Description: Plains High School closed in 1979 and remained empty until
legislation was passed in 1988 creating the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site in Plains, Georgia. Over the following
seven year period,
the community of Plains partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to restore the school and adapt it for
reuse as the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site Museum. The NPS reopened the visitor center portion of the Plains
High School in July 1996 in anticipation of the Olympic crowds expected in south Georgia. The west wing of the high
school that houses the museum was completed by September and dedicated on October 1, on President Carter's birthdate.
Efforts to preserve Plains High School began with legislation proposed to create the Jimmy Carter National Historic
Site. Plans were discussed not long after President Carter left office in 1981. Early discussions revolved around
what resources should or should not be included at the historic site. Early in the dialogue local residents felt the
high school should be part of the historic site.
The community felt a close affinity for the high school and wanted to work with NPS. As legislation was proposed,
NPS assessed the site, found that the school suffered from serious structural problems, and concluded that it should
not be included as part of the historic site. Although NPS wanted to assist the community, it did not want to take on
a resource that would drain critical federal funds. A compromise was reached when Congressman Richard Ray, who
authored the bill to create the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site, included language which limited federal
contributions to no more than 60 percent of the cost for the restoration of Plains High School. This ensured the
passage of the bill that created the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site.
Upon passage of the bill, steps were taken to assess the structure and evaluate measures to prevent further
deterioration. NPS's Division of Historic Architecture developed a $5 million stabilization plan for the school, that
was not well received when presented at a community meeting in June 1989. Details of the plan included $2 million in
funding from the city. Because this was an unrealistic figure for a city with very limited funds, NPS was asked to
re-examine their cost estimates.
An important outcome of the meeting was the formation of the Plains High School Liaison Committee (PHSLC) that worked
with NPS on the restoration of the school. The committee was comprised of four community members from Sumter County,
including three who resided in Plains and at one time attended Plains High School. It was decided by all parties that
the Plains Historical Preservation Trust (PHPT) would be the best organization to administer and manage fundraising
efforts and control the dispersion of some of the funding. The PHPT was already a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization
that could legally raise and hold needed funds. The Committee's main responsibilities were to approve all aspects of
the restoration/rehabilitation of the high school; keep city staff, commissioners and other interested partners
informed of the progress; navigate city politics; address problems and issues affecting the work; and, meet with
President and Mrs. Carter on a regular basis to keep them informed on progress.
Federal funds were made available for Plains High School in FY 1990 to remove asbestos and to replace the roof with
a historically accurate standing seam metal roof. Contracts were awarded for both projects and completed over a two
As work began, attention turned to developing a restoration plan. The PHSLC met regularly and examined the
feasibility of using prison labor. Although an Executive Order prevented the use of prison labor on federal projects,
the Jimmy Carter NHS authorization bill allowed for the use of donated labor for work on Plains High School.
An opinion from the Department of the Interior Solicitor's Office allowed for the use of prison labor on segments of
the project where the city was responsible for the work. The concept was presented to the community at a meeting in
the spring of 1990 and favorably received. The following summer, inmates from the Sumter County Correctional
Institution began restoration work, replacing the termite infested roof and the floor joists. Other inmate projects
included plaster removal, and window and wall repairs. Recognizing the inmates had little or no experience in
plastering, NPS provided three plasterers to train inmates over a two-week period. The "on the job" training allowed
inmates to apply all the plaster in the school. The cost of the work, both cash and in-kind (inmate labor), was valued
at approximately $ 56,000.
In 1991 NPS began to develop a General Management Plan. Many community residents were involved in the development
of the plan which addressed how the park and school could best be used. It was decided that the school would be best
used as a visitor center and museum. Other plans were developed that supported the school and included an interpretive
prospectus, educational curriculum and a landscape plan.
Two grants totaling $20,000 were secured from the State of Georgia. These funds were used to purchase materials
and pay for salaries of the guards.
The community raised additional funds by hosting special events. One particularly noteworthy event was Trains N
Plains. Twelve Pullman cars were brought to Plains in March 1991. The event provided exposure for the project. Three
book signings of President Carter's book raised $20,000. The Plains Peanut Harvest Picnic held in October 1993 on the
grounds of the high school brought in an additional $15,000.
In 1992 President Carter requested a donation of plaster from US Gypsum for the plastering job project. The company
responded favorably and donated the materials. Following on this success, other companies were approached and
contributed the following items:
- American Standard -- Plumbing Fixtures
- Sloan Valve -- Plumbing Fixtures
- Sherwin Williams -- Paint
- US Gypsum -- Plaster
- Georgia Tile Co. -- Floor Tile
- Georgia Marble Co. -- Bathroom Partitions
- Trane Corporation -- All Heating and Cooling Units
- Shaw Industries -- Carpet
- Certianteed Insulation -- Insulation
- Andersen Windows -- 101 Windows
- Benjamin Moore -- Paint
Installation and construction was completed by both the inmates and various paid contractors.
A contract was awarded for work on the roof and four trusses in the auditorium. It was an enormous job that
involved removing the rotted trusses and replacing them with new trusses. Another contract was awarded to finish the
floors, restore the doors, and perform trim work.
The wooden backs and seats in the auditorium were ruined after years of exposure to leaks, causing the bent plywood
to warp and break. A contractor restored, painted and installed seats after they were removed from the building by
inmates. Funding for this work was secured through the city with a $50,000 grant from the Georgia General Assembly.
