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 [graphic] National Register Bulletin Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties Associated with Significant Persons

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U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service

Guidelines for Properties Associated with Significant Persons Discussion and Examples

Association Guidelines

6. Significant individuals must be directly associated with the nominated property.

In order to be considered an important historic resource that represents a person's significance in our history, a property must have some connection to the life of that individual. The reason that the National Register criteria single out commemorative properties for special consideration is that these properties are not associated directly with the persons or events that they commemorate.

Types of resources that possess direct associations with an individual include that individual's homes, offices or workplaces; businesses (s)he ran; and locations of important events in which the person played a key role. Associations that, by themselves, would generally not be sufficient to qualify a property as an important representation of a person's historic significance include ownership, ownership by a relative or associate, a single visit, or other types of brief or tangential relationships. If such associations can be shown to be significant-for example, if an individual signed a major treaty or made a critical scientific discovery while on a short visit-then that connection, though brief, could qualify a property for National Register listing under Criterion B.

Example #1; Acceptable:

St. Philip's Episcopal Church is historically significant for its association with Reverend Harry P. Corser, early twentieth century civil rights activist, educator, and author. Built as a statement of fraternity and equality in 1903, the church reflects Corser's stand against discrimination. He further influenced Wrangell society by promoting education of both Native and non-Native boys. His work as an author helped preserve vanishing Tlingit Indian traditions. Although a religious property, the church is the only building that remains to mark Corser's life....

Harry P. Corser influenced the social history of Wrangell when he boldly defied convention by supporting the rights of Natives to worship with the non-Native community. His defiance of convention and open admiration of Native culture influenced the non-Native community, an influence illustrated by the election of a Native leader to the City Council in 1904.

In 1899, Corser arrived at Wrangell as the Presbyterian minister for the First Presbyterian Church. Organized in August, 1879, the congregation was principally composed of Tlingit Indians. The non-Native Presbyterian population created a separate church, the Second Presbyterian Church, in 1898. (Skiteen River Journal, April 2, 1898). Corser ministered to both churches until 1903. That year, Corser led a faction composed primarily of Indian church members in rebellion against the church's discriminatory policy. They organized a new religious group called the Peoples' Church. They constructed a church on donated land with donated labor and materials that was to become St. Philip's Episcopal Church.... [Corser] continued to serve the church until he retired in 1934.

Corser, a former teacher, also supported education at Wrangell. He served as a member of the Wrangell School Board. In 1907 he started a free night school in the church building. . . . Corser provided the first educational opportunity for Native boys in Wrangell beyond the eighth grade when he began St. Philip's Academy, open to both Native and non-Native boys.

Comment: The church is directly associated with Corser in several ways. He led the group that constructed the church building and he served as rector of the church until his retirement. The church also was the location of some of Corser's significant activities, such as the operation of a free night school.

Example #2; Not acceptable:

The Marbut house is significant as the creation of one of America's foremost scientists who led the national soils survey program in the early twentieth century, was a major contributor to international soil research, and was the founder of much of Missouri's soils, geological, and geographical academic disciplines as they have been taught and practiced in higher education throughout the twentieth century....

Marbut had occupied a small house in Columbia on Lowry Street where the University of Missouri library now stands. But his professional success away from home allowed him to realize a life's ambition-to own land in the seat of his family's Missouri Ozarks heritage. At the turn of the century, following a European trip, he bought land which bordered on his father's and grandfather's farms. . . Though a tenant house was occupied on "Orchard Farm," as it was called, Marbut would wait some thirty years before he planned and built his retirement home.

For several years Marbut gave summer lectures at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. While there he was a guest of the university president, Dr. Wallace Atwood [who] lived in a New England Cape shingle style house. As Marbut decided to follow in the tradition of rural Ozarks men by building his own house, he used Dr. Atwood's as a model....

