On September 29, 1864 Union armies under General U.S. Grant assaulted the Richmond and Petersburg fortifications in an effort to weaken and possibly break the Confederate defenses. The fighting outside Richmond at New Market Heights, Fort Harrison and Fort Gilmer, referred to cumulatively as the Battle of Chaffin's Farm, proved the most serious threat to the Confederate capital prior to its fall. Richmond National Battlefield commemorated the event with special living history and ranger-led programs at the Fort Harrison battlefield. Volunteers portraying Union and Confederate infantry and artillery units provided cannon and rifle firing demonstrations. Following the artillery demonstrations, Confederate infantry demonstrated the firing of Civil War rifle muskets and discussed the role of infantry during the battle. Ranger-led walking tours examined photographs of the historic fort that was a critical part of the Richmond defenses and, once captured, became a toehold for Union forces near the end of the war.