U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
| V. PREPARATION OF NHL NOMINATIONS
A thorough knowledge of the property and the national context in which it is to be evaluated are the beginning points for completing a nomination. The following information should be provided in order to illustrate how a property possesses exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting a national context and to make a compelling justification for NHL designation.
Anyone wishing to prepare an NHL nomination should first consult either the NHL Survey or the NPS regional and support office staff for information about theme studies and other comparable properties that may be relevant in the evaluation of particular properties and for preliminary advice on whether a property appears likely to meet NHL criteria. Copies of relevant studies and National Register documentation should be consulted if the property is listed in the National Register. State Historic Preservation Officers, Federal Preservation Officers, and Tribal Preservation Officers should also be consulted for information in their inventories that may be helpful in documenting a property.
The following special instructions for the text should be followed:
NHL Form Section 1.
Other Names/Site Number
Enter any other names by which the property has been commonly known. These names may reflect the property's history, current ownership, or popular use and may or may not reflect the historic name. Site numbers are often assigned to archeological sites for identification. This number may be placed on this line.
NHL Form Section 2.
Enter the street address of the property or the most specific location when no street number exists.
Mark an "x" in the boxes for both "not for publication" and "vicinity" (and add the name of the nearest city or town in the provided blank) to indicate that a property needs certain protection. The NPS shall withhold from disclosure to the public information about the location, character, or ownership of a historic resource if the Secretary of the Interior and the NPS determine that disclosure may
The Federal Register will indicate "Address Restricted" and give the nearest city or town as the property=s location. The NHL database will also refer to the location this way. Further, the NPS will exclude location and other appropriate information from any copies of documentation requested by the public.
Any information about the location, boundaries, or character of a property that should be restricted should be compiled on a separate sheet. On the same sheet, explain the reasons for restricting the information.
When it has been determined that this information should be withheld from the public, the Secretary, in consultation with the official recommending the restriction of information, shall determine who may have access to the information for the purpose of carrying out the National Historic Preservation Act.NHL Form Section 3.
Ownership of Property
Category of Property
Name of Multiple Property Listing
Number of Resources Within Property
A contributing building, site, structure, or object adds to the historical associations, historic architectural qualities, or archeological values for which a property is nationally significant because it was present during the period of significance, relates to the documented significance of the property, and possesses a high degree of historical integrity.
A noncontributing building, site, structure, or object was not present during the period of national significance, does not relate to the documented national significance of the property, or due to alterations, disturbances, additions, or other changes, it no longer possesses a high degree of historical integrity. If resources of state or local significance are included and their significance is justified in the documentation, they should be counted separately from those that contribute to the national significance.
Number of Contributing Resources Previously Listed in the National Register
Enter the number of any contributing resources already listed in the National Register. This would include both previously designated NHLs and authorized historic units of the National Park System as well as other previously listed National Register properties. If no resources are already listed, enter "N/A."
NHL Form Section 4.
State/Federal Agency Certification
NHL Form Section 5.
NHL Form Section 6.
NHL Form Section 7.
Complete this item for properties having architectural or historical importance. Select one or more subcategories to describe the property's architectural styles or stylistic influences. (See Figure 7.) If none of the subcategories describes the property's style or stylistic influence, enter the category relating to the general period of time. For properties not described by any of the listed terms, including bridges, ships, locomotives and buildings and structures that are prehistoric, folk, or vernacular in character, enter "other" with the descriptive term most commonly used to classify the property by type, period, method of construction, or other characteristics.
Do not enter "vernacular" because the term does not describe any specific characteristics. For properties not having any buildings or structures enter N/A. For buildings and structures not described by the listed terms or by "other" and a common term, enter "No style."
Enter one or more terms to describe the principal exterior materials of the property. (See Figure 8.) Enter only materials visible from the exterior of a building, structure, or object. Do not enter materials of interior, structural, or concealed architectural features even if they are significant. Enter both historic and nonhistoric materials. Under "other" list the principal materials of other parts of the exterior, such as chimneys, porches, lintels, cornices, and decorative elements. For historic districts, list the major building materials visible in the district, placing the most predominant ones first.
Provide a narrative describing the property and its physical characteristics. (See Figure 9.) Describe the setting, buildings, and other major resources, outbuildings, surface and subsurface remains (for properties with archeological national significance), and landscape features for all contributing and noncontributing resources. The narrative must document the evolution of the property, describing major changes since its construction or period of national significance.
This section should begin with a summary paragraph that briefly describes the general characteristics of the property, such as its location and setting, type, style, method of construction, size, and significant features. The summary paragraph should create a rough sketch of the property and its site and then use subsequent paragraphs to fill in the details.
The rest of the narrative should describe the current condition of the property and indicate whether the property has historic integrity in terms of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Clearly delineate between the original appearance and current appearance. The more extensively a property has been altered, the more thorough the description of additions, replacement materials, and other alterations should be. Photographs and sketch maps must be used to supplement the narrative. (See Additional Documentation Section for more information.)
The description should be concise, factual, and well organized. Organize the information in a logical manner by describing a building from the foundation up and from the exterior to the interior. Include specific facts and dates. The information should be consistent with the resource counts in Section 5 and the architectural classification and materials in Section 7. All of the contributing and noncontributing resources should be clearly identified and listed. Resources of state and local significance may be evaluated, but need to be clearly differentiated from those that contribute to the NHL themes and periods of significance for which the NHL is designated. The documentation must clearly distinguish which properties contribute to the national significance, and why, and which are significant at the state or local level. Resources that have national significance may also have state and locally significant values that may need to be documented in the nomination. These values must be clearly differentiated from those for which the resource is being nominated for NHL designation.
Historic districts usually require street by street description with a more detailed description of pivotal resources. Begin by outlining the general character of the group or district and then describe the individual resources one by one.
Describe the pivotal resources and the common types of resources, noting their general condition, historical appearance, and major changes. Follow a logical progression, moving from one resource to the next up and down each street in a geographical sequence or by street address.
Archeological nominations must also contain a brief description of the location and condition of previously excavated artifacts and collections made from the nominated property. This is a critical recognition of the importance of intact archeological collections to the scientific analyses and understanding of nationally significant archeological sites, both now and in the future.
NHL Form Section 8.
Applicable National Register Criteria
If the property has already been listed in the National Register of Historic Places, mark the criteria identified in the National Register nomination and any new criteria not already marked in the National Register nomination which apply to the national significance of the property.
If the property was listed in the National Register with any applicable criteria considerations, mark those in addition to any new criteria considerations which apply to the national significance of the property if not covered by the National Register nomination.
National Historic Landmarks Criteria
Type in the National Historic Landmarks criteria for which the property qualifies for designation. Properties may be nationally significant for more than one criterion, but those qualifying criteria must be supported by the narrative statement of significance.
National Historic Landmarks Criteria Exceptions
Enter all National Historic Landmarks criteria exceptions which apply to the property. The criteria exceptions are a part of the NHL criteria and they set forth special standards for designating certain kinds of properties normally excluded from NHL designation. If no exceptions apply to the property, leave this section blank.
National Historic Landmarks Theme(s)
List the National Historic Landmarks theme and subtheme from The National Park Service's Thematic Framework for each criterion marked (See Appendix A). You may enter more than one nationally significant theme and subtheme but they must be supported by the narrative statement of significance. (See discussion in Chapter III.)
For a property nationally significant under Criterion 1, 3, or 5, select the theme and subtheme that relates to the historic event, ideal, or role for which the property is nationally significant. If Criterion 2 is being used, select the theme and subtheme in which the nationally significant individual made the contributions for which he or she is known or for which the property is illustrative. For a property nationally significant under Criterion 4, the themes and subthemes will most often be "Expressing Cultural Values: architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design" (for architecture); "Expressing Cultural Values: visual and performing arts" (for art); and "Expanding Science and Technology: technological applications" (for engineering). If Criterion 6 is being used, select the theme and subtheme that best describes the topic for which the site is likely to yield information.
Do not confuse the NHL theme with the historic function. Historic function relates to the practical and routine uses of a property. The theme(s) relates to the property's nationally significant contributions to the broader patterns of American history, archeology, architecture, engineering, and culture.