Marbut drew up his plans and mailed them to his brother and manager of the apple orchard, . . . who supervised the construction . . . . During the summer, 1935, Marbut spent a week with his daughter, Helen, checking on the final construction. But a call from Washington presented him with the opportunity to go to Manchuria, China, which he did. . . . In travel through Oxford, Moscow, and the Trans-Siberian railroad, he contracted a cold resulting in pneumonia and his death in Harbin, China, August 25, 1935.

Comment: The property was nominated primarily for its association with Marbut, who made important contributions to science in this century through his work and publications in soil geology. The house was built as his retirement home in 1935. Due to the unfortunate circumstances of Marbut's death the same year, however, he never actually resided in the house. It is questionable whether he ever saw the building completed. Eligibility for National Register listing under Criterion B requires a direct association between the property and the important person, preferably during his or her productive career. This nomination stresses commemorative and symbolic values, which are not acceptable substitutes for direct associations with Marbut and his life's work.

7. Eligible properties generally are those associated with the productive life of the individual in the field in which (s)he achieved significance.

Associations with an individual should have occurred during the period of time when the person was engaged in the activities for which (s)he is considered significant. Birthplaces, childhood homes, schools attended as children, retirement homes that are not associated with an individual's significant contributions, graves, and cemeteries generally are not considered eligible for the National Register on the basis of associations with that person. Some properties associated with a person's formative years may qualify if it can be demonstrated that the individual's activities during this period had historical significance, or were important in understanding his or her later achievements. Retirement homes may qualify if the person continued significant activities in that home, or if it can be documented that the house is significant in representing the culmination of an important career.

Some properties might be eligible as the only surviving property associated with a significant individual. Such a property might include a person's last home, even if most or all of his or her significant accomplishments occurred before (s)he lived in the house.

Example #1; Acceptable:

The Laura Ingalls Wilder House is 'historically significant as the residence of Laura Ingalls Wilder, famous children's literature author. Beginning her writing career at the age of 65 in 1932, Mrs. Wilder wrote The Little House Series of children's books while residing in this modest homestead in Southwest, Missouri.... Mrs. Wilder's books are now considered International Classics and have been translated into 26 languages.

Comment: This is the building in which the author wrote her most famous works.

Example #2; Acceptable:

The Oscar B. Jacobson House is ...significant because . . . it is historically associated with Oscar B. Jacobson who, as director of the University of Oklahoma's School of Fine Arts, revolutionized the course of art study for the university.

Jacobson designed his house, completed construction in the summer of 1918, and lived there until his death on September 18, 1966...

Oscar B. Jacobson was an internationally known artist and educator whose influence extended far beyond his local environment. As director of the University of Oklahoma School of Fine Arts from 1916 to 1945, Jacobson revolutionized the course of art study, replacing the Academic style of old copy work with the fresh attitude and palette of the French moderns (see Good 1947) . . .

Jacobson is perhaps best known, however, for his pivotal role in the history of Plains Indian art: "An additional derivative of Jacobson's annual New Mexican sojourns was exposure to the incipient art movement in Indian art taking place in the Rio Grande pueblos. Jacobson became the carrier, the transmitter, of this Native American muse revival to Oklahoma. He drew on many local resources to involve as many Oklahoma-based tribesman [sic] as possible." (Gibson 1986)

As its Director, Jacobson was instrumental in opening the doors of the School of Fine Arts to a group of young Plains Indian artists. Through his sponsorship, in 1928 five young Kiowa painters were accepted into the University as special students. This would prove to be a seminal event in the history of Plains Indian art: "In the late 1920's a new school of Indian art emerged at the University of Oklahoma. The 'Kiowa Five' artists, under the direction of Oscar B. Jacobson, became leaders in a movement considered to be the 'renaissance' of Southern Plains Indian art. The interest spurred by showings of paintings by Spenser Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Lois Smoky and Monroe Tsatoke was a turning point in the promotion and acceptance of Indian art in the United States and Europe." (Zahrai 1985)

During the Depression, Jacobson acted as technical advisor to Roosevelt's Public Works of Art project in Oklahoma. Through his influence, many murals executed by Oklahoma Indian artists were commissioned for state post offices and schools as well as the Oklahoma Historical Society building and a public building in Washington, DC...

