Japan, Korea and China
Wineberry, or wine raspberry,
is a typical species in the genus Rubus, which contains blackberry
and raspberry. The name Rubus phoenicolasius translates as "blackberry
with purple hairs." The mature plant has long stems (canes) that are
upright and arching and covered with distinctive glandular red hairs and
small spines. The hairs give the canes a reddish color when seen from a distance.
Under favorable conditions, canes may grow to a length of 9 feet. Leaves
consist of three heart-shaped, serrated leaflets with purplish veins and
are silvery white tomentose on the underside. Small greenish flowers with
white petals and reddish hairs occur in Spring. The very edible raspberry
like fruit is bright red and ripens during June and July.
Wineberry is a vigorous
grower and can form dense thickets covering large areas, displacing many
native plants in the process. Wineberry poses a threat to the native plants
that grow in forest, field, stream and wetland edge habitats, open woods,
and savannas and prairies.
IN THE UNITED STATES
Wineberry is found from New England and eastern
Canada south to North Carolina and west to Michigan and Tennessee. It is
considered an invasive plant of natural areas in Maryland, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia, and the District of
HABITAT IN THE UNITED STATES
members of Rubus, wineberry prefers moist conditions and adequate sunlight.
Many species of birds and mammals use the brambles for nesting and shelter.
was introduced into the United States in 1890 as breeding stock for new Rubus cultivars.
It is used today by berry breeders to add specific genes to berry varieties
or species. Wineberry is an example of one man's flower being another man's
weed. Given containment, wineberry has desirable and useful qualities, but
due to its invasive nature, it is considered a significant pest of agricultural
and natural ecosystems. Wineberry has been used as a virus indicator for
raspberry yellow spot and wineberry latent virus and numerous plant viruses
have been isolated from it.
BIOLOGY & SPREAD
by seeds, and through vegetative means including root buds and the sprouting
of new plants from where canes touch the soil. The drupes are sought after
and dispersed by various birds and mammals (including humans).
and chemical means of control are available. Removal of plants by hand pulling
or use of a 4-prong spading fork can be effective especially if the soil
is moist and the roots and any cane fragments are removed. Branches with
berries should be bagged but the remaining plant material can be left to
compost. Do not plant wineberry unless you are prepared to contain it vigilantly
to prevent unintentional spread.
USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS.
NOTICE: MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.
For more information on
the management of Wineberry, please contact:
- Marc Imlay, ialm at erols.com
- Neal R. Spencer, Entomologist,
USDA/ARS, Federal Nutrition Lab, Ithaca, NY,
nrs23 at cornell.edu
Neal R. Spencer, Entomologist, USDA/ARS,
Federal Nutrition Lab, Ithaca, NY
Jil Swearingen, National Park Service,
National Capital Region, Washington, DC
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Davis,
Dendrology at Virginia Tech. 2001.
Wine raspberry Rosaceae Rubus phoenicolasius http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/rphoenicolasius.htm
Padley, Eunice, and Jan Schultz.
1998. Hiawatha National Forest. September, 1998 Listed noxious weeds and
invasive non-native plants - Eastern Region, USDA-Forest Service http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/weed/nox-weed.htm
Randall, John M. & Janet Marinelli
Ed. 1996. Invasive Plants: - Weeds of the Global Garden. Brooklyn Botanic
Garden 21st-Century Gardening Series. Brooklyn, NY.
Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius). http://www.invasive.org/weedus/subject.html?sub=3072.
Talt, Marge. Clearing Woods - Shrubs
Part 4 - Brambles Part 1, by Marge Talt, Gardening in Shade on Suite101.com http://i5ive.com/article.cfm/shade_gardening/57038.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources
Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?32416
USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group.