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 [graphic] National Register Bulletin: Historic Residential Suburbs Guidelines for Evaluation and Documentation for the National Register of Historic Places

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U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service


Please note: Many of the following references include sources for further reading.

1. David R. Goldfield and Blaine A. Brownell, Urban America: A History, 2d. ed.(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990), 289; Leo F. Schnore, "Metropolitan Growth and Decentralization," in The Urban Scene: Human Ecology and Demography, Leo F. Schnore, ed., (New York, 1965), 80, cited in Marc S. Foster, From Streetcar to Superhighway (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 47; Dennis R. Judd and Todd Swanstrom, City Politics (New York: Harper Collins, 1994), 187.

2. This bulletin provides an overview of a national context for suburban development in the United States and a methodology for developing contexts at the local, metropolitan, or State level. The complete national context can be found in the "Historic Residential Suburbs in the United States, 1830 to 1960, Multiple Property Documentation Form." It is available electronically on the National Register Web site at http://www.nr.nps.gov/multiples/64500838.pdf. Printed copies may be requested through e:mail (nr_info@nps.gov) or by writing to National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C. Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20240.

3. See the Public Housing in the United States, 1933-1949, MPS (draft) available from the National Register program.

4. Robert Fishman, Bourgeois Utopias (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 155.

5. John R. Stilgoe, Borderland (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985); Fishman, Bourgeois Utopias.

6. Kenneth T. Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)35-37; 37; David Schuyler, The New Urban Landscape (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 152; James E. Vance, Geography and the Urban Evolution in the San Francisco Bay (Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, 1964), 43.

7. Anne D. Keating, Building Chicago (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1988), 14; Jackson, 92-93; Stilgoe, 140; Goldfield and Brownell, 259.

8. Clay McShane and Joel A. Tarr, "The Centrality of the Horse in the Nineteenth Century City," in The Making of Urban America, 2nd ed., ed. Raymond A. Mohl (Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 1997), 111; Jackson, 39-42.

9. McShane and Tarr, 111; Fishman, 138.

10. Paul L. Knox, Urbanization (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1994), 89; Joel A. Tarr and Josef W. Konvitz, "Patterns in the Development of Urban Infrastructure," in American Urbanism, ed. Howard Gillette Jr. and Zane L. Miller (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1987), 204.

11. Jackson, 118-120. See also Samuel Bass Warner Jr., Streetcar Suburbs (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962); Paul H. Mattingly, Suburban Landscapes (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).

12. Jackson, 119.

13. Foster, 16.

14. See Stilgoe, 239-51; Eric Johannesen, et.al. Shaker Square and Shaker Village H.D. NRHP Nominations, Ohio SHPO, July 1, 1976, and May 31, 1984, and Boundary Increases, December 9, 1983, and January 5, 2001.

15. Foster, 49, 52.

16. Tarr and Konvitz, 210; Mel Scott, American City Planning Since 1890 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 186; Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics: Summary to 1985, as quoted in Knox, 107.

17. Peter G. Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991), 4; Jackson, 181.

18. Tarr and Konvitz, 211.

19. Edward Relph, Modern Urban Landscape (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), 77; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 186-91; Christopher Tunnard and Boris Pushkarev, Man-Made America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966), 160-62.

20. Tarr and Konvitz, 210.

21. Larry R. Ford, Cities and Buildings (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), 233.

22. Bruce E. Seely, Building the American Highway System (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987), 67; Tunnard and Pushkarev, 162-67.

23. Tunnard and Pushkarev, 162-65.

24. Rowe, 193; Tom Lewis, Divided Highways (New York: Viking Penguin, 1997; reprinted New York: Penguin Books, 1999), 41-44.

25. Lewis, 54-55.

26. Mark H. Rose, Interstate, rev. ed. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 19, 26.

27. Rose, 26; Rowe, 194.

28. Rose, 92; Rowe, 195.

29. Warner, 122; Chase, Susan Mulchahey, David L. Ames, and Rebecca Siders, Suburbanization in the Vicinity of Wilmington, Delaware (Newark, Del.: Center for Historic Architecture and Engineering, 1993), 90; Susan Mulchahey Chase, "The Process of Suburbanization and the Use of Restrictive Deed Covenants as Private Zoning" (unpublished Ph.d disertation, University of Delaware, 1995), 119; Marc A. Weiss, The Rise of the Community Builder (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987), 40-42.