Areas of Significance
If the property has already been listed in the National Register of Historic Places, list those areas of significance identified in the National Register nomination in addition to those which apply to the national significance of the property if not already covered in the National Register nomination. If the property has not been listed in the National Register, select one or more areas of history in which the property is nationally significant. (See Figure 10.) Choose only areas that are supported by the narrative statement. Do not confuse area of significance with historic function which relates to the practical and routine uses of a property. Area of significance relates to a property's nationally significant contributions to the broader patterns of American history, archeology, architecture, engineering, and culture.
List the theme study or historic context or contexts within which the national significance of the property is being considered. This may be a theme study or historic context that has been or continues to be studied under past themes or a theme from the 1996 Thematic Framework. It may also be an area of significance or another historic context within which the property is being evaluated for NHL designation.
The classification of resources is important and fundamental to the comparative analysis necessary in making judgments of relative significance. It is also useful in determining where the property under consideration for NHL designation ranks when compared with other properties in the same theme or historical context. The NHL Survey staff and staff in the regional and support offices should be consulted for information about defining the theme or historic context and whether the property fits within a theme or historic context that has previously been studied.
You may enter more than one nationally significant theme or historic context, but they must be supported by the narrative statement of significance.
Period of National Significance
The period of national significance is the length of time when a property was associated with nationally significant events, activities, and persons, or attained the national characteristics which qualify it for designation as a National Historic Landmark. Therefore, enter the dates for one or more periods of time when the property attained this national significance. Some periods of significance are as brief as one day or year while others span many years and consist of beginning and closing dates.
Base the period of national significance on specific events directly related to the national significance of the property. For the site of a nationally significant event, the period of significance is the time when the event occurred, while the period of significance for properties associated with nationally significant historic trends is the span of time when the property actively contributed to the trend. For properties associated with nationally significant persons, the period of significance is the length of time of that association. Architecturally significant properties use the date of construction and/or the dates of any significant alterations and additions for the period of significance. For precontact properties, the period of significance is the broad span of time about which the site or district is likely to provide information. The property must possess historic integrity for all periods of national significance listed.
Continued use or activity does not necessarily justify continuing the period of significance. The period of significance is based solely upon the time when the property made the nationally significant contributions or achieved the national character on which the significance is based. Fifty years ago is used as the closing date for periods of significance where activities begun historically continued to have importance and no more specific date greater than 50 years ago can be defined to end the historic period. For some properties, such as those relating to the Cold War or the Civil Rights Movement, the period of significance may be within the last 50 years. However, if the closing date of the period of national significance is less than 50 years ago then you will have to apply Criteria Exception 8 to the property.
Nationally Significant Dates
A nationally significant date is the year when one or more major events directly contributing to the national significance of a historic property occurred. Therefore, enter the year of any events, associations, construction, or alterations that add to its national significance and contribute to qualifying the property for designation as a National Historic Landmark. A property may have several dates of significance; all of them, however, must fall within the periods of significance. In addition, the property must have historic integrity for all the significant dates entered.
The beginning and closing dates of a period of significance are "significant dates" only if they mark specific events directly related to the national significance of the property. For properties using Criterion 4, the date of construction is a significant date but list the dates of alterations only if they contribute to the national significance of the property. Some properties may not have any specific dates of significance. In these cases, enter "N/A."
Complete this item only if the property is being considered under Criterion 2. Enter the full name, last name first, of the nationally significant person with whom the property is importantly associated. Do not list the name of a family, fraternal group, or other organization. Enter the names of several individuals in one family or organization only if each person is nationally significant and made nationally significant contributions for which the property is being designated. List the name of the property's architect or builder only if the property's nationally significant association is with the life of that individual, such as the nationally significant architect's home, studio, or office.
Complete this item only if the property is being considered under Criterion 6. Cultural affiliation is the archeological or ethnographic culture to which a collection of artifacts or resources belongs. It is generally a term given to a specific cultural group for which assemblages of artifacts have been found at several sites of the same age in the same region.
For Native American cultures, list the name commonly used to identify the cultural group (such as Hopewell or Mississippian), or list the period of time represented by the archeological remains (such as Paleo-Indian or Late Archaic).
For non-Native American historic cultures, list the ethnic background, occupation, geographical location or topography, or another term that is commonly used to identify members of the cultural group (such as Appalachian, Black Freedman, or Moravian).
For properties nationally significant for criteria besides Criterion 6, list important cultural affiliations under areas of significance.
List the full name, last name first, of the person(s) responsible for the design or construction of the property. This includes architects, artists, builders, craftsmen, designers, engineers, and landscape architects. Enter the names of architectural and engineering firms, only if the names of specific persons responsible for the design are unknown. If the property's design is derived from the stock plans of a company or government agency, list the name of the company or agency (such as the U.S. Army or the Southern Pacific Railroad). The names of the property owners are listed only if they were actually responsible for the property's design and/or construction. If the architect or builder is not known, enter "unknown."
Narrative Statement of SignificanceExplain how the property meets the National Historic Landmarks criteria by drawing on facts about the history of the property and the nationally historic trends that the property reflects. (See Figure 11.) The goal of the statement is to make the case for the property's national historical significance and integrity. The statement should explain in narrative form the information which justifies the NHL criteria, the criteria exceptions, the NHL themes and historic context, the significant person(s), the period of significance, and the significant dates. This narrative should explain why the nominated property stands out among its peers. The statement should be concise, factual, well-organized, and in paragraph form. The information contained in the statement should be well-documented with proper footnotes. (Use a standard scholarly footnote style such as that found in The Chicago Manual of Style published by the University of Chicago Press or in A Manual of Style by Kate L. Turabian also published by the University of Chicago Press.) Include only information pertinent to the property and its eligibility.
The statement should begin with a summary statement of significance which states simply and clearly the reasons why the property meets the NHL criteria. Provide brief facts that explain the way in which the property was important to the history of the United States during the period of significance and mention the nationally significant themes and historic contexts to which the property relates.
Historic context is information about historic trends and properties grouped by an important theme in the history of the nation during a particular period of time. Because historic contexts are organized by theme, place, and time, they link historic properties to important historic trends. In this way, they provide a framework for determining the significance of a property and its eligibility for designation as a National Historic Landmark. A knowledge of historic contexts allows applicants to understand a historic property as a product of its time and as an illustration of aspects of heritage that may be unique, representative, or pivotal.
Identify specific associations or characteristics through which the property has acquired national significance, including historic events, activities, persons, physical features, artistic qualities, architectural styles, and archeological evidence that represent the historic contexts within which the property is important to the nation's history. Specifically state the ways the property meets the qualifying NHL criterion and any criteria exclusions.
Using the summary paragraph as an outline, make the case for national significance in the subsequent paragraphs. Begin by discussing the chronology and historic development of the property. Highlight and focus on the events, activities, associations, characteristics, and other facts that relate the property to its national historic contexts and are the basis for its meeting the NHL criteria.
For each NHL theme and historic context discuss the facts and circumstances in the property's history that led to its national significance. Make clear the connection between each theme, its corresponding criterion, and the period of significance. This discussion of the NHL themes and historic context should explain the role of the property in relationship to broad nationally historic trends, drawing on specific facts about the property. The history of the community where the property is located as it directly relates to the property should also be described in order to orient the reader to the property's surroundings and the kind of community or place where it functioned in the past. Highlight any notable events and patterns of development in the community that affected the property's national history, significance, and integrity. Describe how the property is unique, outstanding or exceptionally representative of a nationally significant historic context when compared with other properties of the same or similar period, characteristics, or associations.
The preparer should be selective about the facts presented considering whether they directly support the national significance of the property. Narrating the entire history of the property should be avoided. Rather, the statement should focus only on those events, activities, or characteristics that make the property nationally significant. Dates and proper names of owners, architects or builders, other people, and places should be given. The preparer should keep in mind the reader who will have little or no knowledge of the property and its historic context, or its location.