In the 1920s and 1930s, the Jacobson House became a focal point for the artistic and literary ferment arising out of the interaction between the Norman, Santa Fe, and Taos artistic communities. The Jacobson's [sic] home was frequently the scene of art showings and gatherings of talented and creative people from all over the world....

Thus the Jacobson House is worthy of preservation . . . because it was the home of a man who, through his work as Director of the School of Fine Arts University of Oklahoma, revolutionized art study there and encouraged the career development of some of the best known Plains Indian artists of the era.

Comment: The house is associated with Jacobson's productive life both because it was his home during the period of his greatest historic contributions, from 1918 until 1936 (it then continued to be his home until his death much later), and because some of his activities relating to his acquaintance with, appreciation for, and promotion of Indian artists occurred there.

John B. Russwurm House, Portland, Maine (Gregory K. Clancey).
Example #3; Acceptable:

No. 238 Ocean Avenue in Portland is the only surviving structure closely associated with John Brown Russwurm (1799-1851), who resided there intermittently in the period 1812-1827. Russwurm was this nation's second black college graduate, a founder and editor of America's first black newspaper, and one of the major black proponents of African colonization.

Russwurm was the son of a white Virginian planter and a slave-woman who worked on his father's Jamaican plantation. The elder Russwurm relocated in Portland as a merchant in 1812, bringing his son with him and introducing him with pride to Portland society. The younger Russwurm ... attended Hebron academy (a Maine preparatory school) in the early 1820's. Although his father had died in 1815, Russwurm continued to reside in the Portland house when not in school. The house had passed into the hands of William Hawes, a North Yarmouth mill owner who had married Susan Blanchard, Russwurm's stepmother, but the family continued to consider Russwurm an integral member.

With the help of Susan Blanchard and her husband, Russwurm attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick and matriculated in 1826, becoming the second black man in the nation to receive a college degree....

Russwurm moved to New York City in 1827 to found and co-edit Freedom's Journal, the nation's first black newspaper. The Journal supported both abolition and assimilation at a time when most white abolitionists favored black emigration. Russwurm is known to have been an emigrationist during his college years, a view he apparently suppressed while co-editor of The Journal. After becoming its sole editor, however, Russwurm gradually changed the paper's tone to favor emigration, for which action he was harshly criticized by contemporaries. Russwurm had come to believe that editorializing on Negro citizenship in the United States was "a mere waste of words," and chose the path of emigration himself in 1829, joining the fledgling colony of Liberia.

Russwurm quickly gained prominence in Liberia, serving as Superintendent of Education and then Colonial Secretary, while simultaneously editing the Liberian Herald. In 1834 however, he left Liberia to accept the governorship of the neighboring colony of Las Palmas, [becoming] the first black governor of a black overseas colony. During his seventeen-year tenure, Russwurm introduced currency in place of barter, outlawed slavery, instituted education for females as well as males, and eventually merged his colony with the Republic of Liberia.

Comment: Although this was the home of Russwurm's youth and school years rather than his home during his adult life when he made his most significant contributions, it is important in representing Russwurm's life because it is the only surviving structure closely associated with him. In addition, the documentation makes clear that during the period that Russwurm lived in this house, he received the type of social and educational opportunities not commonly afforded blacks of that time, that helped prepare him to excel later.

Example #4; Not acceptable:

The Governor Robert E. Pattison House ... reflected the style and grace that became Overbrook Farms,... one of the more exclusive nineteenth century suburban developments in [the city]....

