FR Doc E9-17668[Federal Register: July 24, 2009 (Volume 74, Number 141)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
National Park Service
Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.
Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent
to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet
the definitions of "sacred objects" and "objects of cultural
patrimony" under 25 U.S.C. 3001.
This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003 (d)(3).
The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural
items. The National Park Service is not responsible for the
determinations in this notice.
The four cultural items are a medicine chord and three buckskin
In 1912, the medicine cord was collected by Grace Nicholson from an
unknown locality. It was donated to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology
and Ethnology by Lewis Farlow later that same year. It measures
approximately 86 cm and is made of a twisted leather thong with various
leather fringes. The leather thong is tied with metal wraps at
intervals of approximately 12 cm. An assemblage of items are attached
to the bottom of the cord: a large stone projectile point; a small hide
bundle tied with turquoise, coral, shell, and abalone beads; a black
discoidal bead; a clear glass cylindrical bead; a ceramic bead; and a
violet glass bead.
Collector's documentation describes this cultural item as White
Mountain Apache. Consultation with the White Mountain Apache Tribe
indicates that stylistic characteristics of this item are consistent
with traditional White Mountain Apache forms.
The first cap is made of two hide pieces sewn together with sinew.
It has a twisted hide chin strap on the bottom. It measures
approximately 12.5 cm x 19 cm x 17.5 cm. There is a 2 cm high hide band
which is folded over and sewn along the bottom of the cap. On the band
are black zigzag designs with alternating black triangles. Two parallel
black lines run along the circumference of the cap above the hide band.
A cross-like design, formed with four black converging triangles is
painted on the front center and back center of the cap. Numerous
feathers are attached to the crown of the cap. There are four elements
equally spaced along the top of the cap: a shell hoop with sinew
wrapping above one of the painted crosses; a worked abalone shell above
the other painted cross; one piece of obsidian with sinew wrapping; and
one piece of quartz with sinew wrapping.
The second cap is made of two pieces of hide sewn together with
sinew. There is a hide chin strap on the bottom of the cap. The cap
measures approximately 9 cm x 17 cm x 19 cm. It has a band of green and
blue beads across the bottom. There is a band of nine triangular linear
designs which are composed of red triangles within black outlines above
the band of beads. A cluster of 13 feathers are attached to the crown
of the cap.
The third cap is made of three pieces of hide sewn together with
sinew. There is a twisted hide chin strap on the bottom. The cap
measures approximately 12.5 cm x 13.5 cm x 17.5 cm. There is a strip of
red cloth trim along the bottom. Above the cloth is a row of yellow
triangles with black outlines which extends across the circumference of
the cap. Four black painted zigzag linear designs ascend from the
spaces in-between the yellow triangles at intervals of every two or
three triangles. These linear designs each branch out into five lines.
Each line extends all the way to the crown of the cap and culminates in
a black dot. There is a row of six holes below the center of the cap
which runs across the circumference; this suggests that additional
elements may have been present at some point. Ten holes on the crown of
the cap indicate the presence of attachments which are currently
During the summer of 1922, the three buckskin caps were purchased
by Samuel Guernsey from Babbitt's Store in Flagstaff, AZ. Mr. Guernsey
donated the first cap to the Peabody Museum in the same year it was
purchased. In 1985, William Claflin bequeathed the second and third
caps to the Peabody Museum. Museum documentation describes all three
buckskin caps as "Western Apache." William Claflin's catalogue states
that the two caps in his possession came from the "Trading Post on the
Apache Reservation." Museum accession files list the cap donated by
Samuel Guernsey as having come from "Cibicu Creek Trading Post."
Given that all three of the caps have similar provenience information
and were purchased by Samuel Guernsey around
the same time, it is most likely that the Trading Post described by
Claflin was the one at Cibecue Creek. Consultation with White Mountain
Apache representatives indicates that Cibecue Creek, AZ, is within the
traditional and historical territory of the White Mountain Apache
Tribe. They also agree that stylistic characteristics of these three
caps are consistent with traditional White Mountain Apache forms.
Anthropological, historical, and oral historical evidence indicate
that these four items described above are specific ceremonial objects
needed by traditional Native American religious leaders for the
practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day
adherents. In addition, these lines of evidence also support that these
items have ongoing traditional and cultural importance central to the
White Mountain Apache Tribe and could not have been alienated,
appropriated, or conveyed by any individual tribal member at the time
they were separated from the group.
Officials of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology have
determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(C), the four cultural
items described above are specific ceremonial objects needed by
traditional Native American religious leaders for the practice of
traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents.
Officials of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology have also
determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(D), the four cultural
items described above have ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural
importance central to the Native American group or culture itself,
rather than property owned by an individual. Lastly, officials of the
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology have determined that,
pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2), there is a relationship of shared group
identity that can be reasonably traced between the sacred objects and
objects of cultural patrimony and the White Mountain Apache Tribe of
the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona.
Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to
be culturally affiliated with the sacred objects/objects of cultural
patrimony should contact Patricia Capone, Repatriation Coordinator,
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA 02138, telephone (617) 496-3702, before August 24, 2009.
Repatriation of the sacred objects/objects of cultural patrimony to the
White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona may
proceed after that date if no additional claimants come forward.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is responsible for
notifying the San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Apache
Reservation, Arizona; Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona; White Mountain
Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona; and Yavapai-
Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Reservation, Arizona that this notice
has been published.
Dated: July 14, 2009
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E9-17668 Filed 7-23-09; 8:45 am]
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