Values of state and local significance may be mentioned and discussed, but need to be clearly differentiated from those that contribute to the NHL themes and period of significance for which the NHL is being considered for designation. Resources that have national significance may also have state and locally significant values that may be documented in the nomination but these values also must be clearly differentiated from those for which the resource is being nominated for NHL designation.
NHL Form Section 9.
Major Bibliographic References
Enter the primary and secondary sources used in documenting and evaluating the national significance of the property. These include books, journal or magazine articles, newspaper articles, interviews, planning documents, historic resource studies or survey reports, prepared NHL Theme Studies, census data, correspondence, deeds, wills, business records, diaries, and other sources.
Use a standard bibliographical style such as that found in The Chicago Manual of Style published by the University of Chicago Press or in A Manual of Style by Kate L. Turabian also published by the University of Chicago Press. For all printed materials list the author, full title, location and date of publication and publisher. For articles, also list the name, volume, and date of the journal or magazine. Indicate where copies are available of unpublished manuscripts. For a phone interview or personal correspondence, state the date of the interview or correspondence, name of the interviewer or recipient of the correspondence, name and title of person interviewed or originating the correspondence, and the location of the correspondence or tape of the interview. Any established nationally historic themes or contexts that have been used to evaluate the property should also be cited.
Previous Documentation on File (NPS)
Mark an "x" in the appropriate box for any other previous NPS action involving the property being nominated. This will most often include previous listing or determination of eligibility for listing in the National Register. If the property has been recorded by the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) or the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), enter the survey number.
Primary Location of Additional Data
Mark an "x" in the box to indicate where most of the additional documentation about the property is stored. List the specific name of any repository other than the State Historic Preservation Office.
NHL form Section 10.
This section defines the location and extent of the property being nominated. It also explains why the boundaries were selected.
For discontiguous districts, the preparer must provide a set of the following geographical dataCacreage, UTMs, boundary description and boundary justificationCfor each separate area of land.
Acreage of Property
Enter the number of acres comprising the property in the blank. (All discontiguous parcels should be added together.) Acreage should be accurate to the nearest whole acre. If known, record fractions of acres to the nearest tenth. If the property is substantially smaller than one acre, "less than one acre" may be used.
Enter one or more complete unabbreviated Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid references to identify the exact location of the property. (All discontiguous segments should have their own individual UTM references.) For properties of less than 10 acres, enter the UTM reference for the point corresponding to the center of the property as located on an accompanying United States Geological Survey (USGS) map.
For properties of 10 or more acres, enter three or more UTM references. These references should correspond to the vertices of a polygon drawn on an accompanying USGS map. The polygon must encompass the entire boundary of the property. If the UTM references define the boundaries of the property, the polygon must correspond exactly with the property's boundaries. Label the vertices of the polygon alphabetically, beginning at the northwest corner and moving clockwise. Once the UTM reference has been determined for the point corresponding to each vertex, enter those references alphabetically on the form.
If the property is linear of 10 or more acres, such as a railroad, canal, highway, or trail, enter three or more UTM references which correspond to points along a line drawn on the accompanying USGS map indicating the course of the property. The points should be marked and labeled alphabetically along the line and should correspond to the beginning, each major shift in direction of the line, and the end. Once the UTM reference has been determined for each point, enter the references alphabetically on the form.
Verbal Boundary Description
Describe accurately and precisely the boundaries of the property. (See Figure 13.) (Each discontiguous segment should have its own verbal boundary description.) The preparer may use a legal parcel number; a block and lot number; a sequence of metes and bounds; the dimensions of a parcel of land fixed upon a given point such as the intersection of two streets, a natural feature, or a manmade structure; or a narrative using street names, property lines, geographical features, and other lines of convenience. A map drawn to a scale of at least 1" = 200 feet may be used in place of a verbal boundary description. When using a map, note on the nomination form under this heading that the boundaries are indicated on the accompanying base map and give the title of the map. The map must clearly indicate the boundaries of the property in relationship to standing structures or natural or manmade features such as rivers, highways, or shorelines. The map must show the scale and a north arrow.
Provide a brief and concise explanation of the reasons for selecting the boundaries. (For discontiguous districts, explain how the property meets the conditions for a discontiguous district as well as how the boundaries were selected for each area.) The reasons should be based on the property's historical associations or attributes and high integrity. Carefully select the boundaries to encompass, but not to exceed, the full extent of the nationally significant resources and land area making up the property. The area should be large enough to include all historic features of the property, but should not include "buffer zones" or acreage not directly contributing to the national significance of the property. Leave out peripheral areas of the property that no longer retain integrity. Also, "donut holes" are not allowed. No area or resources within a set of boundaries may be excluded from the NHL designation. Identify nonhistoric resources within the boundaries as noncontributing. Properties of state or local significance may be incorporated into an NHL boundary, and listed as noncontributing for the NHL designation, only when they are located between components of the nationally significant resource and their exclusion would require an inappropriate use of a discontiguous landmark boundary.
The nature of the property, the irregularity of the boundaries, and the methods used to determine the boundaries will determine the complexity and length of the boundary justification. A paragraph or more may be needed where boundaries are very irregular, where large portions of historic acreage have been lost, or where a district's boundaries are ragged because of new construction. Properties with substantial acreage will require more explanation than those confined to small lots. Boundaries for archeological properties often call for longer justifications as they will refer to the kinds of methodology employed, the distribution of known sites, the reliability of survey-based predictions, and the amount of unsurveyed acreage.
NHL Form Section 11.
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Map. An original USGS map(s) must accompany every nomination. Use a 7.5 or 15 minute series USGS map. Do not submit fragments or copies of USGS maps because they cannot be checked for UTM references. On the map, in pencil only, locate either the single UTM reference point (for properties of less than 10 acres), the polygon and its vertices encompassing the boundaries (for properties of 10 or more acres), or the line and reference points indicating the course of the property (for linear properties). Also, identify the name of the property, the location of the property, and the UTM references entered in Section 10.
Sketch Map. Submit at least one detailed map or sketch map for districts and for properties containing a substantial number of sites, structures, or buildings. Plat books, insurance maps, bird's-eye views, district highway maps, and hand-drawn maps may be used. Sketch maps need not be drawn to a precise scale, unless they are also used in place of a verbal boundary description.
The original maps should be folded to fit into a folder approximately 8 1/2 by 11 inches. If the original map(s) is larger than 8 1/2 by 11 inches, a copy must also be submitted that has been reduced to such size. This copy will be used for the photocopy reproduction of the map to accompany the nomination when it is sent out for comment and for review by the parties of notification and the various NPS review bodies. The information on the maps should be indicated by coding, crosshatching, numbering, or other graphic techniques. Do not use color because it is expensive to reproduce by photocopying.
The maps should display:
Maps for archeological sites and districts should also include the location and extent of disturbances, including previous excavations; the location of specific significant features and artifact loci; and the distribution of sites if it is an archeological district.
If the resource is a single building, or a building or buildings are major contributing resources, floor plans of the major levels of the building may also be required. These need not be done to scale or by a professional architect; hand-drawn floor plans are acceptable. Floor plans not only assist in making sense of the Section 7 description of the building, but also aid in determining integrity. Therefore, the floor plans should show clearly any structural changes such as new or sealed door or window openings, and additions or removals such as porches, fireplaces, stairs, or interior partition walls.
Photographs. Each nomination must be accompanied by clear and descriptive black and white photographs. The photographs should give an honest visual representation of the historic integrity and significant features of the property. They should illustrate the qualities discussed in the descriptive section and the statement of significance. Submit as many photographs as needed to depict the current condition and significant aspects of the property. Include representative views of both contributing and noncontributing resources. Prints of historic photographs may be particularly useful in illustrating the historic integrity of properties that have undergone alterations or changes.
For buildings, structures or objects submit views that show the principal facades and the environment or setting in which the property is located. Include views of major interior spaces, outbuildings, or landscaping features such as gardens. Additions, alterations, and intrusions should appear in the photographs.
For districts submit photographs representing the major building types and styles, any pivotal buildings and/or structures, representative noncontributing resources, and any important topographical or spatial elements which define the character of the district. Streetscapes, landscapes, or aerial views are recommended. If the streetscapes and other views clearly illustrate the significant historical and architectural qualities of the district, individual views of buildings are not necessary.
