Appendix D

* DRAFT * Medicinal Plants Native to the United States: Indicators of Rarity and Threat - Julie Lyke, USFWS, April 12, 2001

Species
Common name
Robbins (1999) [1]
Nielsen (2000) [2]
UPS [3]
NCPMH [4]
MPWG [5]
CITES [6]
ESA [7]
FS [8]
State-level Rare (Kartesz 1999)
Comments (Kartesz 1999)
Achillea millefolium yarrow  
9
           
CT
 
Acorus americanus several-vein sweetflag, calamus  
15
           
ND, PA, SD
 
Acorus calamus sweetflag, calamus
X
30
To Watch
         
AL, CO, MI
 
Actaea podocarpa mountain bugbane  
30
           
IL, MD, PA, SC
 
Actaea racemosa (=Cimicifuga racemosa) black cohosh, black bugbane
X
30
At Risk
X
X
     
IL, MA, MS
 
Actaea rubifolia black cohosh, black bugbane  
45
         
Region 9
IL, IN, KY, TN, VA
 
Adiantum capillus-veneris southern maidenhair fern  
6
           
CO, KY, MS, NC, SD
 
Adiantum pedatum northern maidenhair fern  
6
To Watch
         
VT
 
Agrimonia gryposepala tall hairy grooveburr  
15
           
DE, KS, KY, MO
 
Aletris farinosa true unicorn, white colicroot
X
15
At Risk
         
NY, OK, PA, RI
 
Allium burdickii narrow-leaf wild leek  
15
           
MO, NC, NE, NJ
 
Allium tricoccum ramp, wild leek  
10
           
AL, DE, ME, ND, RI
 
Anemopsis californica yerba mansa
X
15
To Watch
X
       
OK
 
Angelica arguta Lyall's angelica  
10
           
AK
 
Angelica genuflexa kneeling angelica  
10
               
Apocynum cannabinum Indian hemp  
15
           
noxious in NV
 
Aralia californica California spikenard
X
15
To Watch
         
KS, NE, OK
 
Aralia nudicaulis wild sasaparilla
X
15
           
GA, MO, NE
 
Aralia racemosa American spikenard
X
22.5
To Watch
 
X
     
AL, CO, DE, KS, MI, NE, RI, SD
 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi bearberry, uva-ursi
X
12
           
AZ, DE, IA, IL, IN, VA
 
Aristolochia serpentaria Virginia snakeroot
X
30
At Risk
         
CT, IA, MD, MI, NJ, NY
 
Arnica sororia twin arnica  
6
To Watch
         
CA
 
Arnica spp. arnica    
To Watch
       
Alaska Region: A. lessingii ssp. norbergii; Region 9: A. lanceolata
MD, ME, MI, MN, NY, PA, VT
 
