• Flying artillery crew in action.

    Palo Alto Battlefield

    National Historical Park Texas

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    Maintenance on parks roads and parking areas will begin Monday, September 1st and will continue through Friday, September 5th. Access to roads and parking areas may be limited at times. Call the park for the latest on road and parking conditions.


Texas tortoise having a snack

Texas tortoise having a snack

Palo Alto Battlefield NHP (Public Domain)

A Healthy Park
Doctors use thermometers, X-rays, and MRIs to check on the health of their patients. At Palo Alto, researchers rely on tortoises to monitor the natural health of the park.

Every six months since 2008, the park's natural resource specialist, Gulf Coast Network (GULN) staff, and other partners and volunteers have combed the brush and prairies of Palo Alto. Their goal is to locate, mark, and track Texas tortoises (Gopherus berlandieri) living in the park.

Vital Signs
This species is very sensitive to environmental changes, making it a good barometer of the ecological well-being of the park. For example, evidence of increased tortoise mortality can indicate a deterioration of habitat areas long before other more hardy species are affected. By contrast, a thriving or growing tortoise population—especially the presence of young individuals—suggests site conditions remain relatively stable. By tracking the health and numbers of tortoises within the park boundary, Palo Alto hopes to keep tabs on the "vital signs" of the battlefield and surrounding lands.

Volunteer taking measurements of a Texas tortoise

Volunteer measuring a Texas tortoise

Palo Alto Battlefield NHP (Public Domain)

Keeping Count
The project is part of a service-wide initiative to keep a close eye on all parks with a significant natural component. The goal of this inventory and monitoring program is to help identify significant environmental issues in National Parks and address them before they reach a catastrophic stage.

Parks like Palo Alto have documented all plants and animals within their boundaries and selected indicator species to be watched. Palo Alto monitors a variety of plant, bird, amphibian and reptile species, but the Texas Tortoise stands out as the most important indicator of park health.

To date, the tortoise program has provided positive feedback about the park's condition. Monitoring crews have located, marked and tracked more than 160 individual tortoises and have found a viable and healthy population on park grounds. But there is also cause for concern. Some tortoises have been killed by other animals, including feral pigs, that have taken up residence on the battlefield. Others perish while trying to cross the busy roads that form the boundaries of the park. It is also notable that the tortoises seem to prefer the dense chaparral, a habitat area that is declining quickly in the developing lands surrounding the battlefield.

Past, Present & Future
The park will continue to keep a close watch on the tortoises and their condition in the years to come. The species, originally identified by naturalist Jean Luis Berlandier—a participant in the battle of Palo Alto—has long been part of the history of the site. Through careful monitoring and care, Palo Alto Battlefield hopes that they will remain part of the future.

Did You Know?

Battle of Palo Alto

Jean Luis Berlandier served as an Engineer with the Mexican army on the Rio Grande, but also had a career as a botanist. Berlandier participated in several explorations of Texas in the 1820s and 1830s and compiled extensive documentation of the plants and wildlife of the region. More...