FR Doc E6-14929
[Federal Register: September 11, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 175)]
[Notices]               
[Page 53467-53468]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr11se06-104]                         

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion: Kansas State University, 
Manhattan, KS

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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    Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves 
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the 
completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of Kansas 
State University, Manhattan, KS. The human remains were removed from 
McPherson and Rice Counties, KS.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003 (d)(3). 
The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the 
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native 
American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible 
for the determinations in this notice.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Kansas State 
University professional staff in consultation with representatives of 
the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, Waco & Tawakonie), 
Oklahoma.
    Sometime between 1928 and 1988, human remains representing a 
minimum of one individual were removed from site 14MP1, also known as 
Paint Creek site, McPherson County,

[[Page 53468]]

KS, by Ralph Bell, an avocational archeologist from Salina, KS, with 
permission of the land owner. No known individual was identified. No 
associated funerary objects are present.
    Sometime between 1928 and 1988, human remains representing a 
minimum of two individuals were removed from site 14MP2, McPherson 
County, KS, by Mr. Bell. No known individuals were identified. No 
associated funerary objects are present.
    Sometime between 1928 and 1988, human remains representing a 
minimum of one individual were removed from site 14RC8, Rice County, 
KS, by Mr. Bell, with permission of the land owner. No known individual 
was identified. No associated funerary objects are present.
    The human remains from the three sites were removed on unknown 
dates before Mr. Bell's death in 1988. As an avocational archeologist, 
Mr. Bell surface collected and excavated cache pits in the Smoky Hill 
River drainage in northwest McPherson County and Great Bend sites along 
the bluffs and valley of the Little Arkansas River in northeast Rice 
County. Mr. Bell left his collection to his daughters, Judy Ewalt and 
Cathy Farr, both of Salina, KS, and they donated the Ralph Bell 
Collection to Kansas State University in 1989.
    All three sites are reasonably believed to be single-component 
village sites assigned to the Great Bend aspect. Although not formally 
designated until 1949 (W. Wedel 1949), the Great Bend aspect has been 
recognized as a distinct central and south-central Kansas culture since 
the late 19th century (Brower 1898; Udden 1900). In 1541, Spanish 
conquistadors traveled in search of Quivira, the golden city. The 
Indian villages that Coronado encountered were described as the cities 
of Quivira, and the people as Quivira. Studies of the 1920s, indicate 
that the ``Quivira'' Indian villages were probably encountered in the 
Cow Creek and Little Arkansas Rivers area of Rice County (H. Jones 
1928; P. Jones 1929, 1937). Other documentation describes the Quivira 
as Wichita people (Hodge 1899; Mooney 1899). Further evidence, both 
archeological and documentary of the 1940s supports Wichita affiliation 
with the Cow Creek and Little Arkansas Rivers sites (W. Wedel 1942).
    The human remains are reasonably believed to be from either general 
debris scatter or trash pit context, rather than from deliberate 
burials. Human remains found in this matter would seem to be those of 
someone held in very low esteem, such as a slave or victim, and this 
could imply that the human remains are from individuals who were not 
culturally or ethnically Wichita. Historical documents suggest that the 
Wichita occasionally took captives from other tribes (Anderson 1999; M. 
Wedel 1981, 1982). However, a recent review of Ceramic period mortuary 
practices in the upper Kansas River basin showed that burial of human 
remains in domestic context (house floors or cache pits) occurred with 
some regularity in centuries prior to the establishment of the Great 
Bend aspect villages (Roper 2006:293-298). However, there is no 
indication of how prevalent this burial practice was, how bones of the 
captives were disposed of, or how old either practice of burial or 
capture were for the Wichita. Therefore, without evidence to the 
contrary, the human remains from the three sites are reasonably 
believed to be those of Wichita individuals. Descendants of the Wichita 
are members of the present-day Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, 
Keechi, Waco & Tawakonie), Oklahoma.
    Officials of Kansas State University have determined that, pursuant 
to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (9-10), the human remains described above represent 
the physical remains of four individuals of Native American ancestry. 
Officials of Kansas State University also have determined that, 
pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2), there is a relationship of shared group 
identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American 
human remains and the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, 
Waco & Tawakonie), Oklahoma.
    Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to 
be culturally affiliated with the human remains should contact Dr. 
Jacque E. Gibbons, Kansas State University, 204 Waters Hall, Manhattan, 
KS 66506-4003, telephone (785) 532-4976, before October 11, 2006. 
Repatriation of the human remains to the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes 
(Wichita, Keechi, Waco & Tawakonie), Oklahoma may proceed after that 
date if no additional claimants come forward.
    Kansas State University is responsible for notifying the Wichita 
and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, Waco & Tawakonie), Oklahoma 
that this notice has been published.

    Dated: August 23, 2006
C. Timothy McKeown,
Acting Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E6-14929 Filed 9-8-06; 8:45 am]

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