FR Doc E6-6260
[Federal Register: April 26, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 80)]
[Notices]               
[Page 24755-24757]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr26ap06-115]                         

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Defense, Army 
Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WA, and Museum 
of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, and Nez 
Perce National Historical Park, Spaulding Visitor Center, Spaulding, ID

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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    Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves 
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the 
completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary 
objects in the control of the U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WA, and in the possession 
of the Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, 
WA, and Nez Perce National Historical Park, Spaulding Visitor Center, 
Spaulding, ID. The human remains and associated funerary objects were 
removed from the Pal[uacute]us (Palus) Cemetery in Franklin County, WA.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003 (d)(3). 
The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the 
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native 
American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National 
Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Army 
Corps of Engineers St. Louis District Mandatory Center of Expertise for 
the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections professional 
staff and a detailed assessment of the associated funerary items was 
made by Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University 
professional staff in consultation with lineal descendants and 
representatives of the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama 
Nation, Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, 
Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 
Oregon; Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho; and Wanapum Band, a non-federally 
recognized Indian group.
    In 1964, human remains representing a minimum of 260 individuals 
were removed from the Pal[uacute]us (Palus) Cemetery (45FR36B), 
Franklin County, WA, by Washington State University professional staff, 
under the direction of the Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla 
District. The excavation was undertaken to relocate the cemetery before 
flooding by the backwaters of dam construction. In March 1965, human 
remains representing an unknown number of individuals were re-interred 
on a hill overlooking the original burial site. The remainder of the 
human remains and associated funerary objects were housed at the 
University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, and Museum of Anthropology, Washington 
State University, Pullman, WA. In 2000, the human remains and 
associated funerary items at the University of Idaho were transferred 
to Washington State University. In 1995 and 2005, detailed assessments 
were done that determined human remains from the Palus Cemetery 
representing a minimum of 94 individuals are present in the extant 
collection. There are four known individuals identified. The four known 
individuals are Mrs. Helen Fisher, Chief Old Bones, and two other 
members of the Old Bones family. The remaining 90 individuals are 
unidentified. The 6,220 associated funerary objects are 1 Jefferson 
Peace Medal; 26 digging sticks; 8 arrow fragments; 1 axe head; 1 baby 
rattle; 2 beaded and studded vests; 10 beaded straps; 1 beaded 
jackknife with bone handle; 1 beaded leather ornament; 1 bone comb; 1 
bone digging stick handle; 6 bird bone whistles; 3 bottle caps; 2 
bottle openers; 1 bow; 1 brass candlestick ornament; 1 brass tube; 1 
bridle bit; 18 bullet cartridges; 1 cannon ball; 28 ceramic objects; 1 
ceramic cup and saucer set; 1 Chinese coin; 9 chipped stone bifaces; 60 
chipped stone flakes; 2 chipped stone net sinkers; 6 projectile points; 
7 chipped stone tools; 1 clay ornament; 1 cloth cap; 4 cobble cores or 
tools; 1 coin purse; 1 cold cream jar; 1 copper crucifix; 3 
cradleboards; 2 crescent shaped leather pieces; 1 decorated bone 
handle; 3 dice; 3 drum sticks; 1 eye water bottle with yellow powder 
inside; 1 fabric coin purse; 4 fruit pits; 1 pair of scissors fused to 
a spoon; 12 glass bottles; 1 glass ball; 2 glass cups; 11 glass 
fragments; 1 glass lid; 2 glass ornaments; 1 glass pipe bowl; 1 glass 
swizzle stick; 3 hammerstones; 4 harmonicas; 1 horn comb; 1 horn spoon; 
1 horse hair pillow; 1 ice pick; 7 metal spikes; 3 knives and leather 
sheaths; 3 lead balls; 36 leather belts; 1 leather coffin handle; 2 
leather comb cases and combs; 11 leather pouches; 1 leather purse; 21 
saddle rings and stirrups; 6 leather straps; 3 keys; 3 marbles; 4 
harness fragments; 1 metal ball; 4 metal bead bracelets; 23 belt 
buckles; 4 bolts;

[[Page 24756]]

