Acknowledgements and References
Our monitoring program is supported by the National Park Service via NOCA base funds and the Vital Signs program. Seattle City Light, U.S.G.S., and Earthwatch have also made valuable contributions to our program, as have faculty and staff at Portland State University and Western Washington University. We also thank the countless volunteers whom have generously contributed to the project in a variety of ways over the years.
Fountain, A.G. and A.V. Vecchia, 1992. How many ablation stakes are enough?, Poster presented at the fall American Geophysical Union Meeting, San Francisco, California.
Granshaw, F.D., 2001. Glacier Change in the North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington State USA, 1958-1998, M.S. Thesis Portland State University.
Krimmel, R.M., 1993. personal communication, US Geological Survey Ice and Climate Project, Tacoma, Washington.
Meier, M.F., 1961. Mass budget of South Cascade Glacier, 1957-1960, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 424-B, pp. B206-211.
Meier, M.F. and W.V. Tangborn, 1965, Net budget and flow of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, Journal of Glaciology, 5, no. 41, pp. 547-566.
Meier, M.F., 1966, Some glaciological interpretations from remapping programs on South Cascade, Klawatti, and Nisqually glaciers, Washington, Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 3(6), pp. 811-818.
Meier, M.F., L.R. Mayo, and A.L. Post, 1971. Combined ice and waterbalances of Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, Alaska, and South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1965 and 1966 hydrologic years, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 715-A, 23 p.
Ostrem, G. and A. Stanley, 1969. Glacier mass balance measurements - a manual for field and office measurements, The Canadian Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, and the Norwegian Water Resources and Electricity Board.
Ostrem, G. and Brugman, M., 1991. “Glacier Mass Balance Measurements – A manual for field and office work.” NHRI Science Report n. 4, Environment Canada, 224 p.
Riedel, J.L., 1987. Chronology of later Holocene Glacier Recession in the Cascade Range, Washington, M.S. Thesis University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Patterson, W.S.B., 1981. The Physics of Glaciers, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, N.Y., 380 p.
Post, A., D. Richardson, W.V. Tangborn, and F.L. Rosselot, 1971. Inventory of Glaciers in North Cascades, Washington, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 705-A.
Tangborn, W.V., R.M. Krimmel, and M.F. Meier, 1971. A comparison of glacier mass balance by glaciological, hydrological, and mapping methods, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, Snow and Ice Symposium, IAHS-AISH Publication no. 104.
Tangborn, W.V., A.G. Fountain, and W.G. Sikonia, 1990. Effect of area distribution with altitude on glacier mass balance - a comparison of North and South Klawatti glaciers, Washington state, Annals of Glaciology, 14, pp. 278-282.
Did You Know?
The North Cascades are well known for the abundant waterfalls that lace the mountains. Two of the best known waterfalls are Gorge Falls between Newhalem and Diablo along State Route 20 and Rainbow Falls in the Stehekin Valley.