For sites submit photographs that depict the condition of the site and any above-ground or surface features and disturbances. At least one photograph should show the physical environment and configuration of the land taking up the site. For archeological sites, include drawings or photographs that illustrate artifacts that have been recovered from the site.
Photographs must be unmounted. (Do not affix the photographs to forms by staples, clips, glue or any other material.) They must be high in quality, especially for reproductive purposes. Photos of 8 x 10 inches are strongly preferred and photos smaller than 4 x 6 inches are not acceptable. The photographs should be labeled in pencil (preferably with soft lead) on the back side of the photograph. The information should include 1) the name of the property, or for districts, the name of the district followed by the name of the building or street address; 2) the city (or county) and state where the property is located; 3) a description of the view; 4) the name of the photographer; 5) the date of the photograph; and 6) the number of the photograph.
An alternative form of labeling is to use a separate sheet. Label the photographs by name of property, location and photograph number. List the remaining items above on a separate sheet, identifying the number of each photograph and each item. If there is information common to all of the photographs, such as the photographer's name or the date of the photographs, that may be listed once on the separate sheet with a statement that it applies to all photographs.
For a large or complicated property, the photographs may be keyed to a site map or floor plan to aid in identifying and orienting the photographic views. The map used to locate the photographs may be an exact copy of the site map or floor plan that is provided as outlined above, but this photographic locator map should be a separate document. This separate map requirement is to aid the NHL Survey in its preparation of the nomination for duplication for distribution to the NPS review bodies and the various parties who are provided notification of a pending nomination.
All photographs submitted to the NPS with a NHL nomination become a part of the public record and the photographer grants permission to the NPS to use the photograph for duplication, display, distribution, publicity, audio-visual presentations, and all forms of publication which may include publication on the Internet.Slides. All NHL nominations must also be accompanied by color slides. These are to be used in the presentation of the property to the National Park System Advisory Board and will be retained by the NHL Survey to be used for publications, publicity, talks, and other audio-visual purposes. There should be at least 6 to 12 slides and they should show the same types of representative views as the black and white photographs including exterior and interior shots. There should be a list of the slides by number and a description of the view. The slides themselves should have the name of the property, location, date of the slide, and slide number written on the edge of the slide with permanent marker.
Slides submitted to the NPS with a NHL nomination become a part of the public record and the photographer grants permission to the NPS to use the slides for duplication, display, distribution, publicity, audio-visual presentations, and all forms of publication which may include publication on the Internet.
PROPERTY OWNERS AND OTHER PARTIES OF NOTICE
The NPS will also need the names and addresses of all property owners within the proposed NHL boundary. The list of owners shall be obtained from official land or tax records, whichever is most appropriate, within 90 days of the beginning of the notification period. (The notification period begins no less than 60 days prior to the Advisory Board meeting at which the property will be considered.) If in any state the land or tax record is not the appropriate list an alternative source of owners may be used. The name, title, and address of the highest elected local official of the jurisdiction in which the property is located, such as a mayor or the chairman of the board of county commissioners, must also be provided. This information is used to notify these parties of the proposed consideration for designation of the property as an NHL.
If the property has more than 50 property owners, individual names are not needed. The preparer will provide the NHL Survey with the name(s) of one or more local newspapers of general circulation in the area in which the potential NHL is located. The NHL Survey will then provide a general notice of the potential designation through a published advertisement in the legal notice section of the named newspaper(s). It would also be of help if the preparer would arrange for a public location (usually a library, historical society, or courthouse) where copies of the nomination could be placed for public review. This information would then be given in the general newspaper notification.
VI. NHL NOMINATIONS FROM EXISTING NATIONAL REGISTER DOCUMENTATION
The process for listing a property in the National Register is different from that for NHL designation with different criteria and procedures used. Through the National Register nomination process described in 36 CFR Part 60, a property documented as having national importance can be listed in the National Register. After the property has been listed, the National Register staff may recommend it to the NHL Survey for consideration as an NHL. Some properties are recommended as nationally significant when they are nominated to the National Register. Some National Register properties are identified as nationally significant for the first time during an NHL theme study.
National Register documentation does not require a justification of national significance, a comparative national context, or high integrity. Therefore, to become a National Historic Landmark, whether recommended as potentially nationally significant by the National Register staff or by the State Historic Preservation Offices, a property will need to be evaluated by the NHL Survey, reviewed by the National Park System Advisory Board and recommended to the Secretary of the Interior as part of the regular NHL designation process.
If a property is already listed in the National Register, the documentation may be upgraded by providing any additional information that is necessary to justify national significance and to consider the property for NHL designation. In many cases, it may be necessary to prepare a new NHL nomination form unless the National Register documentation is thorough and well done. If the National Register nomination is adequate, the additional documentation for national significance may be submitted on continuation sheets. All continuation sheets documenting national significance, as well as the original National Register documentation, will become part of the official NHL file if the property is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Preparers should ask the NHL Survey to review the National Register nomination for a listed property and provide a recommendation concerning whether it would be necessary to complete a new NHL nomination or whether submitting additional documentation on continuation sheets is the most appropriate.
If the preparer is submitting additional documentation on continuation sheets, the following sections should be provided where appropriate.NHL FORM SECTION 2.
If the resource(s) having national significance is different from the resources having state or local importance, provide two sets of information for the location.
NHL FORM SECTION 7.
Identify the resources contributing to national significance. This may be done by listing on a separate continuation sheet the names of the resources contributing to the national significance of the property and those resources should be identified on a separate sketch map. If those resources were not fully described in the National Register nomination, they should be described and their integrity evaluated on the continuation sheet.
NHL FORM SECTION 8.
List on a continuation sheet which has been entitled, "National Significance" a) the applicable NHL criteria; b) any NHL criteria exceptions; c) periods of national significance and significant dates; and d) the applicable NHL theme(s) and historic context(s).
On the same continuation sheet, the preparer should summarize the case for national significance, developing the statement at the national level, and relating the property to the NHL criteria, theme(s), and historic context(s). Support this statement by the facts about the property, including scholarly citations and updated bibliography.
NHL FORM SECTION 10.
If only a portion of a National Register property has national significance and is being recommended for NHL designation, explain the differences between the two sets of boundaries. The description should clearly describe what is within the nationally significant portion of the property and what is not. Provide the separate geographical data for the nationally significant property on a continuation sheet. This will include the acreage, UTM coordinates, verbal boundary description, and boundary justification.
If different boundaries are being proposed for the nationally significant property a separate USGS map with the boundary and UTM coordinates marked should be provided. A separate sketch map showing the nationally significant portion of the property should also be provided. On this map identify the boundaries of the nationally significant portion and the resources contributing to the national significance of the property. This should be done by coding or graphics as color will not reproduce in photocopying.
Include black and white representative views of the resources that contribute to the national significance. Follow the instructions for photographs outlined in Section V above.
Provide color slides of the resources that contribute to the national significance of the property. Follow the instructions for slides outlined in Section V above.
Property Owners and Other Parties of Notice
The NPS will need the same information for notification of the proposed consideration for designation of the property as an NHL as outlined in Section V above.
VII. HOW NOMINATIONS ARE PROCESSED
The regulations for processing a completed National Historic Landmark Nomination Form are outlined in 36 CFR Part 65. When the nomination form is completed and submitted, the NHL Survey reviews and may recommend revisions of the forms before they are considered final and able to be placed on the agenda of the next National Park System Advisory Board meeting. (The Advisory Board has traditionally met to conduct business at least twice a year.) In addition, properties being considered under Criterion 6 for archeology are reviewed by a committee of the Society for American Archeology (SAA). This professional substantive review for archeological NHL nominations is provided by the SAA through a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. If the NHL Survey receives a nomination for a property that does not qualify for NHL designation, but may be eligible for listing in the National Register, the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer, Federal Preservation Officer, or Tribal Preservation Officer will be sent a copy of the documentation to consider for possible nomination to the National Register.