30. Weiss, 41-42; Keating, 70. See also William C. Page, et.al., Towards a Greater Des Moines: Development and Early Suburbanization, ca 1880-ca 1920, NRHP MPS, Iowa SHPO, October 25, 1996; James E. Jacobsen, The Bungalow and Square House: Des Moines Residential Growth and Development NRHP MPS, Iowa SHPO, November 21, 2000.

31. Greg Hise, Magnetic Los Angeles (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 25; Weiss, 45.

32. Jackson, 177-78; Stilgoe, 258-59; Weiss, 4, 45-46, 50, 57. See also William S. Worley, J.C. Nichols and the Shaping of Kansas City (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1990); Catharine F. Black, Roland Park NRHP Nomination, Maryland SHPO, December 23, 1974.

33. See Weiss, 53-60.

34. Ibid., 3-4.

35. Hise, 143.

36. Hise, 201-02; Jackson, 231-45. See also Barbara Kelly, Expanding the American Dream (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993); Gregory C. Randall, America's Original GI Town (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000; Jerry Ditto, Marvin Wax, and Lanning Stern, Design for Living (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1995); Ned Eichler, The Merchant Builders (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982).

37. Jackson, 196; Keating, 70-71; Weiss, 32-33; Frank A. Chase, "Building and Loan Advantages: The Why and the Wherefore," New York Tribune, September 2, 1923.

38. Scott, 284.

39. Ibid.; FHA, The FHA Story in Summary, 1934-1959 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959), 2.

40. Jackson, 195-97.

41. FHA, FHA Story, 5, 13-17; Jackson, 203-09.

42. "Defense Housing in Brief Retrospect: The Aims and Achievements of Certain Housing Agencies-A Symposium," Landscape Architecture 33, no. 1 (October 1942): 14-19; FHA, FHA Story, 14-15. This bulletin is primarily concerned with legislative incentives that stimulated and influenced private investment in suburban real estate and home construction. The 1937 United States Housing Act (50 Stat. 888) established a federal program of urban public housing and slum clearance under the United States Public Housing Authority, and the 1940 Lanham Act (54 Stat. 1125) established the Federal Works Agency and expanded federal public housing programs to include housing for defense workers. In 1942, the FHA and the public housing programs were consolidated in one agency.

43. See William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994).

44. Quotation is from Weiss, 49.

45. Norman T. Newton, Design on the Land (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1971), 468-69; Weiss, 69-70; See also Gwendolyn Wright, Building the Dream (New York: Pantheon, 1981), 200-03; Chase, "Process of Suburbanization."

46. Weiss, 70-72.

47. Committee report can be found in John M. Gries and James Ford, eds. Planning for Residential Districts, vol. 1, President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership (Washington, D.C.: National Capital Press, 1932), 47-124.

48. The FHA's appraisal system not only encouraged the expansion of residential development on the periphery of many metropolitan areas, but also is said to have contributed to the "redlining" of many urban neighborhoods by the banking industry. For a discussion of the politics and effects of racial restrictions, see Jackson, 197-203, 208-15; G. Wright, Building the Dream, 247-48.

49. Weiss, 67, 72-78, 183-84; Jackson, 241-42.

50. G. Wright, Building the Dream, 213.

51. Committee recommendations can be found in Gries and Ford, eds. Planning, 29-38.

52. Michael Southworth and Eran Ben-Joseph, Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997), 88; Weiss 67, 75, 183-84 fn. 29.

53. Scott, 208-10, 289-93. The first of its type, the Los Angeles Regional Planning Commission was founded in 1922; it influenced zoning regulations in local municipalities and in 1927 adopted a county zoning ordinance. The New York regional plan was developed between 1922 and 1931 under the direction of the Russell Sage Foundation with the expertise of preeminent Garden City planners.

