• Kelso Mountain

    Mojave

    National Preserve California

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    Kelso Depot Visitor Center is open Fridays through Tuesdays from 9 am to 5 pm, closed Wednesdays and Thursdays. The Beanery Lunch Counter is closed.

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Springs & Seeps: Mid Hills (1:24,000)

BATHTUB SPRING MID HILLS (BSM) GROUP
Bathtub Spring (wet boulder crack, trough, collapsed qanat)
MOJA Spring ID(s): MIHI1, MIHI1T, MIHI1Q
General Location: 4th of July Canyon
Elevation:
1775-1796 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
NA
Vegetation: Small trees apparently Robinia neomexicana, moss on granite boulder, Clatonia (Montia) perfoliata (miner’s lettuce) under Pinus monophylla w/B. sergiloides, Pinus monophylla, Baccharis sergiloides, Claytonia perfoliata, Ephedra viridis
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic Biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
Highly disturbed
Type of disturbance: Diversion for livestock
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Rusted-out bathtub below, aluminum elongate trough above: completely dry. Pipe extends up the canyon about ¼ mile until it disappears underground just below an excavated and collapsed site.
Photos: Yes

Beck Spring aka Cane Seep
MOJA Spring ID: MIHI2Q
General Location:
NA
Elevation:
1588 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
Qanat
Vegetation:
Hillside is dotted with some sort of cane clumps. Baccharis and red brome. Grass is thick throughout the wetland.
Animal Use: hummingbird
Aquatic Biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
1 l/m
Water quality: pH 7.34, Conductivity 655 (µS/cm)
Site Condition: undisturbed slightly disturbed moderately disturbed highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock recreation diversion etc.
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Spring bounded by burro fence. The qanat interior is approximately 4’x5’. Qanat pool is protected with timber and dirt roof system. Outside, water flows through algal mat to break in slope.
Photos: Yes

BURRO SPRING & UPPER BURRO SPRING GROUP (BUS)
Burro Spring & Upper Burro Spring

MOJA Spring IDs:
MIHI3 & 4
General Location: Mid Hills
Elevation: 1350 & 1370 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
deer, burro
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
0.6 gpm
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
burros, excavation
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

Butcher Knife Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI5
General Location:
Butcher Knife Canyon
Elevation: 1600 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of Spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

CABIN SPRING COMPLEX (CSC)
Cabin Spring 1-4
MOJA Spring ID(s):
MIHI6-9
General Location:
Mid Hills
Elevation: 1550-1730 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology: NA
Type of spring:
Qanat (Cabin Spring 1, 3 & 4)
Vegetation:
Yes
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
2 gpm (Cabin #4)
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed (Cabin Spring #2), highly disturbed (Cabin Spring #1, 3, 4)
Type of disturbance: diversion (all), qanat (Cabin Spring 1, 3 & 4), burro fence (Cabin Spring 3 & 4).
Type of infrastructure/diversion: A pipe filling the bathtub at Cabin Spring 1 is no longer functional. At Cabin Spring 2, approximately 3 pools originate from the spring located at the base of a large boulder. A small section of pipe is found just below the mine site, but other than this, the spring seems undisturbed. A qanat with more than 50 gallons of water is located at Cabin Spring 3, which is just below the qanat in a fenced off (fence is down at two places) grassy area. Water seeps up from the ground filling a few small pools. Cabin Spring 4 has a collapsed qanat with a small pool at the base of the qanat "opening" and a burro fence.
Photos: Yes

Cedar Canyon Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI18Q
General Location: Cedar Canyon
Elevation: 1554 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Qanat
Vegetation:
Prunus fasciculata, Salazaria mexicana, Berberis haematocarpa, Chrysothamnus sp, Pinus monophylla, Forestiera pubescens, Juniperus, Rhus trilobata, Yucca brevifolia, Opuntia acanthocarpa, O. chlorotica (rare) Thamnosma montana, Lycium sp., Salvia dorii, Artemisia tridentata, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Y. baccata, Guierrezia.
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
Yes
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
moderately disturbed
Type of disturbance: historic livestock & diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Qanat in middle of narrow channel. Up-turned cement trough and empty metal troughs, non functioning pipes.
Photos: Yes

Cedar Canyon Narrows Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI24
General Location: Cedar Canyon
Elevation: 1511 m
History: According to one of the ranchers (Tim Overson), cattle would go up to the spring and it was rather difficult to get them down again.
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Helocrene
Vegetation: Grasses, Cattails
Animal Use: Deer
Aquatic biota:
Bees
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
<1 l/m
Water quality: pH: 8.52, Conductivity: 2.18 (mS/cm), TDS: 1146 mg/l, Salinity: 1.2 0/00, DO: 8.23 mg/l
Site Condition: undisturbed
Type of disturbance:
none
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
none
Photos:
Yes

CLARK COMPLEX (CLK)
Clark lower, mid, between mid and upper, upper
MOJA Spring ID(s):
MIHI10-13
General Location: New York Mountains West Side
Elevation: 1445 – 1583 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
grasses
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
undisturbed
Type of disturbance:
none
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
none
Photos:
No