When the NHL Survey determines that the nomination for a property adequately documents the national significance, is substantially and technically complete, and may be placed on the agenda for the next Advisory Board meeting, the NPS is ready to notify the appropriate parties as outlined in the regulations. The NPS notifies the owner or owners of the property, the highest elected local official of the jurisdiction in which the property is located, the State Historic Preservation Officer, the two U.S. Senators, and the House of Representatives member from the district in which the property is located. These parties are provided with a copy of the nomination form and the date, time, and location of the Advisory Board's meeting. This notification must occur at least 60 days before the Advisory Board meeting so that those parties may have an opportunity to comment in writing on the nomination if they choose. Private property owners have the option to concur with or object to the proposed designation. If a private owner, or a majority of private owners, objects to designation, the Secretary of the Interior may not designate the property but may determine if the property is eligible for designation.
Any written comments received by the NPS will be included in the documentation reviewed by the Advisory Board. Interested parties also may attend the Advisory Board meeting, and upon request, may be given an opportunity to address the Advisory Board concerning the property's historical associations or attributes, integrity, and proposed boundaries. The NHL regulations, 36 CFR Part 65, outline this aspect of the procedure in more detail.
Made up of scholars and citizens interested in the conservation of natural and cultural resources, the National Park System Advisory Board reviews all of the documentation on proposed properties and makes a determination on whether a property meets the criteria for designation as a NHL. It can then recommend properties that should be designated as National Historic Landmarks to the Secretary of the Interior. Decisions about designation ultimately rest with the Secretary. The Advisory Board may also determine that a property does not meet the criteria and should not be forwarded to the Secretary; or it may determine that a property meets the criteria but because a private owner or majority of private owners objects to designation may only recommend that the Secretary determine the property eligible for designation.
After the Secretary of the Interior has designated a NHL, the NPS notifies the owner(s) (as well as the other original parties of notification) and invites the owner(s) to accept a bronze plaque, free of charge, bearing the name of the property, its year of designation, and attesting to its national significance. The plaque is presented to owners who display it publicly and appropriately. The plaque may be presented to the owner or owners at a public ceremony by a representative of the NPS or the Department of the Interior.
NHL designation implies no intention on the part of the federal government to acquire the property. Although some NHLs have later become units of the National Park System, most are not suitable for use as parks and are better cared for in the hands of other public or private owners.
VIII. NHL BOUNDARY STUDIES, NHL DOCUMENTATION IMPROVEMENT STUDIES AND NHL WITHDRAWAL
Boundary and Documentation Improvement Studies
The 1980 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 directed that documentation and boundary studies be prepared by the Secretary of the Interior for all NHLs for which no specific boundary was identified at the time of designation.
The goals of the boundary study and documentation improvement project include:
The National Register of Historic Places staff (National Register, History, and Education in Washington), and the regional and support offices of the NPS share responsibility for the administration of the boundary study and documentation improvement project. The regional and support offices have primary responsibility for conducting research, identifying and justifying boundaries, preparing documentation, and obtaining the names and addresses of property owners, appropriate state officials, and local governments. In some cases, the studies are completed on contract, in others by NPS staff. Both boundary studies and improved documentation should follow current guidelines for completing NHL nominations and should be prepared on NHL nomination forms.
Boundaries should be drawn based on the resources which contribute to the national significance of the NHL, which must all be clearly identified. When these boundaries include resources that do not contribute to the national significance of the property because they do not contribute to the NHL themes and periods of significance for which the NHL is designated they may be evaluated for their state or local significance although this is not required. When such evaluations are made the documentation must clearly distinguish which properties contribute to the national significance, and why, and which are significant at the state or local level. Properties of state and local significance need not be evaluated in detail, but they should be clearly identified as noncontributing to the national significance.
The National Register staff sets policy and provides general guidance, monitors the program, and receives, reviews, and processes the boundary and documentation improvement studies. They also notify owners, elected officials and others, giving them an opportunity to comment on the proposed boundaries and documentation, and notifies them again after the boundaries and documentation is approved by the Keeper of the National Register, who is also the Chief of the NHL Survey.
Where the proposed boundary reduces the property included in the NHL, the removal must be justified under the grounds for removal in 36 CFR Part 65. Where physical changes have resulted in a loss of integrity to the NHL, the new boundary study must specify these changes and the date the changes occurred. In cases where the removal of property from the boundary can be avoided, for example, where a small number of noncontributing properties are on the periphery but within the boundary of an NHL, these intrusions can be identified as noncontributing but left within the boundary.
When the studies are completed, they are submitted to the National Register. The submissions are reviewed for technical and substantive adequacy, following guidelines established for National Register and NHL nominations. If these guidelines are not met, the submissions are returned to the region with comments and recommendations for revision.
If the proposed boundary documentation involves a new area of significance, or an enlargement or reduction in area or if the property is found to have lost the significance for which it was originally designated, the NHL is referred to the NHL Survey for submission to the National Park System Advisory Board. In all other cases, the National Register staff notifies owners, State Historic Preservation Officer, Federal Preservation Officer (if appropriate), chief elected local officials, Members of Congress representing the district and state in which the NHL is located, and, if the NHL is located on an Indian reservation, the Tribal Preservation Officer and the chief executive officer of the Indian tribe, provides them with copies of the proposed boundary and documentation study, and gives them the opportunity to comment. If the NHL is a district, the proposed boundaries are also published in the Federal Register for comment. Following the end of the mandated comment period, the proposed document is revised to accommodate comments received or accepted without modification.
Documentation is formally adopted when it is signed by the Keeper of the National Register. Following final approval, copies of the approved documentation are sent to the same individuals and organizations that received copies of the draft.
Withdrawal of National Historic Landmark Designations
NPS regional and support offices in consultation with State Historic Preservation Offices, Federal agencies, Indian tribes, or other interested preservation organizations are responsible for identifying NHLs whose designation should be withdrawn. The regional and support offices will document why the NHL should have its designation withdrawn using the format shown in Appendix D. All such reports should identify the grounds in the NHL regulations which justify withdrawal of designation (See 36 CFR Part 65.9) and particularly if the "grandfathering" provision in the 1980 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act applies. (Under this "grandfathering" provision, a NHL designated before December 13, 1980 cannot have its designation withdrawn unless the "qualities which caused it to be originally designated have been lost or destroyed" sometime after the date of the original designation.) The report must also specify the physical changes to the NHL, and the date of those changes, which resulted in a loss of significant qualities. There also must be thorough, well-done photographic documentation of the property to aid in justifying the loss of integrity which will lead to withdrawal of designation. (The actual process for withdrawing the designation of a NHL, including notification procedures and Advisory Board review and recommendation, may be found in the NHL regulations, 36 CFR Part 65.)
Section 65.9(f)(1) of the NHL regulations specifies that the property will remain listed in the National Register after it loses its NHL designation if the Keeper of the National Register determines that it meets the National Register criteria for evaluation in 36 CFR Part 60.4. Where a property still has enough significance and integrity to be listed in the National Register even after NHL designation has been withdrawn, the regional or support office should ensure that a fully documented National Register form (unless the property was listed in the National Register with adequate documentation prior to the original NHL designation) describing the current appearance and significance of the property is prepared and submitted to the National Register at the same time as the study for withdrawal of designation is presented to the NHL Survey. The new National Register nomination form (or the old form if it is adequate) will be the basis upon which the property remains listed in the National Register.
All NPS records on a NHL should be reviewed by the regional and support offices before a boundary study, updated documentation study, or withdrawal of a NHL designation study is prepared. Review of all documentation will ensure that the intent of the NHL designation is understood and will also provide other useful background information on the NHL. Regional and support offices should request copies of documentation not in their files from the NHL Survey. This documentation may consist of the original NHL file supplemented, as appropriate, by information from the minutes of the Advisory Board meeting where designation was recommended and appropriate theme studies, where this information is useful in defining the NHL.
State Historic Preservation Officers, Federal Preservation Officers, and Tribal Preservation Officers should be consulted in the preparation of these various studies to obtain any documentation they may have on the NHL and their recommendations. They should also be given the opportunity to review a completed study before it is submitted to the NHL Survey or the National Register.
