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Spotted Knapweed
Centaurea stoebe L. ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek
Sunflower family (Asteraceae)
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Spotted KnapweedNATIVE RANGE
Central Europe, east to central Russia, Caucasia, and western Siberia

Spotted knapweed, previously known as Centaurea biebersteinii, is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Its name is derived from the spots formed by black margins on the flower bract tips. Spotted knapweed typically forms a basal rosette of leaves in its first year and flowers in subsequent years. Rosette leaves are approximately 8 inches long by 2 inches wide, borne on short stalks, and deeply lobed once or twice on both sides of the center vein, with lobes oblong and wider toward the tip. The taproot is stout and deep. Flowering stems are erect, 8 to 50 inches tall, branched above the middle, and sparsely to densely hairy. Stem leaves alternate along the stem, are unstalked, and may be slightly lobed, or linear and unlobed. Leaf size decreases towards the tip of the stem.

Flowers are purple to pink, rarely white, with 25 to 35 flowers per head. Plants bloom from June to October, and flower heads usually remain on the plant. Flower heads are oblong or oval shaped, ¼ inch wide and ½ inch across, and are single or borne in clusters of two or three at the branch ends. Leaf like bracts surrounding the base of the flower head are oval and yellow green, becoming brown near the base. The margins of these bracts have a soft spine like fringe, with the center spine being shorter than the lateral spines. The brown, oval seeds are 1/16 to 1/8 inch long, with pale longitudinal lines and a short fringe on one end.

Spotted knapweed infests a variety of natural and semi-natural habitats including barrens, fields, forests, prairies, meadows, pastures, and rangelands. It outcompetes native plant species, reduces native plant and animal biodiversity, and decreases forage production for livestock and wildlife. Spotted knapweed may degrade soil and water resources by increasing erosion, surface runoff, and stream sedimentation. It has increased at an estimated rate of 27% per year since 1920 and has the potential to invade about half of all the rangeland (35 million acres) in Montana alone. 

Click for distribution map of spotted knapweed.DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES
Spotted knapweed is a widely distributed species reported to occur throughout Canada and in every state in the U.S. except Alaska, Georgia, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Texas (see map). It has been designated as a noxious weed in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

It has been identified as invasive in natural areas by eighteen organizations in twenty-six states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Kentucky, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and Wyoming). Fifteen national parks also identify spotted knapweed as an invasive plant and a threat to natural habitats.

Spotted knapweed is found at elevations up to and over 10,000 feet and in precipitation zones receiving 8 to 80 inches of rain annually. Spotted knapweed prefers well-drained, light-textured soils that receive summer rainfall, including open forests dominated by ponderosa pine and Douglas fir, and prairie habitats dominated by Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and needle-and-thread grass. Disturbance allows for rapid establishment and spread; however, spotted knapweed is capable of invading well managed rangelands. Spotted knapweed does not compete well with vigorously growing grass in moist areas. In seasonally dry areas, spotted knapweed's taproot allows it to access water from deep in the soil, beyond the reach of more shallowly rooted species.

Spotted knapweed was introduced to North America from Eurasia as a contaminant in alfalfa and possibly clover seed, and through discarded soil used as ship ballast. It was first recorded in Victoria, British Columbia in 1883 and spread further in domestic alfalfa seeds and hay before it was recognized as a serious problem. 

Spotted knapweed plants in North America generally live 3 to 7 years but can live up to nine years or longer. Plants regrow from buds on the root crown. Reproduction is by seed, and plants are capable of producing 500- 4,000 seeds per square foot per year. About 90% of the seeds are viable at the time of dispersal, and they can remain viable in the soil for 5-8 years. Most seeds are dispersed near the parent plant but can be transported by people, wildlife, livestock, vehicles, and in soil, crop seed, and contaminated hay. Gravel pits, soil stockpiles, powerlines, grain elevators, railroad and equipment yards are important seed distribution points. 

The most cost effective management strategy for spotted knapweed is to prevent its spread to non-infested areas. Spread by seed can be minimized by avoiding travel through infested areas; by cleaning footwear, clothing, backpacks, and other items after hiking through infested areas; by not grazing livestock when ripe seeds are present in the flower heads; and by using weed free hay.

Manual and Mechanical
Small infestations of spotted knapweed can be controlled by persistent hand-pulling done prior to seed set. Gloves should be worn because of the possibility of skin irritation. Because spotted knapweed can regrow from the base, care must be taken to remove the entire crown and taproot.