Initially pursuing a career in law, Pattison's eloquence and public presence led him to enter the world of politics.... His name was . . . placed in nomination . . . for City Comptroller. At the time, this office was rife with corruption, and in populous [sic] revolt against official mismanagement. Pattison was elected by a wide margin.... Under his administration, major reforms were instituted and the City's financial situation greatly improved. The Governor's new found reputation as a reformer and smart businessman insured his re-election by a large popular vote.

Pattison's success ... brought him the Democratic nomination for Governor in 1882, a position he won handily.... Again, his business acumen prevailed and the State's financial situation improved during the Governor's term in office. Pattison returned to private life ... and his years as a private citizen proved to be as illustrious as his public life. . . . Again, in 1890, Pattison was nominated to the office of Governor on a reform platform, winning by a state-wide margin. His second term was, however, marred by labor strikes and bank closings.

At the end of his second term, Pattison made plans to retire to an elegant new home . . . in Overbrook Farms.

Comment: This is the house to which Pattison retired after accomplishing the significant achievements discussed in the nomination. There is no information on Pattison's activities while living in the house, and no information on the existence or strength of associations of Pattison's homes during his active political career. In order to demonstrate eligibility under Criterion B, the nomination would have to show that Pattison's retirement home represents his productive life, or an important aspect of his life or career not represented by other properties; or that this house is important as the only, or the most important, remaining property with integrity that represents Pattison's life.

8. Documentation must explain how the nominated property represents an individual's significant contributions.

In addition to being directly associated with a person's productive life, a resource should represent the significant aspects of that productivity in some clear manner. If an individual is considered significant in the area of education, the nominated property should be associated with his or her educational accomplishments; if (s)he is important for contributions in the area of politics and government, the property should be related to his or her political activities. An office might best represent an individual's professional career, a laboratory or studio might represent a person's scientific or artistic achievements, and a community center, city park, or other gift might represent his or her important charitable contributions. A person's home at the time (s)he achieved significance will usually represent any significant accomplishments that occurred while the individual was living in that home.

Sometimes it may be appropriate to recognize both the home and the workplace of a significant person. For example, James J. Hill's home in St. Paul, Minnesota, a National Historic Landmark, represents the period of Hill's life after he had achieved wealth and prominence. The railway company shops (see Example #2, p. 11) represent an important aspect of Hill's early career, prior to the time he constructed the house now recognized as a landmark.

Henry T. Rainey Farm, Greene County, Illinois (Dowd Sullivan).
Example #1; Acceptable:

The farm is associated with one of the most important national political figures to come from Illinois in the early 20th century-Henry T. Rainey. Rainey gave thirty years of service to his district, state, and country in a national legislative capacity from 1903-1934 - providing leadership in such areas as conservation of natural resources, determination of tariff and rates, waterway transportation, and establishment of programs beneficial to farmers, laborers, and veterans. . . . The entire Rainey farm is significant since it served as the basis for Henry T. Rainey's development as champion of the American farmer and American agriculture. Farming activities at Walnut Hall [Rainey Farm] such as the demonstration of scientific agricultural techniques, diversification of farm production, and the fostering of self-help programs among farmers all provided Rainey with the perspectives he needed to assume agricultural leadership in Congress. . . .

Congressman Henry T. Rainey was one of Illinois' most influential, national political figures in the first third of the twentieth century. As a 15 term congressman from Illinois (1903-1934), he skillfully influenced major legislation in a number of key areas. In 1916, a national voters' organization said that Rainey was or of the 10 percent of Congress who controlled the legislative process. He gained a reputation as a reformer, skilled debater and orator, muckraker, and a fiercely partisan Democrat....

He helped draft some of the nation's first laws controlling dangerous drugs, and sought and won adoption of a commission to set tariffs. The commission replaced politics with scientific principles in setting tariff rates. Agricultural aid programs and flood control, especially for his Illinois constituents, were other priorities of his....