COTTONWOOD SPRING (MID HILLS) (CSM)
Cottonwood Spring, Big Burro Seep, seep, end of pipe, springbox source
MOJA Spring IDs:
BIBA53, MIHI14-17
General Location: Cottonwood Canyon
Elevation:
1577–1663 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene (Springbox source)
Vegetation: Moss at spring box w/Carex and Juncus. Carex sp. Just starting to bloom in mud w/flat stemmed Juncus and moss; Amelanchior utahensis; Rhus trilobata, Baccharis sergiliodes. Also Echinocereus (mound cactus), Claytonia perfoliata (Springbox source). Surrounded by Berberis shrubs ca. 2 m., spreading, Prunus fasciculata, Artemisia tridentate, Moss from springbrook edge. Slope is a P-J woodland with both one and 2-needled pines (monophylla and edulis) and woody Artemesia (big burro seep).
Animal Use: NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
.16 gpm (big burro seep)
Water quality: NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
An old trough (big burro seep). A single-rebar burro exclusion fence (about 8’x8’) that encloses the wettest part of the surface water area. An old wood springbox sits in the channel (3’x 3’x 5’ high), ample water is at the bottom of the springbox and the beginning of the pipeline is visible. The springbox is 10’ below the rebar-fenced area. (springbox source).
Photos: Yes

HOLIMAN SPRING (HOL)
Holiman Spring, qanat, hand-dug well

MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI25, 25Q, 25W
General Location:
Round Valley
Elevation:
1564 - 1580 m
History: milling, cattle grazing, Bob Holiman’s homestead
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Rheocrene, Qanat, Well
Vegetation:
cattails and grasses, which are grazed by livestock
Animal Use:
cattle
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
No
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock (heavy use), wildfire
Type of infrastructure/diversion: The qanat is connected to the hand-dug well, which is 10 m away.
Photos: Yes

Install New Drinker
MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI19
General Location:
Black Canyon
Elevation: 1676 m
History:
NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring: NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance: NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

Jasper Spring
MOJA Spring ID:
MIHI20
General Location: Chase
Elevation:
1341 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
NA
Vegetation:
NA
Animal Use:
NA
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
NA
Discharge:
NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
NA
Type of disturbance:
NA
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
NA
Photos:
No

JENNY DRAINAGE (JED)
Jenny 1, Jenny 3
MOJA Spring IDs:
MIHI21, 22
General Location: Cedar Canyon
Elevation:
1647, 1658 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Seep
Vegetation:
Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Podaxis pistiuris (Jenny1). Salix lasiolepis, Rhamus ilicifolia, Berberis haematocarpa, Ericameria cuneata, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Artemisia tridentata, Baccharis sergiloides, Qpuntia chlorotica Yucca baccata, Pinus monphylla, Juniperus with Phoradendron, Lepidum sp., Tamarix sp., Fallugia paradoxa (Jenny3).
Animal Use: cattle, burros
Aquatic biota: NA
Ephemeral:
at best
Discharge: NA
Water quality:
NA
Site Condition:
slightly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
livestock, tamarisk
Type of infrastructure/diversion:
none
Photos:
No

LIVE OAK SPRING (LOS)
Live Oak Spring (lower qanat, upper qanat, North Fork qanat, North Fork trough)
MOJA Spring IDs:
MIHI23, 23Q, 26Q, 26T
General Location: Mid Hills
Elevation:
1517 – 1571 m
History: NA
Hydrogeology:
NA
Type of spring:
Qanats and trough
Vegetation:
Moss, Baccharis sergiloides, Prunus fasciculata, Opuntia acanthocarpa, Salazaria mexicana, Rhus trilobata, Forestiera pubescens, Gutierrezia and above the channel Yucca brevifolia, in a pinyon-juniper woodland (North Fork). Quercus chrysolepis, Baccharis sergiloides, Moss, Juniperus osteosperma, Phoradendron on J. osteosperma, Penstemon, Pinus monophylla, Opuntia acanthocarpa (upper qanat). Salix exigua dense, shrubby growth around lower qanat entrance, Brickelia californica Rhus trilobata, Forestiera pubescens. Other plants noted near qanat: Artemesia tridentata, Rhamnus ilicifolia, Bromus, Baccharis sergiloides (rare). The upland consists of Pinyon Juniper woodland with joshua trees (few), Prunus fasciculata, Rhus and Purshia.
Animal Use: burros, flycatcher, gray thrush, deer, bees, scrub jays
Aquatic biota:
NA
Ephemeral:
no
Discharge:
<1 l/m Water quality: pH: 7.24, Conductivity: 773 (µS/cm) (North Fork qanat), pH: 7.1, Conductivity: 888 (µS/cm) (upper qanat)
Site Condition: highly disturbed
Type of disturbance:
diversion
Type of infrastructure/diversion: Qanat is within excavated hillside (along ridgeline). Timbers are in place, presumably they supported the opening at one time. Now the whole thing is buried to base of cross beams and small opening to qanat. Qanat interior approximately 3’ x 3’ (North Fork). The upper qanat is a primitive qanat; merely a shaft dug into the hillside at the point of break in slope . There is a boulder field above, and the slope is less steep below. Black plastic pipe, 1 ½” diameter still drains this qanat. The pipe from the Upper Qanat is stuck into a mound of dirt within the chamber of the Lower Qanat, thereby feeding the lower qanat with water from the upper qanat. Water from the lower qanat drains into the 3” pipe. The opening to the qanat is shored up with timbers. A shaft goes about 7-8’ into the hillside. A water stain mark is at about the 3’ level, but today water barely covers the bottom surface.
Photos: No

Did You Know?

photo of kelso dunes

At about 600 feet in height, Kelso Dunes in Mojave National Preserve are the third tallest in North America. When quantities of the sands move, they sometimes create a booming sound. Run down the slopes to try to make the dunes boom. More...