Lesson Plan

Freeing the Elwha (Marine Derived Nutrients from Salmon)

A salmon carcass lies next to redd.

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Subject:
Aquatic Studies, Biology: Animals, Ecology, Environment, Marine Biology, Oceanography, Oceans
Duration:
One Class Period
Group Size:
Up to 36
Setting:
classroom
National/State Standards:
Washington State Standards
Science
EALR 4: 6-8 LS2A,  LS2B
Reading
EALR 1: Component 1.2 , 1.2.1, 1.2.2
Social Studies
EALR 5: Component 5.2, 5.2.1
Writing
EALR 2: Component 2.1, 2.2.1

Overview

How do the carcasses of dead adult salmon support young salmon and how are salmon essential to the marine food web as well as the freshwater ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest?

Background

Discuss the marine food web related to salmon. Introduce the idea of algal blooms in the cold nutrient-rich waters of the North Pacific. Explain trophic levels, energy movement, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nutrients and chemicals into top-level predators such as salmon. Introduce the idea of these marine-derived nutrients entering the freshwater ecosystems and becoming the basis of the freshwater ecosystem food web. Freshwater ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest tend to be oligotrohic (containing few nutrients), so these marine-derived nutrients constitute an important influx that greatly increases the productivity of these rivers.

  • Shredder- Eat leaves and other vegetative particles and select those with fungi and bacteria attached to them for protein (includes mayfly and caddisfly larva).
  • Scraper/Grazers- Scrape biofilm, algae, and detritus from rocks, wood, and vegetation (includes snails and caddisfly larva)
  • Filter-feeder- Filter small particles out of the water-column, often dislodged by the shredders and scrapers (includes copepods, amphipods, blackfly and midge larva, hydra, etc.).
  • Collector-gatherer- Forage along the streambed for detritus, food particles, and fungi (includes stonefly larva and some mayfly larva).
  • Predator- An organism that hunts and feeds on other animals (includes dragonfly larva, water beetles, water striders, etc.)
  • Biofilm- A community of microorganisms living within a matrix of secreted materials secured to a solid structure such as river rocks or aquatic vegetation. They are often complex environments containing bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoans.
  • Marine-derived nutrients (MDN)- Nutrients acquired by an anadromous fish and deposited in a freshwater or terrestrial ecosystem when that fish dies.
  • Oligotrophic- Containing few nutrients and therefore unable to support much life
  • Eutrophic- An ecosystem containing high levels of nutrients and therefore supporting high productivity. However, an overly eutrophic environment can result in algal blooms that cause the waters to become deficient in oxygen through the bacterial consumption of dying algae. These anoxic aquatic environments can then become dead zones to all but algae.
  • Nutrient cycle-Transfer of nutrientsfrom one part of an ecosystem to another.
  • Saprophyte- An organism, especially a fungus or bacterium, that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter.


Materials

  • Lesson 12- Marine Derived Nutrients from Salmon.pptx
  • Functional Feeding Groups.pdf
  • Watch glasses
  • Depression slides
  • Macroinvertebrates from a nearby stream or pond
  • Algae and aquatic vegetation from a nearby stream or pond
  • Dissecting scopes
  • Tweezers
  • Eye droppers
  • Reflection Journal Pages (printable handout)
  • Vocabulary Notes (printable handout)


Procedure

Review Essential Question; introduce Guiding Question.


Students should take a few minutes to respond to the first reflection prompts. Discuss their answers and any questions they've generated.
Hand out the Vocabulary Notes. With this lesson you may want to define the words before presenting the PowerPoint Lesson.
Present the PowerPoint Lesson.
 Macroinvertebrate Lab Activity.
Hand out the second Reflection Journal Page. Give students time for a final reflection the lesson.



Additional Resources

http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/2004/1/Pacific_Salmon.cfm



Vocabulary

Shredder
Scraper/Grazers
Filter-feeder
Collector-gatherer
Predator
Biofilm
Marine-derived nutrients (MDN)
Oligotrophic
Eutrophic
Nutrient cycle
Saprophyte