54. See John Archer, "Country and City in the American Romantic Suburb," Journal of Society of Architectural Historians 42, no. 2 (May 1983): 139-56; Schuyler, New Urban Landscape, 149-66; Mary Corbin Sies, "The City Transformed," Journal of Urban History 14, no. 1 (November 1987): 81-111.

55. Archer, 150. See also Ann Leighton, American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987), 164-72; David Schuyler, Apostle of Taste (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

56.Archer discusses other influential books, including William Ranlett, The Architect (1847); Henry Cleaveland, William Backus, and Samiuel Backus, Village and Farm Cottages (1856); Gervase Wheeler, Homes for the People (1855); Calvert Vaux, Villas and Cottages (1857); John Claudius Loudon, The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion (1838); George E. Woodward, Woodward's Country Homes (1865); articles in The Horticulturalist by Downing, Howard Daniels and others.

57. Alexander Garvin, The American City (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996), 253.

58. J.John Palen, The Suburbs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995), 51-55.

59. Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 198.

60. Garvin, 254; Jackson 25-30; Clay Lancaster, Brooklyn Heights (New York: Dover Publications, 1980).

61. Jackson, 81-86; Raymond W. Smith, A. T. Stewart Era Buildings NRHP MRA Nomination, New York SHPO, November 14, 1978.

62. Richard Longstreth, "Maximilian G. Kern," in Pioneers of American Landscape Design, ed. Charles Birnbaum and Robin Karson, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), 209-12; Garvin, 256-58; Stephen J. Raiche, Portland and Westmoreland Places (a.k.a. Forest Park Addition) NRHP Nomination, Missouri SHPO, February 12, 1974.

63. Newton, 471-72. See also Worley, J. C. Nichols.

64. Archer, 150; Schuyler, Apostle of Taste, 206-08.

65. Archer, 154. Archer also discusses the early suburbs of New Brighton on Staten Island and Evergreen Hamlet near Pittsburgh.

66. Schuyler, Apostle of Taste, 208-09; Archer, 154-55. See also Susan Henderson, "Llewellyn Park, suburban idyll," Journal of Garden History 7, no. 3 (1987): 221-43; Robert P. Guter, et.al., Llewellyn Park NRHP Nomination, New Jersey SHPO, February 28,1986.

67. Newton, 468. See also Archer, 155-56; Schuyler, New Urban Landscape, 162-66.

68. Olmsted, Vaux and Company, Preliminary Report upon the Proposed Suburban Village at Riverside (1868), reprinted, "Riverside, Illinois: A Residential Neighborhood Designed Over Sixty Years Ago," ed. Theodora Kimball Hubbard, Landscape Architecture 21, no. 4 (July 1931), 268-69, cited in Newton, 466-67.

69. Garvin, 263. Early Olmsted projects included Tarrytown Heights (1870-1872), New York; Parkside (1872-1886) in Buffalo; Fisher Hill (1884) in Brookline, Mass.; Druid Hills (1889), in Atlanta; Sudbury Park (1876-1892) near Baltimore. Later suburbs by the Olmsted Brothers further perfected the curvilinear suburb combining its naturalistic principles with features inspired by the garden city movement, such as planted medians and cul-de-sacs, and building a reputation on large projects such as Roland Park (1901) and Guilford (1912) in Baltimore; Alta Vista (1900) in Louisville; St. Francis Woods (1915) in San Francisco, and Palos Verdes (1926) near Los Angeles. See also Arleyn A. Levee, "The Olmsted Brothers' Residential Communities," The Landscape Universe (Wave Hill, N.Y.: Catalog of Landscape Records in the United States and National Park Service, 1993), 29-48.

70. See Karen Madsen, "Henry Vincent Hubbard," and Charles A. Birnbaum, "Samuel Parsons Jr.," in Pioneers, ed. Birnbaum and Karson, 177-180, 187-91.

71. Henry V. Hubbard and Theodora Kimball, Introduction to the Study of Landscape Design (New York: Macmillan, 1917), 175-94, plate XXXIII, op. 280; H. V. Hubbard, "The Influence of Topography on the Layout of Subdivisions," Landscape Architecture 18, no. 3 (April 1928): 188-99.

