"Cannon" is the best term for all firearms larger than small arms. It is a metal tube placed on a mount. Cannons were generally made of bronze or iron. The basic artillery piece of the war, on both sides, was the Napoleon, a smoothbore, muzzle loading, 12-pounder-gun howitzer.
Howitzers were lighter and shorter, fired a relatively heavy shell with a light charge, and usually had a powder chamber smaller than the bore of the gun.
The twelve-pounder smoothbore "Napoleon" model 1857, was a gun howitzer, being both shorter and lighter than the older 12-pounder gun, but using the same powder charge.
CanteenUnion Canteen Confederate Canteen
The canteen was the vessel in which the soldier on active service carried his drinking water or some other refreshing liquid. Canteens were made of several materials, but wood and tin were by far the most usual in this period. Some were also covered in wool cloth. The strap allowed it to be worn over the right shoulder opposite the cartridge box.
Carbines were well-suited to cavalry operations. They were shorter and handier than rifles and weighed considerably less. Some models were breechloading repeaters which had a quick rate of fire and were fairly accurate.
CavalryCavalry (Library of Congress)
An army unit mounted on horseback used mostly for scouting, raiding, and protecting the flanks of the army. Cavalry regiments at Petersburg saw most of their fighting at the Battle of Five Forks, where Union soldiers finally broke the Confederate lines. At this point, the Union objective, the South Side Railroad, was within their grasp.
A company is the smallest unit in an organized army, containing about 100 men led by a captain and two lieutenants.
A corps is a unit of the army. The corps was a large military unit composed of three divisions led by a lieutenant general (Confederacy) or a major general (Union).
Chevaux-de-frise was a defensive structure situated in front of earthworks. They were logs that measured about 12 feet long and 10 inches thick, drilled through every foot at right angles for sharpened stakes which projected 3 feet. Chevaux-de-frise were most common among the Confederate fortifications.