Representative Bob Hanner and Senator George Hooks were instrumental in securing these funds.
An interpretive media plan was developed with exhibits and audiovisuals, including a 25-minute film on the life of
Jimmy Carter and the history of Plains. A direct mail initiative led by the Carter Center Development Office raised
over $50,000. The film, produced by Ray DeTournay and narrated by Charles Kuralt, was shot in the summer of 1995 and
completed the following fall. Harman Industries contributed a video projector to show the film in the school's
The next step was the planning, design and fabrication of exhibits. The planning and design of the exhibits was
contracted out for $100,000. Most of the funds were made available after Trane Corporation donated the heating and
cooling units, leaving $75,000 available for final design, fabrication and installation. The Southeast Regional Office
of the NPS provided $25,000 for initial conceptual planning and design. Plains Products, a local company that
manufactured components for the mobile home industry, donated labor to help park staff fabricate all the exhibit
cabinets. Total exhibit work was valued at over $1 million but completed for approximately $135,000, which included
the Chief of Interpretation's salary for actual time spent on project.
The school was identified as an educational resource for students. This was seen as a special opportunity where
students could go to school in the same place where a President and First Lady went to school. In 1991 an educational
plan was developed and incorporated into the General Management Plan. Next a curriculum was developed by the
Chattahoochee Flint Regional Educational Service Agency. The community saw this as an opportunity to involve the local
school system in the project. Working with the Sumter County School Board, the plan was approved and funding was
sought from the Georgia Department of Education to fund a teacher position to run the program. In October 1995 the
State Superintendent of Schools toured the building and endorsed the project.
Eastern Parks Association purchased critical new furnishings for the book display area which offers visitors items
for sale about the parks historic themes.
In 1996, the National Park Foundation awarded the Plains High School project one of five Partnership Leadership
Awards. The award was presented at a ceremony at the Capitol on April 24, 1996.
Geographic area covered: The Jimmy Carter National Historic Site is located on 71 acres in Plains,
Georgia. The Jimmy Carter National Historic Site includes the boyhood home of Jimmy Carter, Plains High School, the
Carter family compound where President and Mrs. Carter presently reside, Plains Depot and a five-mile trail.
List of Partners and Relationships: Plains Historical Preservation Trust, the Plains High School
Liaison Committee, Sumter County School District, Sumter County Correctional Institutions, and the National Park
Accomplishments to date:
- Donated labor for high school restoration valued at $56,000.
- Stabilization and restoration of Plains High School, including replacement of roof, floor joists and trusses;
repair or replacement of 101 windows and interior walls; restoration and installation of auditorium seats.
- Donated materials included plumbing fixtures, paint, plaster, floor tile, hearting and cooling units, carpet,
insulation, windows and paint.
- Design and fabrication of exhibits. Labor used to fabricate the exhibit was donated by a local company.
Exhibit work valued at over $1 million but cost $135,000 to construct.
- Development of a 25-minute film on the life of Jimmy Carter and the history of Plains. Project was financed
through direct mail initiative which raised over $50,000.
- Community raised over $35,000 for the project.
- Development of education plan and curriculum.
- Full time Education Specialist paid by the Georgia Department of Education and Sumter County Schools.
- Plains Historic Preservation and Trust paid $35,000 for the development of three audio/visual exhibits for the
Key success factors:
The work of the Plains Historical Preservation Trust, along with many others, was an example of how communities can
work in a highly positive way with the NPS.
Frustrations:: It is difficult to accomplish a project this big by committee. It was also a
challenge relying so heavily on inmate labor. If they wanted to do a good job they did it. But if they didn't want
to do a good job, there wasn't much the park could do about it. Inmates don't always have the necessary skills needed
to perform some of the work. Since the opening of the building, park staff have redone some of the work done by
inmates, including the plastering work.
Most important lessons learned to date: Don't be rushed into doing a project this size without
truly being ready. The community wanted to preserve the school and restore it by the 1996 Olympics. Because of this,
NPS bypassed some of its own procedures/policies, e.g. a true in-depth Historic Structures Report and condition
assessment. The park continues to spend money to fix problems that should have been properly addressed from the very
beginning. NPS could have done a better job of presenting the argument for constructing a new museum rather than
rehabbing/restoring the high school.
What would you do differently next time: Ensure that all research and planning documents are
prepared prior to construction. Ensure that construction drawings/specs are completed by NPS or A&E before initiating
Suggested resource materials(related to the case study):
For more information:
Name: Fred Boyles
Affiliation: Superintendent, Andersonville and Jimmy Carter National Historic Sites
Phone/Fax: 229-924-0343 ext. 105
Partnership category(ies) (check all that apply)
Fundraising _X_; Capital Improvements_X_; Facility Management _X_; Trails __; Design _X_; Program Delivery _X_;
Visitor Services _X_; Tenant Organizations __; Concessioners __; Natural Resources Management/Restoration __;
Cultural Resources _X_; Education/Interpretation _X_; Arts __; Information Services __; Transportation __;
Mutual Aid __; Fire Management __; Planning ;__ Tourism _X_; Community Relations _X_;
Prepared by: Fred Sanchez Date posted: 6/9/04
Phone: 229-924-0343 ext. 110