3 metal bowls; 135 metal bracelets; 1 shell and button ornament; 16 
metal clasps; 1 metal clip; 4 metal coils; 12 metal combs; 1 metal 
compact; 5 metal containers; 3 metal cuff ornaments; 15 metal cups; 1 
metal cylinder with chain; 1 metal dish; 1 metal epaulet; 1 metal 
finger guard; 1 metal flute; 1 metal fork; 1 metal grommet; 6 gun 
parts; 7 metal handles; 1 metal hinge; 2 metal knives; 1 metal ladle; 3 
metal jar lids; 1 metal lighter; 1 metal loop; 1 metal object encased 
in leather; 12 metal ornaments; 1 metal pail; 1 metal picture frame 
fragment; 2 metal pipe bowl and stem; 1 metal purse; 65 metal rings; 40 
metal spoons; 13 metal springs; 8 metal straight pins; 5 toys; 19 
mirrors; 11 moccasins; 1 nipple topped maul; 3 notched arrow shafts; 2 
pencils; 3 pestles; 15 plastic combs; 3 plastic pipe bowl and stems; 2 
pocket knives; 1 kidney stone; 4 projectile point fragments; 32 quirts; 
1 rosary; 1 rubber band; 12 safety pins; 13 pairs of scissors; 2 worked 
sticks; 1 shell comb; 367 shell ornaments; 1 stone bead; 1 stone fused 
to buckle; 1 stone mortar; 5 stone ornaments; 1 stone pipe bowl; 28 
studded and beaded leather belts; 12 thread spools; 5 tweezers; 20 
sticks with wrapping and lashing; 87 unidentified metal items; 6 
unidentified modified bone items; 1 unidentified plastic item; 7 wooden 
combs; 1 wooden fan; 3 wooden gaming pieces; 5 wood and bone handles; 2 
wooden ornaments; 4 wooden pipe stem fragments; 2 wooden spindles; 4 
unidentified worked wood pieces; 359 lots wood fragments; 1 lot wound 
string; 7 lots yellow ochre; 286 lots glass, metal, shell, wood, 
plastic, and ceramic buttons; 2015 lots glass, metal, shell, and elk 
tooth beads; 39 lots bird and mammal remains; 12 lots animal hide and 
fur; 3 lots antler fragments; 16 lots antler tines; 32 lots bag 
residue; 47 lots basketry fragments; 2 lots bow fragments; 5 lots 
ceramic fragments; 3 lots coffin handles; 14 lots cordage; 20 lots 
cradleboard pieces; 1 lot curtain rings; 1 lot epaulet braid; 427 lots 
fabric; 10 lots feathers; 1 lot dish fragments; 316 lots leather, hide, 
and fur fragments; 2 lots insect remains; 23 lots saddle parts; 2 lots 
fabric, bead, thimble, and cordage masses; 96 lots matting; 34 lots 
metal bracelet fragments; 11 lots metal cans; 3 lots metal can 
fragments; 6 lots metal chain; 1 lot metal container fragments; 8 lots 
metal cup fragments; 8 lots metal discs; 1 lot metal dish and spoon 
fragments; 242 lot metal fragments; 1 lot metal hinge fragments; 30 
lots metal ring fragments; 1 lot metal rivets and buckles; 22 lots 
metal spoon fragments; 16 lots metal studs; 1 lot metal tax tokens; 18 
lots metal trunk hardware; 6 lots metal tubing; 1 lot watch gears; 12 
lots mirror pieces; 4 lots moccasin fragments; 278 nails; 1 nested 
metal containers; 1 lot newspaper; 2 lots painted wood; 8 lots paper 
fragments; 2 lots plant remains; 1 lot gaming sticks; 1 lot music box 
parts; 20 lots red ochre; 1 lot reeds; 9 lots rolled brass tinklers; 1 
lot rope; 2 lots rubber fragments; 18 lots safety pin fragments; 16 
lots seeds; 3 lots shell ornament fragments; 1 lot shellfish remains; 2 
lots shoe fragments; 24 lots small gauge metal chain; 9 lots small 
stones; 1 lot small wooden box parts; 4 lots soil samples; 4 lots spoon 
fragments; 3 lots string; 22 lots thimbles; 10 lots unidentified 
organic matter; 5 lots unidentified modified bone fragments; 15 lots 
unidentified organic materials; 2 lots wire; 4 lots wooden comb 
fragments; 10 lots wooden gaming stick fragments; 2 lots wooden gun 
stock fragments; 1 lot wooden matches; 13 lots of sticks; 83 bells; 6 
lots bell fragments; and 2 lots worked wood.
    Based on osteological information and associated funerary objects 
the human remains from the Palus Cemetery have been determined to be 
Native American. The Palus Indian village area is composed of a cluster 
of sites located on the west side of the Palouse River and Snake River 
confluence in southeastern Washington. The sites are identified as 
45FR36A, B, and C. Area A is a late prehistoric village, area B is a 
defined cemetery associated with the Palus village, and area C is an 
earlier housepit cluster. The occurrence of clearly defined burial 
areas near to, but set apart from, the village areas have been defined 
by anthropologists as a hallmark of the late prehistoric period on the 
lower Snake River (Leonhardy and Rice 1970). The earliest written 
account of the Palus village complex was made by Lewis and Clark who 
passed the mouth of the Palouse River and the unoccupied village on 
October 13, 1805 (Thwaites 1905). In 1812, Ross Cox, a Pacific Fur 
Company trader, documented his encampment at the Palus village 
(1957:89-91). The Palus village later became a stopping point for 
travelers moving through the Snake River and the interior Palouse 
country.
    Treaties were negotiated and signed as the Washington Territory 