For fourteen years, Rainey was involved in the promotion of water conservation legislation, culminating in the passage and signing into law by President Wilson on June 11, 1920 of the Water Power Act of 1920. The passage of the act inaugurated a new policy of continuing public ownership and federal trusteeship of water power sites. . . .

Rainey's greatest political success was an [sic] instigator and promoter of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico waterway, which provided transportation and flood control along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. Rainey said he wanted to "bind the corn fields of the north to the cane fields of the south" and fought for the waterway from the start of his term in Congress until it was completed in 1933....

Rainey's ownership of his Carrollton farm, along with a large rural constituency, were key factors in his involvement in the national agricultural issues of the 1920's. It was during this era that farm leaders fought to achieve two principal objectives: wresting control of agricultural policy from representatives of the industrial community, and a national policy commitment to equalize agriculture with manufacturing interests.(4) Since Rainey represented the largest agricultural district in the state, he became deeply involved in the farmer's plight for a better rural economy and political power. . . .

Rainey's farm operation was a showplace of modern agriculture and he became an enthusiastic supporter of purebred livestock and improved farming techniques. . . . The farm was also used by the University of Illinois College of Agriculture as administration center for scientific agriculture. . . .

Rainey was also instrumental in the establishment of the Greene County Farm Bureau and the Bureau's newsletters were filled with references to his activities on behalf of local agricultural issues.

Comment: The documentation shows the importance of the farm in understanding Rainey's significance by explaining both how operation of the farm gave Rainey useful perspective on farm issues and influenced his actions in Congress, and how his operation of the farm contributed to local and state agricultural practices.

Example #2; Acceptable:

The Bonniebrook Homestead is significant as the one site chiefly [associated with] the life and work of Rose O'Neill, the world-famed author, artist, sculptor, illustrator, and creator of the Kewpie doll.... Rose O'Neill always considered the Bonniebrook Homestead to be "home." The majority of her years were lived there; at no time was she long absent.... No buildings are extant upon the site, although subsidiary structures survive.

The Bonniebrook Homestead was the Ozark home of Rose O'Neill. Here she created the illustrations and artwork that made her famous and the highest paid female illustrator in the world. . . . Rose . . . was taken by the natural beauty of the area when she first saw Bonniebrook [in 1894].... From Bonniebrook, she launched her career as an illustrator, sending her drawings to New York publishers....

Rose O'Neill's writings were affected by the national beauty of the surroundings at Bonniebrook. Her career as an illustrator continued after she moved from New York to Bonniebrook in 1894. In her unpublished Autobiography she described how the Enchanted Forest influenced her illustrations. . . .

Not counting her Autobiography and her Kewpie books, she wrote four other major works. Two of them were written at Bonniebrook and influenced by her surroundings. Her serious drawings . . . were influenced by nature and the rugged rocks near her home. She displayed these drawings to critical acclaim in Paris in 1921 and in New York in 1922....

Perhaps her best description of the effect of the Bonniebrook Homestead on her life and works is contained in a statement she made to a friend one day standing in the front lawn of Bonniebrook:
"I love this spot better than any place on earth. Here I have done my best work. Among my lovely hills I want to live and die and be buried out there beneath the big oak tree..."

The property was rustic when the O'Neills arrived there, and it is rustic now. . . The clearing is exactly the same as it was when the O'Neills lived there. . . . The beautifully described stream . . . is just like it was when the O'Neills were there. The beautiful woods have not been cut, the landscape lawn of the mansion is still maintained by a neighbor. . . . The "physical integrity" of the property is remarkable for the time that has passed since the O'Neills left. The reason is that they did not encroach much on the woods, the stream, or other natural features....

There are many ways in which (the) property today reflects the work and life of Rose O'Neill....

Comment: Although the house in which Rose O'Neill lived burned in 1949, the nomination describes in great detail the natural setting of the property, both historically and today, and documents, through numerous quotes from the author's works and other sources, the way in which the natural features of the nominated property are associated in a significant way with the career of this author and illustrator.

