitioners recommend planting herbaceous plants and shrubs, as trees will appear in time through succession.

Acer rubrum, saccharum, spicatum
Amelanchier arborea
Betula lenta
Carya alba (tomentosa), cordiformis, glabra, ovata
Castanea pumila
Celtis occidentalis
Chionanthus virginicus
Cornus alternifolia, florida
Crataegus crus-galli
Fraxinus americana
Juglans nigra
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Magnolia acuminata
Morus rubra
Nyssa sylvatica
Ostrya virginiana
Pinus rigida, taeda
Quercus coccinea
Quercus marilandica, michauxii, muehlenbergii, prinus, rubra, velutina
Sorbus (Pyrus) americana
Ulmus rubra

Vines
Campsis radicans
Celastrus scandens
Passiflora incarnata
Parthenocissus quinquefolia


Evergreens

Ferns
Asplenium platyneuron
Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulosa), cristata, intermedia, marginalis
Polystichum acrostichoides

Herbaceous Plants
Asarum canadense
Goodyera pubescens
Heuchera americana
Mitchella repens
Phlox carolina, stolonifera, subulata
Sedum ternatum
Silene caroliniana
Solidago sempervirens
Yucca filamentosa (flaccida)

Shrubs
Gaultheria procumbens
Ilex glabra
Kalmia angustifolia, latifolia
Morella (Myrica) caroliniensis (heterophylla), cerifera
Rhododendron maximum
Vaccinium macrocarpon

Trees
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Ilex opaca
Juniperus virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
Pinus any species in this guide
Thuja occidentalis
Tsuga canadensis

Vines
Bignonia capreolata
Lonicera sempervirens


Plants to use as Groundcovers

Ferns
Any species in this guide

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Carex glaucodea, pensylvanica
Danthonia spicata
Festuca rubra

Herbaceous Plants
Aquilegia canadensis
Asarum canadense
Chimaphila maculata
Chrysogonum virginianum
Chrysopsis mariana
Coreopsis verticillata
Erigeron pulchellus
Eurybia divaricata (Aster divaricatus)
Geranium maculatum
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (acutiloba), nobilis var. obtusa (americana)
Heuchera americana, villosa
Hylotelephium (Sedum) telephioides
Maianthemum canadense
Mitchella repens
Opuntia humifusa (compressa)
Oxalis violacea
Phlox carolina, stolonifera, subulata
Podophyllum peltatum
Polemonium reptans
Sedum ternatum
Silene caroliniana
Tiarella cordifolia
Uvularia sessilifolia
Viola conspersa, cucullata, hastata, pedata

Shrubs
Gaultheria procumbens
Vaccinium angustifolium, macrocarpon
Vaccinium pallidum (vacillans)

Vines
Bignonia capreolata
Campsis radicans
Celastrus scandens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia


Plants for Spring and Fall Color

A search through this guide will reveal literally hundreds of plants of all types that will flower or fruit in spring or fall, providing a wide variety of choices to color a native landscaping project and to offer a diversity of food for wildlife. Remember to consider trees, shrubs and vines when choosing plants for their flower color; and to include fruit color in the palette. The fall color of many plants, particularly grasses, trees, shrubs and vines adds interest to the landscape. A landscape planned for seasonal color, throughout all seasons of the year, can also provide year-round food, cover and nesting structure for wildlife.


Deer Resistant Plants

Gardeners challenged by browsing deer often look for a definitive list of plants that deer will leave alone. Unfortunately, deer are not quite that predictable. In areas where high populations of deer have over-browsed the woodland understory, they are likely to eat any plant they can find to survive. Gardeners and habitat restorationists are strongly encouraged to use other appropriate barriers to exclude deer, in consultation with a local wildlife agency. Plants marked with an asterisk (*) may be browsed occasionally.

The list below was compiled from Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve and Deer Proofing Your Yard (Hart), see references.

Grasses and Grasslike Plants
Andropogon gerardii
Panicum virgatum

Herbaceous Plants
Actaea pachypoda
Allium cernuum
Aquilegia canadensis
Arisaema triphyllum
Aruncus dioicus
Asarum canadense *
Asclepias tuberose
Baptisia australis
Campanulastrum americanum (Campanula americana)
Coreopsis tripteris
Dicentra eximia
Geranium maculatum
Helenium autumnale
Hibiscus moscheutos (H. palustris)
Jeffersonia diphylla
Lobelia cardinalis *, siphilitica *
Lupinus perennis
Monarda didyma
Phlox divaricata, stolonifera
Podophyllum peltatum *
Polemonium reptans
Rudbeckia fulgida, hirta
Solidago species
Symphyotrichum (Aster) novae-angliae
Veronicastrum virginicum (Veronica virginica)

Herbaceous Emergents
Iris prismatica, versicolor, virginica

Shrubs
Aralia spinosa
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus amomum
Hamamelis virginiana
Hypericum densiflorum
Ilex glabra, laevigata, verticillata
Kalmia latifolia
Leucothoe racemosa
Lindera benzoin
Morella (Myrica) cerifera, pensylvanica
Ribes rotundifolium
Spiraea alba, alba v. latifolia (latifolia), tomentosa
Viburnum acerifolium, dentatum (recognitum), prunifolium

Trees
Acer negundo, rubrum
Amelanchier canadensis
Betula nigra
Carpinus caroliniana
Cercis canadensis
Cornus alternifolia
Cornus florida *
Diospyros virginiana
Fagus grandifolia
Fraxinus americana, pennsylvanica
Ilex opaca
Juniperus virginiana
Magnolia acuminata, virginiana
Nyssa sylvatica
Pinus — any species in this guide
Quercus — any species in this guide
Sambucus racemosa v. racemosa (S. pubens)

Vines
Celastrus scandens
Clematis virginiana *
Lonicera sempervirens
Wisteria frutescens *


 Publication by USFWS BayScapes Conservation Landscaping Program
http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/secondhalf.htm
Last updated: 1 October 2004