Artemisia douglasiana Douglas' wormwood  
9
               
Artemisia dracunculus dragon wormwoood  
6
           
AK, IL, WI
 
Artemisia ludoviciana white sagebrush, western mugwort  
9
           
MI
 
Artemisia michauxiana Michaux's wormwood  
13.5
               
Asarum canadense Canada wild ginger
X
15
           
LA, ME, MI, SD
 
Asarum caudatum long-tailed wild ginger  
15
           
OR
 
Asclepias tuberosa butterfly weed, pleurisy root
X
30
To Watch
         
NH, RI
 
Balsamorrhiza sagittata arrowleaf balsamroot  
15
               
Baptisia tinctoria (yellow) wild indigo, horsefly weed
X
22.5
To Watch
X
X
     
KY, ME, WI
 
Betula lenta sweet birch, black birch  
6
               
Bursera fagaroides fragrant bursera  
8
           
CA
 
Bursera microphylla elephant tree  
24
To Watch
         
CA
 
Calycanthus floridus eastern sweetshrub  
8
           
FL, KY, PA, VA, WV
 
Carphephorus odoratissimus deerís tongue, vanilla leaf  
6
               
Castanea dentata American chestnut, castanea
X
2
           
KY, MD, ME, MI, OH
 
Castela emoryi chaparro, thorn-of-christ  
16
To Watch
         
PR
 
Caulophyllum giganteum giant blue cohosh  
30
           
TN
 
Caulophyllum thalictroides blue cohosh
X
22.5
At Risk
X
X
     
AR, KS, ND, NE, RI, SC, SD
 
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea, red root
X
12
           
DE, ME
 
Chamaelirium luteum devilís bit, helonias root
X
15
At Risk
X
       
AR, CT, DE, IN, LA, MA, NJ, NY
 
Chelone glabra white turtlehead, balmony
X
6
           
AR, MS
 
Chimaphila maculata spotted wintergreen
X
3
           
AK, IA, IL, MS
 
Chimaphila umbellata common wintergreen, pipsissewa
X
15
To Watch
         
AK, DE, IA, IL, IN, OH
 
Chionanthus virginicus fringe tree, old man's beard
X
9
           
KY, NJ, OH, OK, PA
 
Collinsonia canadensis Canada horse balm, stoneroot
X
15
To Watch
X
X
   
Region 9
VT
 
Coptis aspleniifolia fern-leaf goldthread, mouth root  
20
To Watch
X
       
MD, WV
 
Coptis laciniata Oregon goldthread  
10
To Watch
X
           
Coptis occidentalis Idaho goldthread  
10
To Watch
X
           
Coptis spp. goldthread    
To Watch
X
       
MD, WV
 
Coptis trifolia three-leaf goldthread, mouth root  
10
To Watch
X
       
MD, OR, WV
 
Crataegus douglasii black hawthorn  
9
         
Region 9
AK, MI, MN, UT
 
Cypripedium acaule pink lady's slipper, moccasin flower  
10
At Risk
 
X
 
Appendix II
  AZ, CO, GA, LA, MS, NE, NM, OK, OR, SD, TX, WY  
Cypripedium candidum small white lady's slipper  
20
At Risk
   
Appendix II
   
AL, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OH, SD, VA, WI
 
Cypripedium fasciculatum clustered lady's slipper  
20
At Risk
   
Appendix II
   
CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY
 
Cypripedium kentuckiense southern lady's slipper  
30
At Risk
   
Appendix II
   
AL, AR, KY, LA, MS, OK, TN, TX, VA
 
Cypripedium montanum mountain lady's slipper  
22.5
At Risk
   
Appendix II
   
AK, CA, OR, WY
 
Cypripedium parviflorum large yellow ladyís slipper
C. parviflorum var. pubescens
10
At Risk
   
Appendix II
 
Region 9: C. parviflorum var. parviflorum and C. parviflorum var. pubescens
AK, AZ, CO, DE, GA, ID, MS, MT, ND, NE, NH, NM, OH, OK, RI, SC, SD, VT, WA, WI, WY
 
Cypripedium reginae showy lady's slipper  
20
At Risk
   
Appendix II
 
Region 9
AR, CT, IA, IL, MA, ME, MO, NC, ND, NH, NJ, OH, PA, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
 
Cypripedium spp. lady's slipper orchid    
At Risk
   
Appendix II
 
Region 9: C. arietinum
AZ, CO, GA, LA, MS, NE, NM, OK, OR, SD, TX, WY
 
Cyrtopodium punctatum cowhorn orchid          
Appendix II
   
FL, PR
 
Dicentra canadensis turkey corn, squirrel corn  
10
To Watch
       
Region 9
AL, MS, ND, OK
 
Dionaea muscipula Venusí fly trap
X
12
At Risk
   
Appendix II
   
NC, SC
 
Dioscorea spp. wild yam    
At Risk
         
NE
 
Dioscorea villosa yellow yam, wild yamroot
X
22.5
At Risk
X
       
NE, NJ
 
Drosera spp. sundew    
At Risk
       
Region 9: D. angelica
CO, IA, IL, KS, KY, ND, OH, OK, PR, WY
 
Dryopteris filix-mas male fern  
10
         
Region 9
CA, ME, MI, OK, OR, VT, WI
 
Echinacea angustifolia narrow leaved purple coneflower
X
37.5
At Risk
 
X
     
MO
 
Echinacea pallida pale purple coneflower
X
37.5
At Risk
 
X
     
AL, SC, TN, WI
 
Echinacea purpurea eastern purple coneflower  
25
At Risk
 
X
     
FL, KS, LA, MS, NC
 
Echinacea spp. coneflower    
At Risk
 
X
   
Region 9: E. paradoxa var. paradoxa and E. simulata
FL, MS
 
Echinacea tennesseensis Tennessee purple coneflower    
At Risk
X
X
 
Endangered
 
TN
endemic to TN
Epigaea repens trailing arbutus, may flower, gravelweed
X
8
         
Region 9
FL, MS
 
Epipactis gigantea stream orchid, giant helleborine  
20
To Watch
         
CO, ID, MT, NM, OK, SD, WA, WY
 
Equisetum arvense field horsetail  
9
           
AL, MS, OK
 
Equisetum hyemale tall scouring rush  
6
           
DE, RI
 
Equisetum pratense meadow horsetail  
9
           
IL, ND, NH, NJ, NY, VT
 
Eriodictyon californicum California yerba santa
X
6
To Watch
             
Euonymus atropurpurea eastern wahoo  
12
           
DE, FL, LA, MI, MS, ND, NJ, SC
 
Eupatorium perfoliatum common boneset  
9
               
Eupatorium purpureum sweet joe-pye weed, gravelroot  
15
           
LA, VA, VT
 
Euphorbia ipecacuanhae wild ipecac
X
5
           
NY, PA
 
Euphrasia spp. eyebright    
At Risk
 
X
   
Region 9: E. oakesii
   
Frangula purshiana (=Rhamnus purshiana) cascara buckthorn, cascara sagrada
X
18
To Watch
 