Example #3; Not acceptable:

The Sanford (Conant) Hotel is significant . . . in the area of social/ humanitarianism by its direct association with its developer and owner, internationally known ophthalmologist and locally prominent philanthropist, Dr. Harold Gifford....

The seven story Sanford Hotel ... was built in 1916-17 at a cost of $140,000 for its owner and financier Dr. Harold Gifford. Dr. Gifford (Oct. 18, 1858 - Nov. 28, 1929) was known internationally as a pioneer in ophthalmology and locally as a kind, generous man of medicine and lover of nature. . . .

Dr. Gifford achieved international recognition for his efforts in diagnostic evaluation, clinical research and eye surgery.... Equally significant, Dr. Gifford helped found one of Omaha's largest medical centers, Methodist Hospital, and organized the Omaha Medical College-today known as the University of Nebraska College of Medicine- and acted as its dean.

Dr. Gifford's humanitarian efforts equaled his medical accomplishments. An avid naturalist, Dr. Gifford also helped to establish many City parks and donated much of the land to create the Fontenelle Forest wilderness preserve along the Missouri River. Although an avowed socialist and agnostic, Dr. Gifford invested continuously in Omaha real estate and hotels. In 1915 he built the Castle Hotel. . . and also developed the Sanford Hotel in 1916.

Comment: The documentation clearly establishes Dr. Gifford's local significance in the areas of health/medicine and social history. It is not evident, however, how the Sanford Hotel, a commercial investment, is associated with, or represents in a significant manner, Gifford's medical or philanthropic contributions to the community. His home during the period of his achievements, the hospital or medical facility in which he conducted his research, the hospital he helped found, one of the city parks, or the Fontenelle Forest Wilderness Preserve would appear to better represent Dr. Gifford's importance in Omaha. If Dr. Gifford also played a significant role in the city's commercial history through his real estate activities, and if the Sanford Hotel represents that, then that significance would have to be explained within an appropriate context.

Example #4; Not acceptable:

The James Bean Decker House, constructed in 1898, is significant for its association with James B. Decker, one of the original settlers of Bluff, and important in the development of livestock in Southeastern Utah at the turn of the century. The Decker house in Bluff is one of four houses still remaining that were constructed with money earned from livestock. This prosperity was made possible after a shift in emphasis on farming to livestock in 1885. . . . The shift from a subsistence level existence, based on farming and working at odd jobs (such as mining), which took place in 1885 when Francis Hammond was sent by church authorities to direct Mormon efforts in San Juan country, [sic] marked an important change in the economy and lifestyle of the Mormon settlers. James Decker was one of the leaders of the "Bluff Pool," a cooperative organization among Mormon livestock men which successfully challenged the non-Mormon cattlemen for control of the area. The success of the Bluff Pool was ... reflected ... in the financial rewards which the new policy and direction brought to the San Juan pioneers. This house constructed by James Bean Decker reflects the success of this change....

James B. Decker soon became a man of considerable importance in Bluff. He was elected San Juan County's first sheriff, was a member of the district school board for many years and operated large cattle and sheep ranches. Active in the Mormon church, he was the first superintendent of the Bluff Sunday School, and was locally known for his encouragement of music as director of the Bluff choir. He died December 15, 1900 when a diphtheria epidemic struck the community.

Comment: James Decker was a significant individual in Bluff's history, but the way in which the house is directly associated with Decker and constitutes a significant representation of his contributions, has not been made clear. The years of Decker's significant activities are not specified, but appear to have occurred primarily before the construction of this house, since Decker died two years after its completion. There is also no information on Decker's residences prior to the construction of this house, or whether he divided his time among more than one residence (one of his ranches, for example). Although this house may meet Criterion B, the justification is not yet present because documentation does not adequately demonstrate how this house is important in representing Decker's significance. As one of only four properties remaining in Bluff that represent the prosperity generated by a transition of the area's economic base from farming to livestock, the Decker House illustrates an important pattern of events in the community's history, and meets National Register Criterion A.

