Withdrawal of National Historic Landmark Designation
The designation of a property as a National Historic Landmark means that the property is recognized as being of national significance and "possesses exceptional value or quality in illustrating and interpreting the heritage of the United States." This recognition does not, however, prevent changes being made to the property that can completely alter its character. When a designated property is altered so that it has lost its ability to convey its national significance, the withdrawal of its NHL designation must be considered. The National Historic Landmark designation of a property can be considered for withdrawal either at the request of the owner or on the initiative of the Secretary of the Interior. Often, efforts to withdraw Landmark status develop from NPS regional offices as part of the NPS mission to monitor the status of nationally significant historic places.
There are four criteria which justify the withdrawal of a National Historic Landmark designation:
1. The property has ceased to meet criteria for designation; the qualities for which it was originally designated have been lost or destroyed.
2. Additional information forthcoming after the designation demonstrates that the property does not possess sufficient significance to be a National Historic Landmark.
3. A professional error was made in the designation of the property.
4. There was prejudicial procedural error in the designation process.
Properties that were designated before December 13, 1980, can only be withdrawn because they have ceased to meet the criteria for designation. Loss of integrity (through alteration, addition, or demolition) is the most common reason for the withdrawal of Landmark designation. Although the NHL designation may be withdrawn, a property can remain listed in the National Register of Historic Places if it still meets the separate criteria for that listing.
As of April 2015, 34 properties have lost their designation as National Historic Landmarks:
- Edwin H. Armstrong House, Yonkers, NY
- U.S.S. Cabot, Brownsville, TX
- Charles B. Dudley House, Altoona, PA
- Eight-Foot High Speed Tunnel, Hampton (City), VA
- First Pacific Coast Salmon Cannery Site, West Sacramento, CA
- First Site of the American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY
- Fort Ross Chapel, Jenner, CA
- Full-Scale 30- x 60-Foot Tunnel, Hampton (City), VA
- Isaac Franklin Plantation, Gallatin, TN
- Robert Frost Farm, "The Gully", South Shaftsbury, VT
- Gambell Sites, Nome County, AK
- Grant Park Stadium (Soldier Field), Chicago, IL
- Hotel Breakers, Sandusky, OH
- U.S.S. Inaugural, St. Louis, MO
- Lincoln Motor Company Plant, Detroit, MI
- Florence Mills House, New York, NY
- Mother Jones Prison, Pratt, WV
- Musical Fund Society Hall, Philadelphia, PA
- Nashville Union Station and Trainshed, Nashville, TN
- Piedmont Manufacturing Company Number One, Piedmont, SC
- President (Riverboat), St. Elmo, IL
- Reo Motor Car Company Plant, Lansing, MI
- Resurrection Manor, St. Mary's County, MD
- Jacob Riis House, New York, NY
- Rock Magnetics Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA
- Rocket Engine Test Facility, Cleveland, OH
- Roosevelt Dam, Gila and Maricopa Counties, AZ
- Samuel Elmore Cannery, Astoria, OR
- Site of the First Telephone Exchange, New Haven, CT
- Sourdough Lodge, Gakona, AK
- Benjamin F. Wade Home, Jefferson, OH
- Wapama (Steam Schooner), Richmond, CA
- Wickyup (Richard E. Byrd House), East Sullivan, ME
- William L. Yancey Law Office, Montgomery, AL