X
         
Galax urceolata galax  
6
               
Gaultheria procumbens teaberry, wintergreen
X
8
           
IL, SC
 
Gelsemium sempervirens yellow jessamine
X
8
           
TN
 
Gentiana andrewsii closed bottle gentian  
20
To Watch
         
DE, MA, MD, NH, NJ, VT
 
Gentiana catesbaei Elliott's gentian  
10
To Watch
         
AL, MD, NJ
 
Gentiana saponaria harvestbells  
10
To Watch
         
AR, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA
 
Gentiana spp. gentian    
To Watch
       
Region 9:† G. alba and G. villosa
 
Gentiana villosa striped gentian
X
 
To Watch
       
Region 9
IN, MD, OH, PA
 
Geranium maculatum wild cranesbill
X
15
           
LA, SD
 
Goodyera pubescens downy rattlesnake plantain  
10
           
FL, MS
 
Grindelia camporum Great Valley gumweed  
12
               
Grindelia integrifolia Puget Sound gumweed  
6
               
Grindelia stricta Oregon gumweed  
12
               
Guaiacum officinale lignum-vitae          
Appendix II
       
Guaiacum sanctum holywood lignum-vitae          
Appendix II
   
FL, PR
 
Hamamelis virginiana American witch-hazel
X
12
           
MN, OK
 
Hydrangea arborescens wild hydrangea
X
12
           
FL, NY
 
Hydrastis canadensis goldenseal
X
30
At Risk
X
X
Appendix II
 
Region 9
AL, CT, GA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MS, NC, NY, OK, TN, VT, WI
 
Iris versicolor blueflag
X
15
           
ID
 
Iris virginica Virginia blueflag  
10
           
KS, MD, NY, OK, PA
 
Jatropha cathartica Berlandier's nettle spurge  
9
               
Jeffersonia diphylla twinleaf
X
10
           
AL, GA, IA, MI, MN, NC, NJ, NY, WI
 
Juglans cinerea butternut, white walnut, oil nut
X
15
         
Region 9
AL, DC, GA, KY, MD, MN, MO, MS, OH, SC, TN, VT, WI, WV
 
Juglans nigra black walnut
X
9
           
CT, SD
 
Juniperus communis common juniper  
9
           
AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, NC, OH, PA, SC, VA, VT
 
Juniperus monosperma one-seed juniper  
13.5
           
OK
 
Juniperus virginiana eastern red cedar  
9
               
Lespedeza capitata round head bush clover  
6
           
SD, VT
 
Lespedeza violacea lespedeza  
6
           
NE, NY, WI
 
Ligusticum canbyi Canby's wild lovage  
10
At Risk
             
Ligusticum filicinum fern leaf wild lovage  
20
At Risk
             
Ligusticum grayi oshala, Pacific osha  
10
At Risk
             
Ligusticum porteri Porter's lovage, osha
X
37.5
At Risk
 
X
         
Ligusticum spp. osha    
At Risk
       
Alaska Region: L. calderi
AK, CT, IN, MS, NY, PA, RI
 
Ligusticum tenuifolium slender leaf wild lovage  
10
At Risk
         
CO
 
Lobelia inflata indian tobacco
X
 
To Watch
         
KS, NE
 
Lobelia spp. lobelia    
To Watch
      Endangered: L. gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. monostachya, L. niihauensis, and L. oahuensis  
AK, ID, WA, WY
endangered spp. are endemic to HI
Lomatium dissectum lomatium, fern-leaved desert parsley
X
15
At Risk
 
