FR Doc E6-6264
[Federal Register: April 26, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 80)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
National Park Service
Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of
Natural History, New York, NY
AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.
Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent
to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum
of Natural History, New York, NY, that meet the definition of
``unassociated funerary objects'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001.
This notice is published as part of the National Park Service(s
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003 (d)(3).
The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural
items. The National Park Service is not responsible for the
determinations in this notice.
The 31 cultural items are from 2 shamans' kits. The first shaman's
kit contains 18 cultural items; the second shaman's kit contains 14
cultural items. At an unknown date, Lieutenant George Thornton Emmons
acquired the 31 cultural items. In 1894, the American Museum of Natural
History purchased the shamans' kits from Lieutenant Emmons and
accessioned them into its collection that same year.
The first shaman's kit consists of one box drum, one beating stick,
one bundle of beating sticks, three ornamental portions of dance
headdresses, one headdress mask, three wooden carvings, one portion of
a wooden rattle, three strings of scallop shells, four wooden guards or
spirits, and one doctor's urine box.
The box drum is made from wood and is painted to represent a brown
bear. The beating stick measures about 32 cm x 3 cm x 1 cm. The bundle
of beating sticks measures 37 cm x 14 cm x 7 cm and consists of 11
sticks tied together
with plant fiber. The first portion of one dance headdress is a wooden
figure carved to represent a salmon that is painted graphite and black.
The second and third partial headdresses are wooden figures carved to
represent bears' heads. The wooden headdress mask is carved to
represent a Tlingit spirit (a dead man) and is painted black and red.
The first wooden carving depicts a land otter that is sitting up. The
second carving depicts a spirit with a frog in its stomach, and the
third wooden carving depicts a spirit with a land otter coming out of
its mouth. The partial rattle consists of a wooden handle attached to
the rattle's body that is carved to represent an oyster-catcher. The
three strings of shells consist of scallop shells attached with hide.
The first wooden guard or spirit is carved to represent an eagle, and
the second is carved to represent a bear. The third wooden guard or
spirit is carved to represent a figure with a fighting headdress, and
the fourth is carved to represent many spirits. The doctor's urine box
is made of wood, stands on two legs, and measures approximately 32 cm x
22 cm x 18 cm.
The second shaman's kit consists of one wooden rattle, four wooden
masks, two headdress masks, one headdress, one ceremonial hat, two
ornamental tops of dance headdresses, and three sections of walrus
The wooden rattle is carved to represent the sun and is
ornamentally painted to depict a frog. The first wooden mask is carved
to represent a land otter and is ornamentally painted red, black, and
mineral blue, with a devil fish painted on each cheek. The second
wooden mask is carved to represent a man's face; the center of the
forehead is raised and is carved to represent a killer whale's dorsal
fin. The mask is ornamentally painted in red, black, and native mineral
blue. Tail feathers of a red wing flicker are painted on each cheek,
while the forehead is painted to depict a raven. The third wooden mask
is carved to represent the spirit of an old man named ``Shou-Kee-yake''
and is painted red, black, and native mineral blue. The fourth wooden
mask is carved to represent an old woman with a labret in the lower
lip. The mask is also ornamentally painted red, black, and native
mineral blue; and on the face are painted the tail feathers of the red
wing flicker. The two headdress masks are made of wood. The first
headdress mask, carved to represent an eagle, is painted red, black,
and native mineral blue, and is ornamented with copper eyebrows. The
second headdress mask is carved to represent a ground hog and is
ornamented with copper eyebrows and operculum teeth. Above the
forehead, three carved spirit faces are painted red, black, and native
mineral blue. The headdress is made of wood and hide and is painted
red, black, and native mineral blue. It is carved to represent a
kingfisher above and a frog below, with both figures ornamented with
copper eyebrows and operculum teeth. The ceremonial hat is made of
woven spruce root and is painted to depict a spirit of a man with a
devil fish on either hand. The first ornamental portion of the dance
headdress consists of four woven spruce root disks, and the second
portion consists of five woven spruce root disks. The walrus ivory is
in three pieces.
The cultural affiliation of the 31 cultural items is Hutsnuwu
(``Hootz-ar-tar qwan'') Tlingit as indicated through museum records and
consultation with representatives of the Central Council of the Tlingit
& Haida Indian Tribes. Museum records identify the items as having come
from the grave houses of two doctors of the ``Hootz-ar-tar qwan.'' The
Central Council of the Tlingit &Haida Indian Tribes has requested the
shamans' kits on behalf of the clans of Angoon who comprise the
Officials of the American Museum of Natural History have determined
that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3) (B), the 31 cultural items
described above are reasonably believed to have been placed with or
near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of
the death rite or ceremony and are believed, by a preponderance of the
evidence, to have been removed from a specific burial site of Native
American individuals. Officials of the American Museum of Natural
History also have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2),
there is a relationship of shared group identity that can be reasonably
traced between the unassociated funerary objects and the Central
Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes.
Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to
be culturally affiliated with the unassociated funerary objects should
contact Nell Murphy, Director of Cultural Resources, American Museum of
Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024,
telephone (212) 769-5837, before May 26, 2006. Repatriation of the
unassociated funerary objects to the Central Council of the Tlingit &
Haida Indian Tribes may proceed after that date if no additional
claimants come forward.
The American Museum of Natural History is responsible for notifying
the Angoon Community Association, Central Council of the Tlingit &
Haida Indian Tribes, Kootznoowoo Incorporated, and Sealaska Heritage
Institute that this notice has been published.
Dated: March 23, 2006.
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E6-6264 Filed 4-25-06; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4312-50-S
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