72. T. K. Hubbard, ed., "Riverside," 259-77; Howard K. Menhinick, "Riverside Sixty Years Later," Landscape Architecture 22, no. 2 (1932): 109-17; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 205.

73. Patricia Erigero, et al., Ladd's Addition Historic District NRHP Nomination, Oregon SHPO, August 31, 1988.

74. Wendy Laird, El Encanto Estates Residential H.D. NRHP Nomination, Arizona SHPO, January 29, 1988; Daniel Hardy, et al., Wolflin H.D. NRHP Nomination, Texas SHPO, May 21, 1992.

75. Thomas W. Hanchett, Myers Park H.D. NRHP Nomination, North Carolina SHPO, August 10, 1987.

76. Handlin, 185; Newton, 471-74. See Sally Schwenk, Crestwood NRHP Nomination, Missouri SHPO, October 8, 1998; Lauren Bricker, et. al., Residential Architecture of Pasadena, California, 1895-1918: The Influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement NRHP MPS, California SHPO, August 6, 1998; John C.Terell, Prospect H.D. NRHP Nomination, California SHPO, April 7, 1983; Esley Hamilton and James M. Denny, Brentmoor Park, Brentmoor and Forest Ridge NRHP Nomination, Missouri SHPO, September 23, 1982.

77. See Walter L. Creese, Search for Environment-The Garden City Before and After, rev. ed.(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992).

78. See Stilgoe, 225-38; Newton, 474-78; Susan L. Klaus, A Modern Arcadia (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press with the Library of American Landscape History, 2001).

79. Ken Hart, Dean Wagner, et al., Guilford H.D. NRHP Nomination, Maryland SHPO, July 19, 2001.

80. Bruce E. and Cynthia D. Lynch, Washington Highlands H.D. NRHP Nomination, Wisconsin SHPO, December 18, 1989.

81. G. Wright, Building the Dream, 203; Fred Mitchell and Marina King, Mariemont H.D. NRHP Nomination , Ohio SHPO, July 24, 1979.

82. Lewis Mumford, "Introduction," in Toward New Towns for America, by Clarence S. Stein, rev.ed, 3d ed. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966), 12. See also Kermit C. Parsons, "Collaborative Genius" Journal of American Planning Association 60, no. 4 (Autumn, 1994): 462-82; Stein, 21-35; Henry Wright, Rehousing Urban America (New York: Columbia University, 1935), 36-41; Peter G. Rowe, Modernity and Housing (Cambridge: MIT Press),1993), 114-127.

83. Stein, 36-73; H. Wright, 42. See also Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 200-01; Cynthia L. Girling and Kenneth I. Helphand, Yard-Street-Park (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 59-64.

84. Stein, 74-85; H. Wright, 46-50; David J. Vater, Chatham Village H.D. NRHP Nomination, Pennsylvania SHPO, November 25, 1998.

85. Clarence Arthur Perry, "The Neighborhood Unit," Monograph One, Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs, vol.7, Neighborhood and Community Planning (New York: New York Regional Plan Association, 1929), 22-140; Gries and Ford, eds., Planning, 80-82, 122-24; C. A. Perry, Housing for the Machine Age (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1939), 50-82. See also Hise, 33-35.

86. Gries and Ford, eds., Planning, 6-7, 21, 66, quotation is from 76.

87. Ibid., 59.

88. Ibid., 54-55.

89. Ibid., 52-54, 59, 76.

90. Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 204-05; Barry Cullingworth, Planning in the USA (London and New York: Routledge, 1997), 77. See also Girling and Helphand, 85-89; Deborah E. Abele, et.al., Historic Residential Subdivisions and Architecture in Central Phoenix, 1912-1950, NRHP, Arizona SHPO, December 21, 1994; David Kammer, Twentieth Century Suburban Growth of Albuquerque NRHP MPS, New Mexico SHPO, August 3, 2001.

91. Seward H. Mott, "The Federal Housing Administration and Subdivision Planning," Architectural Record 19 (April 1936), 257-63.