X
         
Lophophora williamsii peyote  
30
At Risk
   
Appendix II
       
Lycopodium clavatum running ground-pine, club moss
X
6
           
CA, GA, IA, IL, KY
 
Lycopodium digitatum fan clubmoss  
6
           
MO
 
Lycopodium obscurum tree clubmoss  
6
           
AL, IN
 
Lycopus virginicus Virginia water horehound, bugleweed  
9
           
MI, VT
 
Mahonia aquifolium holly-leaf Oregon grape
X
12
To Watch
 
X
         
Mahonia dictyota Jepson's Oregon grape  
24
To Watch
           
endemic to CA
Mahonia nervosa Oregon grape
X
12
To Watch
             
Mahonia pinnata wavy leaf Oregon grape  
12
To Watch
             
Mahonia repens creeping oregon grape
X
12
To Watch
         
ND
 
Mahonia spp. Oregon grape    
To Watch
         
ND
 
Menyanthes trifoliata buck bean, bog bean  
6
         
Region 9
AZ, IA, MD, MO, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, OH, SD, VA, WV
 
Mitchella repens partridge berry, squaw vine
X
12
To Watch
X
       
IA, OK
 
Monarda fistulosa Oswego tea  
9
         
Region 9: M. fistulosa var. brevis
DE
 
Monarda punctata spotted bee balm  
6
           
KY, OH, PA, VT
 
Monotropa uniflora Indian pipe
X
5
           
AK, CA, ND, NE, OK
 
Morella cerifera southern bayberry  
12
           
OK, PR
 
Nymphaea odorata American white water lily  
15
           
NE, PR
 
Oplopanax horridus devilís club
X
18
 
X
       
MI
 
Opuntia humifusa devil's tongue          
Appendix II
   
CT, MA, OH, PA
 
Panax quinquefolius American ginseng
X
30
At Risk
X
X
Appendix II
 
Region 9
CT, DE, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, OK, RI, NC, SD, TN, VT, WI
 
Pedicularis groenlandica bull elephant's head  
9
               
Pedicularis racemosa parrot's beak  
6
               
Peniocereus greggii night-blooming cereus  
20
           
NM, TX
 
Phytolacca americana American pokeweed, poke  
15
               
Pinus strobus eastern white pine  
9
           
IN
 
Piper methysticum kava kava    
At Risk (Hawaii only)
             
Plantago major great plantain, common plantain  
15
               
Podophyllum peltatum mayapple, American mandrake
X
15
To Watch
         
FL, NE, VT
 
Polygala senega Seneca snakeroot
X
7.5
           
CT, KS, MD, ME, NJ, VT
 
Polygonatum biflorum common Solomonís seal
X
15
           
DE, NH, VT, WY
 
Polygonum bistortoides American bistort, bistort root  
10
               
Polystachya concreta greater yellowspike orchid          
Appendix II
       
Prunus serotina black cherry
X
6
               
Prunus virginiana choke cherry, wild cherry
X
12
           
DE, GA, TN
 
Pterocaulon virgatum wand blackroot
X
5
           
LA
 
Quercus alba white oak
X
9
           
NE
 
Rhipsalis baccifera mistletoe cactus          
Appendix II
   
FL
 
Rhodiola rosea roseroot stonecrop, king's crown  
3
           
NC, NY, PA, VT
 
Rhus aromatica fragrant sumac, stinking sumac  
8
           
VT, WI
 
Rhus glabra smooth sumac  
12
               
Salvia apiana white sage, California white sage
X
6
To Watch
 
X
         
Sambucus nigra black elder, elderberry, American elder
X
9
           
DC
 
Sanguinaria canadensis bloodroot
X
15
At Risk
X
X
     
IN, LA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA
 
Sarracenia purpurea northern pitcher plant  
15
     
Appendix II
   
IL, MD, MS, OH
 
Sassafras albidum sassafras
X
9
           
ME, VT
 
Scrophularia marilandica carpenterís square figwort
X
6
           
RI, SD, VT
 
Scutellaria galericulata hooded skullcap  
6
           
CA, DE, KS, KY, MD, MO, VA, WV
 
Scutellaria lateriflora mad dog skullcap
X
6
           
CA
 
Serenoa repens saw palmetto
X
13.5
           
LA
 
Solidago canadensis Canadian goldenrod  
9
               
Solidago odora sweet goldenrod  
6
           
NH, OH, VT
 
Spigelia marilandica woodland pinkroot, pink root
X
10
To Watch
         
IN, OK
 
Spiranthes diluvialis Ute ladies' tresses  
30
       
Threatened
 
CO, ID, MT, NE, UT, WA, WY
 
Stillingia sylvatica queenís delight
X
15
To Watch
         
VA
 
Symplocarpus foetidus skunk cabbage  
15
           
TN
 
Thuja occidentalis northern white cedar, arbor vitae
X
3
           
CT, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, NJ, OH, WV
 
Torreya californica California torreya, California nutmeg
X
6
             
endemic to CA
Trillium erectum bethroot, birthwort
X
15
At Risk
         
DE, IL, RI
 
Trillium spp. trillium, bethroot    
At Risk
     
Endangered: T. persistens and T. reliquum
Region 9: T. pusillum var. ozarkanum
CO, NE, SD, WY
T. persistens is rare in GA and SC; T. reliquum is rare in AL, GA, SC
Ulmus rubra slippery elm
X
9
At Risk
X
       