9. Each property associated with someone important should be compared with other properties associated with that individual to identify those resources that are good representatives of the person historic contributions.

The length of time that a resource was associated with an individual, the strength of association with the person's productive life and important achievements, and historic integrity should be considered in determining which properties are most appropriate representing his or her significance.

This does not mean necessarily that only the best examples are eligible for the National Register. In some cases, different properties may represent different significant accomplishments or activities of a person's life, whether at different times, in different communities, or in different fields. Therefore, several properties may qualify for National Register listing under Criterion B for associated with the same person. On the other hand, when there are many resource representing different aspects or phases of a person's productivity, a property that is associated with only a minor facet of the person's life may not be significant in comparison with other properties.

Example # 1, Acceptable:

The Lewis Downing Jr. House is significant for its associations with Lewis Downing, Jr., president of Abbot, Downing & Company, which manufactured world-renowned coaches. Downing built 33 Pleasant Street for his own residence in 1851 and remained here until his death 1901. . . .

The Lewis Downing Jr. House is the only building that survives into which is associated with any of the key people who shaped the Abbot-Downing coach business. The family homestead, which stood on South Main Street ... is no longer standing. Similarly, J. Stephens Abbot's house . . . has been demolished. Most of the factory buildings where the coaches were produced ... have been removed as well. Lewis Downing & Sons factory site ... has been completely rebuilt. At the time Downing erected 33 Pleasant Street in 1851, he had been working in his father's business for fourteen years. It remained his sole occupation for remainder of his life....

In 1865 Lewis Downing Sr. retired from the business, and Lewis Jr. succeeded him as president, a position held until death in 1901....

Downing's first few years as president brought the company to its peak of prosperity. Its success spurred the city of Concord's own growth and development. The company drew large numbers of skilled workmen to Concord who were well-off financially and, as property owners and office-holders at city and state levels, men of some stature within the community.

Comment: The documentation identifies other properties that have been associated with this important business and the people instrumental in its success. It then explains, in relationship to the other properties, why the nominated resource is an important representation of the company and the home of one of its most influential presidents.

Moses Brown School, Providence, Rhode Island: school (est. 1819) whose contributions to the state's educational, religious, and social development reflect the ideas and objectives of its principal founder, for whom it is named (Warren Jagger).
Example # 2; Acceptable:

The church is the principal surviving structure associated with the life of the Rev. John A. Deal, who served as a missionary and circuit riding priest in the far western section of the state. Because of his presence, St. Agnes Church was the "mother church" for the spread of the Episcopal denomination throughout the southwestern North Carolina mountains. The church is the building best associated with Rev. Deal's productive career because it was his base of operations for twenty-two years. He lived in two or three different houses in Macon County between 1877, when he arrived, and his 1910 retirement. Until 1906 he lived outside Franklin in the county, in houses whose locations are unknown to local historians. From 1906-1910 he lived in a newly-built rectory built approximately two miles from the church. The rectory sold [sic] by the church soon after Deal's retirement and a new rectory was built adjacent to the church. None of these residences, therefore, have as strong an association with Rev. Deal's career as the church....

St. Agnes Church is significant to the religious development of Macon County and all of far western North Carolina, serving as the base or "mother church" for the spread of the Episcopal denomination in that part of the state. Although Anglicanism was firmly established in coastal North Carolina during the colonial period, it made few inroads into the interior, particularly few into the mountains. Most Anglicans or Episcopalians who settled in the southwestern mountains converted to the Methodism or Baptist faith of their neighbors.(5) As late as the third quarter of the 19th century, there were only a handful of Episcopalians scattered throughout the mountains and those were unserved by clergy. These few Episcopalians persuaded their bishop to send a missionary to organize churches throughout the region. The Rev. John Archibald Deal took up that missionary work in 1876.... The Rev. Deal employed the technique of his many Baptist and Methodist colleagues by riding a circuit over many counties, serving many small congregations. After the completion of St. Agnes in 1888, that church served as a base for missionary activities in Macon, Jackson, Clay, Cherokee, Graham, and Swain counties. A number of churches . . . were organized and, to a large extent, administered from St. Agnes.

