Drawing 1: Transverse view of Manville Company's No. 3 Mill, Manville, RI, 1874.
Drawing 1 is a transverse view of a typical textile mill with turbines. Transmission of power from water wheels or turbines was achieved by a direct drive system. Water was funneled from the canal down into the mill through an intake known as a penstock (see upper row of arches and dashed lines on Drawing 4). The water from the higher level fell, turning the turbine (1), and then returned to the river (2) or to another canal via lower level tunnels called tailraces (see lower row of arches and dashed lines on Drawing 4). Power was then transferred upstairs through the complex series of gears (3), wheels (4), and belts shown. Eventually the power turned the overhead line shafts (5) on each floor. Individual leather belts (6) running on pulleys connected each individual textile machine (7) to the line shafts.
Questions for Drawing 1
1. Identify all of the numbered items on the drawing.
2. How was water used to create power for the mills?
3. What seasonal problems might water-powered mills like the Boott have encountered?
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