Biological control
A variety of natural enemies are used as biological control agents for large infestations of spotted knapweed. Most biocontrol techniques use insect larvae to damage the root, stem, leaf, or flower. Two species of seed head flies, Urophora affinis and U. quadrifasciata, are well-established on spotted knapweed. The larvae of these species reduce seed production by as much as 50% by feeding on spotted knapweed seed heads and causing the plant to form galls. Three moth species (Agapeta zoegana, Pelochrista medullana, and Pterolonche inspersa) and a weevil (Cyphocleonus achates) that feed on spotted knapweed roots have also been released.

The collective stress on the plant caused by these insects reduces seed production and may lead to reduced competitiveness. Biological control agents may be more effective when combined with other control methods such as herbicides, grazing, and revegetation with desirable, competitive plants.

Control of spotted knapweed infestations using three chemical herbicides (2,4-D, clopyralid, and picloram) has been reported but is problematic. Existing plants can be killed with 2,4-D but it needs to be reapplied yearly to control new plants germinating from seed stored in the soil. Picloram is a more persistent herbicide and has controlled knapweed for three to five years when applied at 0.25 lb/acre at any stage of plant growth; or with clopyralid (0.24 lb/acre) or clopyralid (0.2 lb/acre) plus 2,4-D (1 lb./acre) applied during bolt or bud growth stage. In the absence of desirable native grasses, longevity of control may be increased by revegetating with competitive grasses and forbs. Picloram may pose a risk of groundwater contamination where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow.

Other methods
Long-term grazing by sheep and goats has been found to control spotted knapweed. Burning, cultivation, and fertilization typically are not effective on spotted knapweed unless combined with other methods of control.



For more information on the management of spotted knapweed, please contact:


Michael Carpinelli, USDA-ARS, Burns, OR

Jil M. Swearingen, National Park Service, National Capital Region, Natural Resources and Science, Center for Urban Ecology, Washington, DC

Ruth Douglas, Charlottesville, VA
Karen Enyedy, Austin, TX
Jim Jacobs, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT
Lori Makarick, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ
Phillip Moore, AHTD, AR
Monica Pokorny, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT
Leila M. Shultz, Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
Ed Shadrick, V3 Consultants, Woodridge, IL

Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board

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Chicoine, T.K., P.K. Fay, and G.A. Nielsen. 1985. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. Weed Sci. 34:57 61.

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Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Vol.1 - Checklist. 2nd ed. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 622 p.

Lacey, J.R., C.B. Marlow, and J.R. Lane. 1989. Influence of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on surface water runoff and sediment yield. Weed Technol. 3:627 631.

Lacey, C.A., J.R. Lacey, P.K. Fay, J.M. Story, and D.L. Zamora. 1995. Controlling knapweed in Montana rangeland. Circular 311, Cooperative Extension Serv., Montana State Univ. Bozeman.

Mauer, T., M. J. Russo, and M.Evans. 1987. Element Stewardship Abstract: Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). The Nature Conservancy

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Roché, B.F. Jr., and C.J. Talbott. 1986. The collection history Centaurea found in Washington State. Agri. Res. Center. Res. Bull. XB0978. Washington State University Cooperative

Roche, B.F., G.L. Piper, and C.J. Talbott. 1986. Knapweeds of Washington. Washington State Univ. Coop. Exten. EB1393. 41p. Extension, Pullman, WA. 36 pp.

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Sheley, R.L., J.S. Jacobs, and M.F. Carpinelli. 1999. Spotted knapweed. In: R.L. Sheley and J.K. Petroff (eds.), Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR. pp. 350 61.

Shirman, R. 1981. Seed production and spring seedling establishment of diffuse and spotted knapweed. J. Range Manage. 34:45 47.

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Story, J.M., K.W. Boggs, W.R. Good, P. Harris, and R.M. Nowierski. 1991. Metzneria paucipunctella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a moth introduced against spotted knapweed: its feeding strategy and impact on two introduced Urophora spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Can. Entomol. 123:1001-1007.

Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos). http://www.invasive.org/weedus/subject.html?sub=3013.

Thompson, M.J. 1996. Winter foraging response of elk to spotted knapweed removal. Northwest Sci. 70(1):10 19.

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Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 1999. Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia: Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.). 2 p.

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Last updated: 07-Jul-2009