92. FHA, Planning Neighborhoods for Small Houses, technical bulletin 5 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1936), 8-9.

93. Seward H. Mott, "The FHA Small House Program," Landscape Architecture 33, no. 1 (October 1942): 16; and "Land Planning in the FHA" 1933-44," Insured Mortgage Portfolio 8, no. 4 (1944): 12-14.

94. Miles L. Colean, "An Early FHA Experiment-A Forgotten Chapter in Housing History," Mortgage Banker 38, no. 8 (May 1978):86-88; "A New Policy for Housing," Architectural Forum (August 1936): 150-53.

95. Rowe, Modernity and Housing, 127. See also James M. Goode, Best Addresses (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988), 332-36; Staff, Virginia Landmarks Commission, Colonial Village NRHP Nomination, Virginia SHPO, December 9, 1980.

96. "Building Types-Low-Rent Suburban Apartment Buildings," Architectural Record 86, no. 3 (September 1939): 88-114.

97. Southworth and Ben-Joseph, 88; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 202, , 205-06. See also Girling and Helphand, 90-94, 94-102; Kelly, 35-37.

98. Weiss, 45.

99. Jackson, 125-127. See Paul E. Sprague, "The Origin of Balloon Framing," Journal of Society of Architectural Historians 40, no. 4 (December 1981): 311-19.

100. Schuyler, Apostle of Taste, 57-60, 128-29.

101. For further discussion and lists of pattern books, see Clifford E. Clark Jr., The American Family Home (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986); Alan Gowans, The Comfortable House (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986); Dell Upton, "Pattern Books and Professionalism: Aspects of the Transformation of Domestic Architecture in America, 1800-1860," Winterthur Portfolio 19, no. 1 (spring 1984): 107-150; Gwendolyn Wright, Moralism and the Model Home (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980).

102. Elisabeth Woodburn, "American Horticultural Books," in Keeping Eden, ed. Walter T. Punch (Boston: Massachusetts Horticultural Society and Bulfinch Press, 1992), 252. Other early books include: Country Life: A Handbook of Agriculture, Horticulture and Landscape Gardening (1859) by Robert Morris Copeland; The Practical Gardener (1855) by G.M. Kern; Architecture, Landscape Gardening and Rural Art (1867) by George E. and F.W. Woodward; and Beautifying Country Homes: A Handbook of Landscape Gardening (1870) by Jacob Weidenmann.

103. David Handlin, The American Home (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 171-83; David Schuyler, "Introduction," in Victorian Gardens: Art of Beautifying Suburban Home Grounds by Frank J. Scott (1870, reprint, Watkins Glen, New York: American Life Foundation, 1982), n.p.; Ann Leighton, American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987), 250-60.

104. Clark, 74-75; Gowans, 42.

105. Clark, 76-77; Gowans, 42-46; Robert Gutman, The Design of American Housing (New York: Publishing Center for Cultural Resources, 1985), 34-36. See also James L. Garvin, "Mail-Order Home Plans and American Victorian Architecture," Winterthur Portfolio 16, no. 4 (winter 1981): 309-34; Leland M. Roth, "Getting the House to the People," in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture IV (1991), 188, and Michael A. "The Palliser Brothers and Their Publications." in The Palliser Late Victorian (Watkins Glen, N.Y.: American Life Foundation, 1978), i-iv.

106. Gowans ascribes the term "homestead- temple house" to this housing type, 94-99.

107. Clark, 131-32,

108. Clark, 167-78; Palen, 38-39.

109. See Clark, 171-91; Gowans, 74-83; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 68-69; Robert Winter, The California Bungalow (Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1980; Clay Lancaster, The American Bungalow (New York: Abbeville Press, 1985). Palen used the term "bungalow suburb" in Suburbs, 51.

110. Gowans, 84; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 73.

111. Gowans, 48-63; Katherine Cole Stevenson and H. Ward Jandl, Houses by Mail (New York: National Trust for Historic Preservation and John Wiley and Sons, 1986), 19.

112. Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 84-87; FHA, Principles of Planning Small Houses, technical bulletin 4, rev. ed. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1940), 28-29.

