FR Doc 02-32174
[Federal Register: December 24, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 247)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
National Park Service
Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: California
Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA
AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.
Notice is hereby given under the Native American Graves Protection
and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, Sec. 7, of the intent to
repatriate cultural items in the possession of the California
Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA, that meet the
definition of ``sacred objects'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001.
This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003, Sec.
5(d)(3). The determinations within this notice are the sole
responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has
control of these cultural items. The National Park Service is not
responsible for the determinations within this notice.
Accession documents and information obtained in conversation with
former California Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) employees
indicate that the sacred objects were taken from the ceremonial dance
house at the Sulfur Bank Rancheria without permission from the Sulfur
Bank community. About 1958, these cultural items were donated
anonymously to the State of California Department of Natural Resources
Division of Beaches and Parks, now Department of Parks and Recreation.
The 59 cultural items consist of regalia used in performing
ceremonies related to the Maru Cult or Big Head Dance of the Pomo
Indians. The claimed objects include 11 men's shirts, 3 women's skirts,
2 women's blouses, 7 women's dresses, 13 sashes, 17 patches, 2 bands, 3
flashers, and 1 cloth worn by ceremonial leaders and singers. Use of
this type of clothing dates to the early 1870s when religious movements
with various origins were active in Pomoan and other native communities
throughout Northern California. A central belief of the religion is the
power of spiritually significant dreaming. Certain gifted individuals,
known as Maru or ``Dreamers'' by the Pomo, are the recipients of
special dreams. These Maru are gifted with the ability to dream the
rules of the ``Bid Head'' Ceremony, the way each should be performed,
and what the regalia is made from, as well as how the regalia is put
The specific patterns appliqu[eacute]d to the clothing and other
accessories associated with ceremonial dances, such as the Big Head
Dance and the Ball Dance, were patterns that the Maru had seen in his
or her dream. The materials requested for repatriation appear to
include items from two dreamers, Sarah Brigham and Elvy Patch, both of
whom died in 1949 or before. Irvin Miranda, grandson of Sarah Brigham,
recently identified some items in the collection as having his
grandmother's design pattern (red heart and cross with a blue border of
triangles facing inward). This dance regalia, ornamented with dream
patterns, was used only for ceremonial occasions and was generally kept
in the ceremonial dance house when not in use. The fact that they are
decorated with patterns derived from a Maru's dream endows them with
In consultation with representatives of the Elem Indian Colony of
Pomo Indians of the Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California, including
traditional religious leaders and current Maru, Robert Geary, it has
been determined that these objects are integral to present-day
religious traditions associated with the Maru beliefs.
Officials of the California Department of Parks and Recreation have
determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001, Sec. 2 (3)(C), these
cultural items are specific ceremonial objects needed by traditional
Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional
Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Officials of
the California Department of Parks and Recreation also have determined
that pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001, Sec. 2(2), there is a relationship of
shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between these
sacred objects and the Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the
Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California.
Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to
be culturally affiliated with these sacred objects should contact
Paulette Hennum, NAGPRA Coordinator, Cultural Resources Division,
California State Parks, P.O. Box 942896, Sacramento, CA 94296-0001,
telephone (916) 653-7976 before January 23, 2003. Repatriation of these
sacred objects to the Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur
Bank Rancheria, California may begin after that date if no additional
claimants come forward.
The California Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible
for notifying the Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur
Bank Rancheria, California that this notice has been published.
Dated: October 30, 2002.
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. 02-32174 Filed 12-23-02; 8:45 am]
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