IX. USING NHL DOCUMENTATION
Once the Secretary of the Interior designates a property as a NHL, the nomination form and any accompanying information becomes a permanent public record. The NPS maintains these records in the National Historic Landmarks Survey located in the National Register, History and Education office, Washington, D.C. The property's file is available to researchers and members of the public.
Although the information in the NHL Survey files and the National Register of Historic Places are a part of the public record, Section 304 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended in 1992 and Section 9(a) of the Archeological Resources Protection Act provide the legal authority for restricting information about archeological and traditional cultural properties. In general, information can be restricted from public disclosure if its release is likely to cause a significant invasion of privacy, risk harm to the historic resource, or impede the use of a traditional religious site by practitioners.
Data on the property is entered into the National Historic Landmarks database and the National Register Information System (NRIS). Information on properties may be extracted from these databases.
Information on designated properties may form the basis for managing a historic property and assist in planning projects that may affect the property. The information also may be used for interpretive and other educational purposes, such as travel guides, brochures, lesson plans, videotapes, or publication on the Internet in order to inform the public why a property is nationally significant and why it merits stewardship and public interest. The text of the nomination form, photographs and other illustrations from the nomination, and theme studies also may be used in publications. Using nomination documentation in publications is a particularly effective way to educate the public on subjects that may not have been published or made available. In this way, the significance of the tangible evidence of national historical themes may be interpreted to the public.
X. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Grumet, Robert S. Archeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service Archeological Assistance Program, Technical Brief No. 3, December 1988.
Little, Barbara. Implementing the New Thematic Framework within the National Park Service. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1996.
Mackintosh, Barry. The Historic Sites Survey and National Historic Landmarks Program: A History. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1985.
"National Historic Landmarks Program." Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 65. 1983.
National Park Service. History and Prehistory in the National Park System and the National Historic Landmarks Program. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1987.
National Park Service. The National Historic Landmarks Program: Common Questions and Answers. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1996.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1990, revised, 1991, 1995, 1997.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Registration Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991.
National Park Service, Revision of the National Park Service's Thematic Framework. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1996.
Dr. J. Barto Arnold III, Texas Historical Commission
Dr. Carol Berkin, History Department, Baruch College
Dr. Richard Betts, School of Architecture, University of Illinois
Dr. David S. Brose, Royal Ontario Museum
Prof. Michael Conzen, Geography Department, University of Chicago
Dr. Linda De Pauw, History Department, George Washington University
Dr. Leon Fink, History Department, University of North Carolina
Dr. Brent Glass, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Dr. Albert Hurtado, History Department, Arizona State University
Dr. Alan Kraut, History Department, American University
Dr. Earl Lewis, Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, University of Michigan
Mr. Hugh J. McCauley, Architect
Dr. Don Ritchie, Senate Historical Office
Dr. George Sanchez, History Department, University of CaliforniaCLos Angeles
Dr. Philip Scarpino, History Department, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis
National Park Service Staff:
Mr. Frederick Babb, Denver Service Center
Dr. Marty Blatt, Lowell National Historical Park
Mr. Warren Brown, Park Planning and Protection
Dr. Robert S. Grumet, Mid-Atlantic Regional Office
Ms. Patricia Henry, History Division
Dr. Antoinette Lee, National Register of Historic Places
Mr. Benjamin Levy, History Division
Mr. Barry Mackintosh, History Division
Mr. Cecil McKithan, Southeast Regional Office
Dr. Dwight T. Pitcaithley, National Capital Region
Dr. Michael Schene, Rocky Mountain Regional Office
Mr. Michael Spratt, Denver Service Center
Advisors to the Working Group:
Mr. Bruce Craig, National Parks and Conservation Association
Dr. Jim Gardner , American Historical Association
Dr. Heather Huyck, House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands
Dr. Page Miller, National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History
The National Park Service's Thematic Framework
Grounded in the latest scholarship in history and archeology, this revised thematic framework responds to a Congressional mandate to ensure that the full diversity of American history and prehistory is expressed in the National Park Service's identification and interpretation of historic properties. It resulted from a workshop held June 18-20, 1993, in Washington, DC, cosponsored by the Organization of American Historians and the National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History and supported by the American Historical Association. Participation was evenly divided between academic scholars and NPS professionals.
New scholarship has changed dramatically the way we look at the past. In the introduction to The New American History (1991), historian Eric Foner, a former president of the Organization of American Historians, describes this transformation: "In the course of the past twenty years, American history has been remade. Inspired initially by the social movements of the 1960s and 1970sCwhich shattered the `consensus' vision that had dominated historical writingCand influenced by new methods borrowed from other disciplines, American historians redefined the very nature of historical study." That remaking or redefining of the past has expanded the boundaries of inquiry to encompass not only great men and events but also ordinary people and everyday life.
So profound have been these changes that the group charged with infusing the new scholarship into the NPS thematic framework quickly concluded that an entirely new approach was needed. The first NPS framework, adopted in 1936, was conceived in terms of the "stages of American progress" and served to celebrate the achievements of the founding fathers and the inevitable march of democracy. Revisions in 1970 and 1987 substantially changed the framework's format and organization but not its basic conceptualization of the past. The present revision represents a clear break with that conceptualization.
The revised framework will guide the NPS, working independently and with its partners in the private and public sectors, in:
The use of the framework need not be limited to the federal level, however, for the conceptualization it provides can equally inform preservation and interpretation at local, state, and regional levels.
The framework's themes are represented in the following diagram. They embrace prehistory to the modern period and a multiplicity of human experiences. The diagram reflects how scholarship is dramatically changing the way we look at the past, reconstructing it as an integrated, diverse, complex, human experience. Each segment in the diagram represents a significant aspect of the human experience. The reality of the interrelationships is reflected in the overlapping circles.
The framework draws upon the work of scholars across disciplines to provide a structure for both capturing the complexity and meaning of human experience and making that past a coherent, integrated whole. For purposes of organization, the following outline, like the diagram, provides eight seemingly discrete categories, but they are not meant to be mutually exclusive. Cutting across and connecting the eight categories are three historical building blocks: people, time, and place.
People, time, and place reach across all eight themes and contribute to the interconnections among the themes. One example that can be used to illustrate this interconnectedness is a Southern plantation dating from the 1830s. A quick survey suggests that the significance of this site cuts across every category of the outline. The move of a planter, his family, and his sizable household of slaves from Tidewater Virginia to land purchased from the Choctaws in Alabama would fall obviously under "Peopling Places," but the economic imperatives and agricultural developments that triggered the move and the adaptation of the plantation system to the new environment would fit under "Developing the American Economy," "Expanding Science and Technology," and "Transforming the Environment." While the lives of the plantation's white and black, male and female inhabitants fall under "Peopling Places" and "Creating Social Institutions and Movements," the design and construction of the distinctive "big house" illustrates the theme of "Expressing Cultural Values." The transfer of the planter's political power from Virginia to Alabama and the role of the planter class in antebellum Alabama falls under "Shaping the Political Landscape." Finally, the planter's dependence on the cotton economy and his influential role in international trade on the eve of the Civil War tie directly into "Developing the American Economy" and "Changing Role of the U.S. in the World." The outline suggests that users think broadly, not narrowly, that they look beyond traditional categories of historical significance in an effort to recapture the larger meaning and depth of past experience.
The framework rests on the assumption that, just as our understanding of the past has been reshaped in recent decades, so it will continue to evolve in the future. It should not be viewed as a final document or definitive statement. It is a part of an ongoing effort to ensure that the preservation and interpretation of our nation's historic and prehistoric resources continue to be informed by the best scholarship available.
This new conceptualization will assist the National Park Service in deepening and broadening its identification and interpretation of sites. It suggests fresh opportunities to assess the significance of sites from new perspectives and at regional and local as well as national levels.
I. Peopling Places
This theme examines human population movement and change through prehistoric and historic times. It also looks at family formation, at different concepts of gender, family, and sexual division of labor, and at how they have been expressed in the American past. While patterns of daily lifeCbirth, marriage, childrearingCare often taken for granted, they have a profound influence on public life.