expanded. Many Palus Indians were sent to the Indian Territory in 
Oklahoma after the Nez Perce War of 1877. In the final decade of the 
nineteenth century, the Palus Indians remaining on their traditional 
lands were surrounded by an expanse of settlers and began moving onto 
the Colville, Nez Perce, Umatilla, and Yakama reservations. By 1897, 
approximately 75 Palus Indians lived at Palus village. In the spring of 
1905, a steamboat of American soldiers arrived at the village and many 
of the residents were removed. The few people who remained at Palus 
village included Chief Old Bones, his wife, and at least two of their 
children. In 1916, Chief Old Bones died and was buried in the Palus 
cemetery. His grave was marked with a headstone that remained 
identifiable at the time of the excavation. A wife and at least two 
children of Chief Old Bones were also buried at Palus next to the grave 
of Chief Old Bones. The last full-time resident of the Palus village 
was Mr. Sam Fisher. His wife, Mrs. Helen Fisher was the last individual 
buried in the cemetery following her death in 1944.
    Recent studies done by the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the 
Yakama Nation, Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Colville 
Reservation, Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian 
Reservation, Oregon; and Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho, document that each 
tribe has cultural affiliation with the Palus Indians as a result of 
the dispersion of the Palus people to each of the reservations during 
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The cultural affiliation of all 
the tribes is further strengthened by living enrolled members that have 
documented ancestors buried at Palus. The correlation of these members 
with specific burials is not possible, except for Mr. Gordon Fisher, 
from the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reseration, Oregon, who 
traces his ancestry directly and without interruption to Mrs. Helen 
Fisher. There is another unnamed lineal descendant that can trace 
ancestry directly and without interruption to Chief Old Bones. The two 
lineal descendants have chosen not to submit a claim for the human 
remains and associated funerary objects, as documented in an agreement 
signed on February 13, 2006.
    Officials of the Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District have 
determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (9-10), the human remains 
described above represent the physical remains of a minimum of 94 
individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Army Corps of 
Engineers, Walla Walla District also have determined that, pursuant to 
25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(A), the 6,220 objects described above are reasonably 
believed to have been placed with or near individual human remains at 
the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. 
Lastly, officials of the Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District 
have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a 
relationship of shared group

[[Page 24757]]

identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American 
human remains and associated funerary objects and the Confederated 
Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington; Confederated Tribes 
of the Colville Reservation, Washington; Confederated Tribes of the 
Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon; and Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho.
    Any lineal descendant or representatives of any other Indian tribe 
that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains 
and associated funerary objects should contact Lieutenant Colonel Randy 
L. Glaeser, Commander, Walla Walla District Corps of Engineers, 201 
North Third Avenue Walla Walla, WA 99362, telephone (509-527-7700), 
before May 26, 2006. Repatriation of the human remains and associated 
funerary objects to the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama 
Nation, Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, 
Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 
Oregon; and Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho may proceed after that date if no 
additional claimants come forward.
    The Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District is responsible 
for notifying the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, 
Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, 
Washington; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 
Oregon; Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho; and Wanapum Band, a non-federally 
recognized Indian group that this notice has been published.

    Dated: April 13, 2005
Sherry Hutt,
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E6-6260 Filed 4-25-06; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4312-50-S

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