Martin Luther King, Jr., birth
home at 501 Auburn Ave.
Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs
Division, Historic American Buildings Survey or Historic American
Engineering Record, Reproduction Number HABS, GA,61-ATLA,48-12
This traditionally black neighborhood of several blocks in Atlanta
includes Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birth home, the Ebenezer Baptist
Church where he was a pastor, and his gravesite. Martin Luther King,
Jr., was the nation's most prominent leader in the 20th-century
struggle for civil rights. Born in 1929, he excelled as a student
and graduated from Atlanta's Morehouse College
in 1948. Also in 1948 he was ordained at the Ebenezer Baptist Church.
Following his ordination, he became Assistant Pastor of Ebenezer.
He later studied at the Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania,
then graduate studies at the University of Boston. In 1954, King
became the pastor of the Dexter
Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Following Rosa
Parks' refusal to move to the back of a bus in Montgomery, Martin
Luther King, Jr., led the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott from
1955 to 1956 (381 days). In 1957 he was elected president of the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an organization
formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights
movement. He moved back to Atlanta in 1960 and was co-pastor with
his father at the Ebenezer Baptist Church while still President
of the SCLC. Martin Luther King, Jr., worked tirelessly to assure
the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights
Act of 1965. He was arrested 30 times for his participation in civil
rights activities and delivered some of the most famous speeches
of the 20th century including his speech
at the March on Washington in 1963, his acceptance speech of
the Nobel Peace Prize, his last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church,
and his final "Mountaintop"
speech in Memphis. King was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis,
Tennessee, where he was helping striking sanitation workers.
Martin Luther King, Jr., was born in a two-story Queen Anne style
house at 501 Auburn Avenue, in a neighborhood known as Sweet
Auburn. The house has a one-story partial front and side porch
with scroll cut woodwork trim, two porthole windows, a shingled gabled
end, and a side bay. The porch sits on an enclosed brick foundation.
Dr. King was born in an upstairs middle room on January 15, 1929 and
lived here until 1941. The Ebenezer Baptist Church, where for eight
years he shared the pulpit with his father, is a short walk away at
the corner of Auburn Avenue and Jackson Street. It is a three-story
red brick building detailed in stone and has several groupings of
stained glass windows. Construction of the church began in 1914 and
was completed in 1922. Across from the church at 449 Auburn is the
Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.,
which continues King's legacy and work. King's gravesite occupies
most of the cleared lot east of the Ebenezer Baptist Church to Boulevard
Street. In 1976 a memorial park was installed around the marble crypt.
The park consists primarily of a brick and concrete plaza with arch-covered
walkway and chapel partially surrounding a reflecting pool. In the
center of the pool, on a raised pedestal rests the King crypt. On
it is engraved the inscription: "Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968,
'Free at last, free at last, thank God almighty, I'm free at last."
This National Historic Landmark historic district is also featured
in our We
Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement
Ebenezer Baptist Church
NPS Photograph by Jody Cook
The Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site, administered
by the National Park Service, includes King's birth home, church
and grave. The National Park Service's Visitor Center, at 450 Auburn
Ave. features exhibits about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the
Civil Rights movement. The park is open daily from 9:00am to 5:00pm;
from Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day open until 6:00 pm; closed
Thanksgiving Day, December 25, and January 1. Call 404-331-5190,
or visit the website for
more information. The surrounding almost 70-acre Martin Luther King,
Jr., National Historic Site and Preservation District includes
the Sweet Auburn Historic District.