Life in America began with migrations many thousands of years ago. Centuries of migrations and encounters have resulted in diverse forms of individual and group interaction, from peaceful accommodation to warfare and extermination through exposure to new diseases.
Communities, too, have evolved according to cultural norms, historical circumstances, and environmental contingencies. The nature of communities is varied, dynamic, and complex. Ethnic homelands are a special type of community that existed before incorporation into the political entity known as the United States. For example, many Indian sites, such as Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona, are on tribal lands occupied by Indians for centuries. Similarly, Hispanic communities, such as those represented by San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, had their origins in Spanish and Mexican history. Distinctive and important regional patterns join together to create microcosms of America's history and to form the "national experience."
Topics that help define this theme include:
II. Creating Social Institutions and Movements
This theme focuses upon the diverse formal and informal structures such as schools or voluntary associations through which people express values and live their lives. Americans generate temporary movements and create enduring institutions in order to define, sustain, or reform these values. Why people organize to transform their institutions is as important to understand as how they choose to do so. Thus, both the diverse motivations people act on and the strategies they employ are critical concerns of social history.
Sites such as Women's Rights National Historical Park in Seneca Falls, New York, and the Eugene V. Debs National Historic Landmark in Indiana illustrate the diversity and changeable nature of social institutions. Hancock Shaker Village, a National Historic Landmark, and Touro Synagogue, a National Historic Site, reflect religious diversity. This category will also encompass temporary movements that influenced American history but did not produce permanent institutions.
Topics that help define this theme include:
III. Expressing Cultural Values
This theme covers expressions of cultureCpeople's beliefs about themselves and the world they inhabit. For example, Boston African American Historic Site reflects the role of ordinary Americans and the diversity of the American cultural landscape. Ivy Green, the birthplace of Helen Keller in Alabama, and the rural Kentucky Pine Mountain Settlement School illustrate educational currents. Walnut Street Theater in Pennsylvania, Louis Armstrong's house in New York City, the Chautauqua Historic District in New York, and the Cincinnati Music HallCall National Historic LandmarksCreflect diverse aspects of the performing arts.
This theme also encompasses the ways that people communicate their moral and aesthetic values. The gardens and studio in New Hampshire of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, one of America's most eminent sculptors, and Connemara, the farm in North Carolina of the noted poet Carl Sandburg, both National Historic Sites, illustrate this theme.
Topics that help define this theme include:
IV. Shaping the Political Landscape
This theme encompasses tribal, local, state, and federal political and governmental institutions that create public policy and those groups that seek to shape both policies and institutions. Sites associated with political leaders, theorists, organizations, movements, campaigns, and grassroots political activities all illustrate aspects of the political environment. Independence Hall is an example of democratic aspirations and reflects political ideas.
Places associated with this theme include battlefields and forts, such as Saratoga National Historical Park in New York and Fort Sumter National Monument in South Carolina, as well as sites such as Appomattox Court House National Historical Park in Virginia that commemorate watershed events in the life of the nation.
The political landscape has been shaped by military events and decisions, by transitory movements and protests, as well as by political parties. Places associated with leaders in the development of the American constitutional system such as Abraham Lincoln's home in Illinois and the birthplace of Martin Luther King, Jr., in AtlantaCboth National Historic SitesCembody key aspects of the political landscape.
Topics that help define this theme include:
V. Developing the American Economy
This theme reflects the ways Americans have worked, including slavery, servitude, and non-wage as well as paid labor. It also reflects the ways they have materially sustained themselves by the processes of extraction, agriculture, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Vital aspects of economic history are frequently manifested in regional centers, for example, ranching on the Great Plains illustrated by Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Montana. Individual economic sites, such as Lowell National Historical Park in Massachusetts, may be distinctive in representing both the lives of workers and technological innovations.
In examining the diverse working experiences of the American people, this theme encompasses the activities of farmers, workers, entrepreneurs, and managers, as well as the technology around them. It also takes into account the historical "layering" of economic society, including class formation and changing standards of living in diverse sectors of the nation. Knowledge of both the Irish laborer and the banker, for example, are important in understanding the economy of the 1840s.
Topics that help define this theme include:
VI. Expanding Science and Technology
This theme focuses on science, which is modern civilization's way of organizing and conceptualizing knowledge about the world and the universe beyond. This is done through the physical sciences, the social sciences, and medicine. Technology is the application of human ingenuity to modification of the environment in both modern and traditional cultures. Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument in Texas reflects pre-Columbian innovations while Edison National Historic Site in New Jersey reflects technological advancement in historic times. Technologies can be particular to certain regions and cultures.
Topics that help define this theme include:
VII. Transforming the Environment
This theme examines the variable and changing relationships between people and their environment, which continuously interact. The environment is where people live, the place that supports and sustains life. The American environment today is largely a human artifact, so thoroughly has human occupation affected all its features. Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, which includes portions of the Ohio and Erie Canal, for example, is a cultural landscape that links natural and human systems, including cities, suburbs, towns, countryside, forest, wilderness, and water bodies.
This theme acknowledges that the use and development of the physical setting is rooted in evolving perceptions and attitudes. Sites such as John Muir National Historic Site in California and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site in New York, the home of President Theodore Roosevelt, reflect the contributions of leading conservationists. While conservation represents a portion of this theme, the focus here is on recognizing the interplay between human activity and the environment as reflected in particular places, such as Hoover Dam, a National Historic Landmark.
Topics that help define this theme include:
VIII: Changing Role of the United States in the World Community
This theme explores diplomacy, trade, cultural exchange, security and defense, expansionismCand, at times, imperialism. The interactions among indigenous peoples, between this nation and native peoples, and this nation and the world have all contributed to American history. Additionally, this theme addresses regional variations, since, for example, in the eighteenth century, the Spanish southwest, French and Canadian middle west, and British eastern seaboard had different diplomatic histories.
America has never existed in isolation. While the United States, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, has left an imprint on the world community, other nations and immigrants to the United States have had a profound influence on the course of American history.
The emphasis in this category is on people and institutionsCfrom the principals who define and formulate diplomatic policy, such as presidents, secretaries of state, and labor and immigrant leaders, to the private institutions, such as the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, that influence America's diplomatic, cultural, social, and economic affairs. Monticello, the Virginia home of Thomas Jefferson, a National Historic Landmark, reflects the diplomatic aspirations of the early nation.
Topics that help define this theme include:
Completed National Historic Landmark Theme Studies
Indigenous Peoples and Cultures (1963)
Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers (1960)
Early Indian Farmers, Villages and Communities (1963)
Contact With the Indians
Spanish Exploration and Settlement (1959)
French Exploration and Settlement (1960)
English Exploration and Settlement (1960)
Dutch and Swedish Exploration and Settlement (1961)
Development of the English Colonies 1700-1775 (1960)
The American Revolution
Political and Military Affairs
The Civil War
Westward Expansion and Extension of National Boundaries to the Pacific
The Advance of the Frontier: 1763-1830
Agriculture and the Farmer=s Frontier (1963)
Travel and Communication (1963)
Conservation of Natural Resources (1963)
Commerce and Industry (1966)
Painting and Sculpture (1965)
Social and Humanitarian Movements (1965)
Sites Associated with the Signers of the Declaration of Independence (1971)
Sites Associated with American Authors (1971)
19th Century American Architecture, 1784-1880 (1971)
New England Architecture 1784-1880 (1970)
Sites in New England Associated with the War for Independence (1972)
Sites in the Middle Colonies Associated with the War for Independence (1972)
Signers of the Constitution-Middle Atlantic and New England States (1973)
Architecture in North Carolina (1973)
Sites in the Southern Colonies Associated with the War for Independence (1973)
Colonial Architecture of the Southern Colonies (1969)
19th Century Architecture-Georgia (1973)
Black Americans in United States History (1974)
The American Presidency (1977)
Man in Space (1984)
Warships Associated with World War II in the Pacific (1985)
Sites Associated with World War II in the Pacific
The U.S. Constitution (1986)
Architecture in the Parks
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Historic Contact in Northeastern North America
Landscape Architecture in National and State Parks
THEME STUDIES IN PROGRESS
Racial Desegregation in Public Education
History of Geology
Large Federal Dams
Designated: May 23, 1963
80 miles northeast of Phoenix
Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
Bureau of Reclamation
Federal Preservation Officer:
Land, Recreation & Cultural Resources
Mr. James Garrison
Office of Historic Preservation
Ms. Reba Wells-Grandrud
National Register Coordinator
Office of Historic Preservation
Justification for Withdrawing Landmark Designation:
Roosevelt Dam has ceased to meet the criteria for designation because the qualities which caused it to be originally designated have been destroyed [36 CFR 65.9 (b)(1)]. As a result of work undertaken to improve the safety of the dam and increase its storage capacity, the historic masonry dam has been encapsulated in a new concrete structure. Therefore, the property no longer retains integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, or association.
