[Federal Register: September 22, 2009 (Volume 74, Number 182)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
National Park Service
Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Paul H. Karshner
Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA
AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.
Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent
to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Paul H. Karshner
Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA, that meets the definition of ``sacred
object'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001.
This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003 (d)(3).
The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural
item. The National Park Service is not responsible for the
determinations in this notice.
Prior to 1935, one cultural item was removed from Lummi Island,
Whatcom County, WA. It was purchased from Charles L. Judd by Dr. Warner
Karshner, who donated the cultural item to the Paul H. Karshner
Memorial Museum in 1935 (Accession 1935.01). Museum records
describe the object as a ``spirit stick'' (Catalog 1-453). The
object has been identified by Lummi Tribal representatives as a
sqwedilic board. The object is used in ceremonial dances to invoke
``tamanus'' or ``healing power.'' The board is made of unpainted wood
that has been carved in a circular shape with two handles. The shape is
consistent with photographs of other sqwedilic boards collected in the
early 1900s (Suttles and Lane 1990:498, fig. 10).
Published ethnographic documentation indicates that sqwedilic
boards were used in winter ceremonies among some Central and Southern
Coast Salish groups (Suttles and Lane 1990:498). Sqwedilic was
translated by one source to mean ``guarding power'' (Collins 1949).
Sqwedilic boards are used for purification and finding lost articles
(Suttles and Lane 1990:498).
The museum consulted with the Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation,
Washington; Samish Indian Tribe, Washington; and Swinomish Indians of
the Swinomish Reservation, Washington. During consultation with the
Lummi Tribe, tribal representatives stated that Lummi Island is
considered to be within their traditional territory. During
consultation with the Samish Indian Tribe, representatives stated they
did not consider Lummi Island to be within the exclusive territory of
the Samish and did not consider the board to be affiliated with the
Samish Indian Tribe. During consultation with the Swinomish Indians,
representatives did not include Lummi Island within their list of
traditional places. Based on provenience, consultation evidence and
ethnographic evidence, the sqwedilic board is reasonably believed to be
a sacred object that is culturally affiliated to the Lummi Tribe of the
Lummi Reservation, Washington.
Officials of the Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum have determined
that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(C), the one cultural item
described above is a specific ceremonial object needed by traditional
Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional
Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Officials of
the Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum also have determined that,
pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2), there is a relationship of shared group
identity that can be reasonably traced between the sacred object and
the Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation, Washington.
Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to
be culturally affiliated with the sacred object should contact Dr. Jay
Reifel, Assistant Superintendent, telephone (253) 840-8971 or Ms. Beth
Bestrom, Museum Curator, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, 309 4th St.
NE, Puyallup, WA 98372, telephone (253) 841-8748, before October 22,
2009. Repatriation of the sacred object to the Lummi Tribe of the Lummi
Reservation, Washington may proceed after that date if no additional
claimants come forward.
The Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum is responsible for notifying
the Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation, Washington; Samish Indian
Tribe, Washington; and Swinomish Indians of the Swinomish Reservation,
Washington that this notice has been published.
Dated: September 8, 2009
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E9-22751 Filed 9-21-09; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4312-50-S
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