Comment: The documentation explains the significance of Deal's accomplishments within a context of the region's religious development, and also presents the reasons that this church best represents his achievements.

Example # 3; Not acceptable:

The Dickens Opera House is ... the most important building associated with original owner, William Henry Dickens, a prominent and influential... pioneer, stockman and business man. After a year of working on a local ranch, Dickens homesteaded 160 acres of land adjoining the town . . . . where he started farming and raising stock. By 1900, Dickens had become one of the most prosperous men in [the] county with some eight farms that covered 680 acres. . . . Dickens' early enterprises included raising horses and hay for the stage line. . . . He served for a time as the town Marshall . . . and was one of the founders and president of the . . . Farmer's Mill and Elevator Company. Dickens was also an incorporator and vice president of the Farmer's National Bank, which was located in his opera house building. He initiated the construction of a number of [the town's] commercial and residential buildings. Dickens was active in affairs of the . . . community until his death in 1915....

Dickens bought the opera house site on October 15, 1873, but did not begin construction until February of 1881 with Dickens himself hauling the brick.(2)

Comment: It is not clear why this building is a significant representative of Dickens' role within the community. Aside from the fact that Dickens served as vice president of a bank located in the opera house, his significant achievements do not appear to be related to this building. Among the properties that existed at one time to represent Dickens' career were "some eight farms" and "a number of ... commercial and residential buildings." The nomination would have to explain what aspect of Dickens' significance is represented by the opera house, and why it was selected as "the most important," or even an important, building associated with him.

Example # 4; Not acceptable:

In 1930, the farm was bought by J. Henry Roraback as part of a 3000 acre fishing and hunting retreat he assembled.... Roraback was by most estimates the single most important political figure in [the state] in the years 1912 through 1937, during which he served as state chairman of the dominant Republican party. . . .

The Wilson farm was one of eighteen which Gibbs sold to Roraback.... The Wilson-Gibbs farmhouse was thus only one of several houses which ended up as part of the estate: Roraback's personal residence was Roraback Lodge, a large stone and frame Adirondack-style building, still standing in the central part of the estate....

Roraback in 1912 became chairman of the state party's central committee, a post he held until his death in 1937. Roraback used his position to become kingmaker, personally selecting state-level Republican candidates ... and directing the vote-by-vote actions of the legislature from his ... hotel suite. Reportedly, his power even extended to leading Democratic bosses....

Roraback became wealthy because of his early involvement with electrical utilities. Starting from ownership of a small ... company he gained control over ... the state's largest supplier of electricity. Favorable legislation and regulation by a sympathetic state Public Utilities Commission enabled Roraback to combine his business and political careers with happy results.(1)

Ideologically Roraback stressed efficient government, low taxes and limited public spending. When the Great Depression struck, he held the line against any excessive government spending for relief. Because Roraback Republicans continued to control relief efforts in the state even after [a] Democrat ... was elected governor, Roraback's vision of minimal government involvement had a profound effect on [the state] even when his party was roundly rejected by voters suffering the effects of the Depression.

Comment: Although Roraback owned this property and was an important person in the state's political history, the nomination does not demonstrate that the farm is significantly associated with him. The documentation does not explain how his 3000-acre estate relates to his political career in comparison with other extant properties with which he is associated, either locally or statewide. Even if the estate is shown to have significant associations with Roraback's political career, the nomination is for only one portion of only one of the eighteen farms that comprised his estate, and it is not clear why this portion of his vast estate was chosen to represent him.

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