Significance of the Landmark:
One of the original five federal projects authorized on March 13, 1903, under the Reclamation or Newlands Act of 1902, Roosevelt Dam was the first major project to be completed under the new federal reclamation program. Started in 1906, the world=s highest masonry dam was completed in 1911. In addition, the beginning of federal production of electric power also occurred at Roosevelt Dam when Congress, in 1906, authorized the Reclamation Service to develop and sell hydroelectric power at the Salt River Project.
Condition of the Landmark:
In 1984, the Secretary of the Interior approved the modification of Roosevelt Dam as a part of the Central Arizona Project=s Plan 6. Modifications were designed to meet Safety of Dams and flood control purposes. Engineers had determined that the dam could not safely release water during a maximum flood event. In addition, an event called a maximum credible earthquake occurring near the dam could potentially cause it to fail. Subsequent to the modifications begun in 1989 and completed in 1996, Roosevelt Dam has a completely altered appearance. The original rubble-masonry gravity arch dam is now encased in a new concrete block structure. The original dam had a structural height of 280 feet and measured 723 feet long at the crest; the dam now has a structural height of 357 feet and a crest length of 1,210 feet. The top width is 21.6 feet compared to the original 16 feet and the maximum base width is 196 feet compared to the original 184 feet. New spillways at each abutment replaced the original ones equipped with Tainter gates. The spillways now contain four 21-foot-wide by 30-foot-high top-seal radial gates. Massive concrete thrust blocks were placed on each abutment and around the new spillway openings.
The property no longer retains its historic integrity. National Historic Landmark designation of the Roosevelt Dam should be withdrawn. On March 16, 1998, the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places accepted a revised nomination for the Theodore Roosevelt Dam National Register District. This district is comprised of resources that are all associated with the initial construction of Roosevelt Dam and includes the dam as a noncontributing property as well as other resources.
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The above publications may be obtained by writing to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, NC 400, NW, Washington, D.C. 20240.
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(Cover, top left) Leap-the-Dips: Photograph by Tom Halterman, 1990.
(Cover, top right) Bear Butte: Photographer unknown, 1939.
(Cover, bottom left) General Motors Building: Photograph courtesy of General Motors, c. 1956.
(Cover, bottom right) Wheeling Suspension Bridge: Photograph by HABS, NPS, unknown date.
(Page 9) General Motors Building: Photograph courtesy of General Motors, c. 1956.
(Page 12) Henry C. Bowen House: Photograph by William Pierson, Jr., Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, c. 1977.
(Page 13, top) Hoover Dam: Photograph by Andrew Pernick, Bureau of Reclamation, 1997.
(Page 13, bottom) Nenana: Photograph courtesy of Alaska Division of Parks, 1971.
(Page 14) Thomas Point Shoal Light Station: Photograph by R.B. Ressler, U.S. Coast Guard, 1990.
(Page 15) Rokeby: Photograph courtesy of Rokeby Museum, 1996.
(Page 16) Haymarket Martyrs' Monument: Photograph by Robin F. Bachin, 1995.
(Page 21) Canterbury Shaker Village: Photograph by Lisa Mausolf, 1992.
(Page 22-23, top) Leap-the-Dips: Photograph by Tom Halterman, 1990.
(Page 22, bottom) Bodie Historic District: Photographer unknown, unknown date.
(Page 23, top right) Rohwer Relocation Center Cemetery: Photograph by K. Story, Arkansas SHPO, 1990.
(Page 23, bottom) Monroe Elementary School: NPS Photograph, unknown date.
(Page 24, top) Jackson Pollock Studio: Photograph by Helen A. Harrison, 1993.
(Page 24, center): Photographs by Hans Namuth, 1950.
(Page 24, bottom): Photograph by Helen A. Harrison, 1993.
(Page 25) Brown Chapel AME Church: Photograph by Greg Felkins, 1997.
(Page 26, top) Susan Lawrence Dana House: Photograph by Paul E. Sprague, 1970.
(Page 26, center) Riversdale: Photograph by Susan Pearl, Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, 1997.
(Page 26, bottom) Bellevue: Photograph by Van Martin, 1973.
(Page 27, top) Kingscote: Photograph courtesy of The Preservation Society of Newport County, 1990.
(Page 27, bottom left) Philip Johnson's Glass House: Photograph by Bruce Clouette, Historic Resources Consultants, Inc., 1996.
(Page 27, bottom right) Whitman House: NPS Photograph, 1959.
(Page 28, top) Wainwright Building: Photograph by HABS, NPS, 1940.
(Page 28, bottom) Marin County Courthouse: Photograph by Sally B. Woodbridge (copy by permission of Aaron Green), 1990.
(Page 29, top) Cannelton Mills: Photograph by Jack Boucher, HAER, NPS, 1974.
(Page 29, center left) Crow Island School: Photograph by Betty Carbol, 1989.
(Page 29, center right) Lancaster County Jail: Photographer unknown, unknown date.
(Page 29, bottom) Deadwood Historic District: Photograph by George Grant, 1954.
(Page 30) Huff Archeological Site: Photograph by Roy Wood, c. 1960.
(Page 31, left) New St. Mary's Episcopal Church: Photograph by HABS, NPS, 1937.
(Page 31, right) Block Island Southeast Light: Photograph courtesy of Southeast Lighthouse Foundation, 1994.
(Page 33, top) W.E.B. DuBois Boyhood Homesite: Photograph by Steven Fay, 1975.
(Page 33, center) Ivy Green (Helen Keller Birthplace): Photograph by Doug Letson, 1990.
(Page 33, bottom) Laurel Hill Cemetery: Photograph by Jack Boucher, HABS, NPS, 1997.
(Page 34, top) Williamsburg Historic District: Photograph courtesy of Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., c. 1970.
(Page 34, bottom) John Brown Farm and Gravesite: Photograph by Larry Gobrecht, New York SHPO, 1996.
(Page 36) Air Force Facility Missile Site 8: Image courtesy of Petley Studios, Tempe, AZ, 1978.
(Page 38) Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District: Photograph by Van Martin, 1974.
(Page 40, top left) Farmers= and Merchants= Union Bank: Photograph by M.E. Walcott, Columbus, WI, 1972.
(Page 40, top right) Reber Radio Telescope: Photograph courtesy of National Radio Astronomy Observatory, c. 1960.
(Page 40, center) Morrow Plots: Photographer unknown, 1966.
(Page 40, bottom) Louisiana Purchase Survey Marker: Photograph by J. Holder, 1991.
(Page 68) West Baden Springs Hotel: Line drawing by Roland David Schaaf, courtesy of HAER, NPS, 1974.
(Page 69, top) Hercules (tugboat): Photograph courtesy of National Maritime Museum, San Francisco, NPS, 1908.
(Page 69, bottom) Fort Mifflin (aerial view): Photographer unknown, unknown date.
(Page 72) Lowry Ruin: Photograph courtesy of Chicago Natural History Museum, unknown date.
(Page 76, top) Roosevelt Dam: NPS Photograph, unknown date.
(Page 76, bottom): Photograph by J. Madrigal, Jr., Bureau of Reclamation, 1996.
(Page 77) Going-to-the-Sun Road: Photograph by Ethan Carr, NPS, 1995.
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