113. Gowans 71; Jan Jennings, "Housing the Automobile," in Roadside America, ed. Jan Jennings (Ames: Iowa State University Press and Society for Commercial Archeology, 1990), 95-106.

114. Virginia T. Clayton, The Once and Future Gardener (Boston: David R. Godine, 2000), xxiii-xxxi.

115. Woodburn, 246-48; Robert E. Grese, "Liberty Hyde Bailey" in Pioneers, ed. Birnbaum and Karson, 6-8.

116. Woodburn, 248, 259.

117. G. Wright, Building the Dream, 197-98; Janet Hutchison, "The Cure for Domestic Neglect," in Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture II, ed. Camille Wells (Columbia: University of Missouri, 1989), 168-78; Joseph B. Mason, History of Housing in the U.S., 1930-1980 (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1982), 16. See also Janet Anne Hutchison, "American Housing, Gender, and the Better Homes Movement, 1922-1935," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Delaware, 1989).

118. Gowans, 65-67; G. Wright, Building the Dream, 199-202; Robert T. Jones, introduction, Small Homes of Architecural Distinction (1929; reprinted as Authentic Small Houses of the Twenties, New York: Dover Publications, 1987), 22.

119. Henry Atterbury Smith, "Acknowledgement," in The Books of A Thousand Homes, vol. 1 (1923; reprinted as 500 Small Houses of the Twenties, New York: Dover Publications, 1990), 5.

120. "Community Development Advantages Demonstrated by Tribune," and "Would Landscaping Help Your Grounds," New York Tribune, September 9, 1923; Marjorie Sewell Cautley, "Planting at Radburn," Landscape Architecture 21, no. 1 (October 1930), 23-29; Girling and Helphand, 65-66; Stephen Child, "Colonia Solana; A Subdivision on the Arizona Desert," Landscape Architecture 19, no. 1 (October 1928), 6-13. In Pioneers, ed. Birnbaum and Karson, see Mary Blaine Korff, "Stephen Child," 49-52; Cydney E. Millstein, "Sidney J. Hare and S. Herbert Hare," 162-68; Nell Walker, "Marjorie Sewell Cautley," 47-49; and Behula Shah, "Ralph E. Griswold," 151-56.

121. Virginia Lopez Begg, "Mrs. Francis King (Louisa Yeomans King)," in Pioneers, ed. Birnbaum and Karson, 216-17. In Pioneers, see also biographies of Steele, Bottomley, Requa, and Waugh.

122. Committee reports, including the results of a survey of small houses and a scorecard for home appraisal, can be found in John M. Gries and James Ford, eds., House Design, Construction and Equipment. Proceedings of the President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership (Washington, D.C: National Capital Press, Inc., 1932), 1-110.

123. Committee report can be found in Gries and Ford, eds., Planning, 163-209.

124. FHA, Planning Small Houses (1936), 21-23.

125. Hise, 68-69; FHA, Planning Small Houses (1936-1939 eds.), 24-27.

126. Ibid., 28-33.

127. FHA, Planning Small Houses (rev. ed., 1940), 14-15.

128. Ibid., 37-43.

129. Rental Housing Division, "Architectural Bulletins" (Washington, D.C.:FHA, 1940). See also H. Wright, Rehousing Urban America, 29-50, 99-102,119-28; Perry, Housing for Machine Age, 44-48. Marie Ryan, Buckingham Historic District NRHP Nomination, Virginia SHPO, January 21, 1999.

130. Early in the twentieth century, Architect Grosvenor Atterbury used prefabrication meth-ods in the construction of houses for Forest Hills, Long Island, and Frank Lloyd Wright introduced a process called, American System Ready-Cut, in the construction of several duplexes and small houses in Milwaukee. See Alfred Bruce and Harold Sandbank, A History of Prefabrication (New York: John B. Pierce Foundation, 1943; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1972); and John Burns, "Technology and Housing," in Preserving the Recent Past, ed. Slaton and Shiffer, II/129-35.