RI
 
Urtica dioica nettle  
9
               
Usnea spp. usnea lichen  
9
         
Region 9: U. longissima
   
Vaccinium macrocarpon large cranberry
X
6
           
IL, MD, NC, OH, TN, VA, WV
 
Vaccinium myrtillus whortle berry, bilberry, huckleberry
9
             
WY
 
Vaccinium ovatum evergreen blueberry
X
8
               
Vaccinium oxycoccos small cranberry
X
3
           
AK, ID, IL, IN, MD, NJ, OH, OR, WV
 
Valeriana scouleri Scouler's valerian  
10
               
Valeriana sitchensis Sitka valerian
X
22.5
               
Valeriana uliginosa marsh valerian  
20
         
Region 9
IL, IN, ME, VT, WI
 
Vanilla planifolia vanilla          
Appendix II
       
Verbena hastata simpler's joy, blue vervain  
9
           
OR
 
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver's root
X
30
           
AL, DE, MA, NB, SC, SD, VT
 
Viburnum opulus cramp bark, highbush cranberry  
12
           
NJ, WY
 
Viburnum prunifolium smooth blackhaw
X
8
           
CT, MI, WI
 
Viburnum rufidulum rusty blackhaw  
8
           
OH
 
Xanthorhiza simplicissima shrub yellow-root
X
8
           
FL, LA
 
Yucca filamentosa Adam's needle, yucca  
10
               
Yucca schidigera Mojave yucca
X
12
               
Zanthoxylum americanum toothache tree, northern prickly ash  
12
           
AL, FL, GA, LA, MD, NH, TN
 
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Hercules' club, southern prickly ash  
12
               

References

Kartesz, J.T.† 1999.† A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.† First Edition.† In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham.† Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0.† North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

National Center for the Preservation of Medicinal Herbs.† 2000.† "Critical to Cultivate" list.† Diane Don Carlos, personal communication to Mary Maruca.† See also www.ncpmh.org.

Nielsen, E.† June 2000.† Prioritization of Medicinal Species at Risk Due to Wild-Collection. The Nature Conservancy.† 3pp. (unpublished)

Plant Conservation Alliance Medicinal Plant Working Group.† December 2000.† Priorities of the Conservation and Sustainable Production Committees, as identified in First Annual Report of the Plant Conservation Alliance Medicinal Plant Working Group. 24 pp. (unpublished)

Robbins, C.† July 1999.† Medicine from U.S. Wildlands:† An Assessment of Native Plant Species Harvested in the United States for Medicinal Use and Trade and Evaluation of the Conservation and Management Implications:† Cost Share Agreement No. 97-CCS-230 between USDA Forest Service & The Nature Conservancy:† A report from TRAFFIC North America prepared for The Nature Conservancy.† 28pp.

United Plant Savers. 2001.† "At Risk" and "To Watch" lists (www.plantsavers.org)

US Fish & Wildlife Service.† 2001.† CITES Species (http://international.fws.gov/cites/cites.html) and ESA Species (http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species).

USDA Forest Service Alaska Region.† July 1999.† USDA Forest Service Alaska Region Sensitive Vascular Plants.† Phyllis Woolwine, personal communication to Julie Lyke, April 12, 2001. 1p.

USDA Forest Service Region 9.† 2001.† Sensitive Species list - http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/tes_r9_regforesterslist.htm

Footnotes

1.) X in this column indicates presence in Table 1:† Medicinal Plant Species in US Commerce Identified as Priorities for Further Study by TRAFFIC and The Nature Conservancy for Further Study.
2.) Scale of risk:† 2-45; higher numbers indicate greater risk.
3.) United Plant Savers - www.plantsavers.org.
4.) National Center for the Preservation of Medicinal Herbs "Critical to Cultivate" list, not including Arnica montanum (not native to US) - www.ncpmh.org.
5.) Plant Conservation Alliance Medicinal Plant Working Group Conservation and Sustainable Production Committee Priorities.
6.) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species - http://international.fws.gov/cites/cites.html.
7.) Endangered Species Act - http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species.
8.) Forest Service Sensitive Species - Alaska Region and Region 9.


Comments, suggestions, and questions about the website should be directed to the webmaster.
http://www.nps.gov/plants/medicinal/pubs/2001table.htm
Last Updated: 4/29/02