131. Hise, 56-57; Bruce and Sandbank, 10-11.

132. Hise, 58, 62-63; Bruce and Sandbank, 11-12.

133. Ibid., 11, 13-14, 74.

134. FHA, Recent Developments in Building Construction (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1940), 9, 12.

135. Bruce and Sandbank, 71-74; for a Directory of Wartime Prefabricators, see 61-68. See also H. Ward Jandl, et al. Yesterday's Houses of Tomorrow (Washington D.C.: Preservation Press, 1991), 183-99.

136. Gutman, 12. See also Gilbert Herbert, The Dream of the Factory-Made House (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984).

137. Mason, 56-57; Better Homes and Gardens 33, no. 3 (March 1955), 192.

138. Jackson, 233.

139. Ibid, 235.

140. Clark, 221-23; Jackson, 234-35; G. Wright, Building the Dream, 251-53.

141. See also Clark, 217-36; G. Wright, Building the Dream, 256-58, and, for profiles on postwar developers, Mason, 48-51.

142. Kelly, 16, 18, 59-65; Rowe, Modernity and Housing, 196-97; Jackson, 235; Girling and Helphand, 94-102.

143. David Gebhard, "Royal Barry Wills and the American Colonial Revival," Winterthur Portfolio 27, no. 1 (spring 1992): 45.

144. Clark, 211; Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 73-77.

145. See Clark, 193-216; David Bricker, "Ranch Houses Are Not All the Same," in Preserving the Recent Past 2, ed. Slaton and Foulks, 2/115-23; and "Cliff May," in Toward a Simpler Life, ed. Robert Winter (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1997), 283-90; Esther McCoy and Evelyn Hitchcock, "The Ranch House," in Home Sweet Home, ed. Charles W. Moore (New York: Rizzoli, 1983), 84-89.

146. Clark, 201.

147. Kelly, 80-84.

148. Rowe, 82-84.

149. Jandl, 101, 128-39.

150. Elizabeth A.T. Smith, ed., Blueprints for Modern Living (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989), 75-76; See also Esther McCoy, Case Study Houses, 1945-1962 (Reprint of Modern California Houses, Santa Monica: Hennessey and Ingalls, 1977), 188-93.

151. For architects working in this style, see Mason, 73-77.

152. Mason, 53; Diane Wray, Arapahoe Acres (Englewood, Col.: Wraycroft, 1997), 4-5, and Arapahoe Acres NRHP Nomination, Colorado SHPO, November 3, 1998.

153. John Hancock Callender, Before You Buy a House (New York: Crown Books, 1953), 31-32, 88-89, 117-19.

154. Hollin Hills (Alexandria, Vir.: Civic Association of Hollin Hills, 2000), 181.

155. Clark, 215; G.Wright, Building the Dream, 251; Helen Stark, "How to Stretch Space in a Small House," Homes and Gardens, 33, no. 3 (March 1955), 56-59+; Thomas Hine, "The Search for the Postwar House," in Blueprints, ed. Smith, 178-81.

156. Mason, 78; Rowe, Modernity and Housing, 126-27; Stein, 86-91, 188-216.

157. Architectural Record, eds., Apartments and Dormitories (New York: F.W. Dodge, 1958), 9. Lake Shore Drive Apartments and 100 Memorial Drive were recognized in the AIA's Cenntennial list of the fifty most influential buildings in America.

158. Rowe, Making a Middle Landscape, 93-94; Hines, 168; Marc Treib, "Thomas Church, Garrett Eckbo, and the Postwar California Garden," in Preserving the Recent Past 2, ed. Slaton and Foulks, 2-149. See also Marc Treib and Dorothee Imbert, Garrett Eckbo (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

159. David Streatfield, "Western Expansion," in Keeping Eden, ed. Punch, 110-12.

160. See Callender, 67-76; Marc A. Klopfer, "Theme and Variation at Hollin Hills," and Daniel Donovan, "The Hundred Gardens," in Dan Kiley, ed. William Saunders (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 37-64.

161. Claudia R. Brown, "Surveying the Suburbs," in Preserving the Recent Past, ed. Slaton and Shiffer, II/105-12.


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